Repozytorim Annales UMCS Sectio L - Artes:
Liczba artykułów w bazie: 127 Format SWF: 80 Format DJVU: 41 Format PDF: 127 Razem plików: 248

Volume 12 - 2014

PL: Spis treści
EN: Table of contents
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Article 01PL: „…chcę mieć rezydencje jak angielscy lordowie…” Rzecz o angielskich wzorach pałacu w Jabłoniu1
EN: “…I would like to have a residence like those of English lords…” On the English models for the palace in Jabłoń
9-31

ANDRZEJ CEBULAK


Stowarzyszenie Historyków Sztuki Oddział Lubelski

Out of all Polish residences that represent the historical trend, the palace in Jabłoń built in 1904-1909 at the behest of Count Tomasz Zamoyski borrowed most fully from English architecture. Conscious of his expectations, the investor founded a magnifi cent country house, the builders of which drew liberally on the wealth of English historical styles.
The palace built on the site of the older residence was ideally integrated into the existing palace and park complex. It is laid out on a rectangular plan, with the transverse axis coinciding with the main composition axis of the palace and park complex. It runs from south to north, across the gateway, the forecourt, to the main palace entrance. It then crosses the entrance hall, the main hall, and, across the rear entrance from the hall onto the terrace and terrace steps, it runs through the park, crossing the main garden interior. Despite the strict subordination of the palace plan to the main composition axis, the arrangement of rooms is irregular, characteristic of Victorian “Gothic” residences in the United Kingdom. The layout and functional arrangement of the palace fully realizes the design of the English manor house. The central and most stately room in the palace is the hall. It contains a grand staircase and a magnifi cent Tudor-style fi replace. The hall walls used to be covered by impressive oak paneling and portraits of the Zamoyski family ancestors. The room has a coffered ceiling in direct imitation of English timber-roof ceilings. The hall opens into the dining room with the walls layered with “Georgian-style” oak paneling and with the strap work ceiling. On the other side of the hall, in keeping with the English fashion, there is a Regency-style family drawing room. At the front there is a large room – the “great chamber” with Elizabethan paneling and stuccowork and the library with an elongated plan scheme characteristic of “English” galleries and a strap work ceiling. The main elements of interior decorations are the wall paneling and stucco ceilings modeled after those in English residences, e.g. Hatfi eld House (Hartford Slim), the castle chapel in Ightham (Kent), the hall of the Compton Wynyates Castle (Warwickshire) or the drawing-room in the Southam Castle (Gloucestershire) and residences in Crewe Hall (Cheshire) and Hardwick Hall (Derbyshire), Parham and Wakehurst (Sussex), Hampton Court (Middlesex) or the “Long Gallery” in Haddon Hall (Derbyshire).
Just like the layout and the interior furnishings, so too the external architecture of the palace was inspired by English residences in the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles. The body and architectural appearance of the Jabłoń Palace reveal all the elements characteristic of the English picturesque “Gothic and Renaissance Revival” style, which was inspired by early Italian Renaissance, the style of the French Loire School, the Netherlandish ferrule ornaments, and fi rst of all by the late English Gothic Perpendicular style. The interpenetration of all these elements caused the constructions built in this style to acquire a picturesque character. The closest models for the Zamoyski seat in Jabłoń can be found in the southern wing of Holland House (Kensington), in Aston Hall (Warwickshire), Westwood (Worcestershire), Fountains Hall (Yorkshire), and in Bramshill Park (Hampshire).
Out of all residences built in the historical territory of Poland the Palace of Jabłoń is most certainly the building which most literally and directly borrowed from English architecture.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0017
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Article 02PL: Unicka cerkiew z trzema „wieżami” we wsi Michale nad Bugiem
EN: The Uniate church with three “towers” in the village of Michale on the Bug
33-46

PAWEŁ SYGOWSKI


Instytut Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej

The specifi city of cultural tradition of the Uniate Church in the Commonwealth [Republic] of Poland was the integration of elements of the Eastern and the Western Church tradition. This process intensifi ed throughout the 18th century and was observable fi rst of all in the church interiors as well as in architecture. The result of assimilation of Latin elements was inter alia similarities in the appearance of Uniate and Catholic churches – more often in the western and northern regions of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Kiev. In the church interior, the iconostasis was replaced by a set of Baroque altars – the main and usually two side ones. Pews, pulpits, confessionals and even pipe organs appeared. In the Eastern-Church architecture the three-part layout (the chancel, nave, and women’s section) was replaced by the two-part layout (the chancel and the large rectangular nave covered by gabled roofs with an ave-bell turret). The richest form of the Latinized Uniate church body was the churches with the two-tower front facade (inter alia Buśno, Kodeniec, Dywin [Dzivin], Hołoby [Goloby], Olble). After the Partitions, new patterns of Orthodox Church architecture were introduced in the Russian partition, in particular after the liquidation of the Uniate Church (in the Russian Empire – 1839, in the Kingdom of Poland – 1875). Uniate churches were replaced by Orthodox churches built in the Russian “national” style. After the devastations caused by the two World Wars, after the practice of demolishing Orthodox churches in the Lublin region in 1938, and after demolishing them under the Soviet Union and People’s Poland, there are very few Uniate churches left. In order to have a complete picture of the Uniate religious tradition, archives have to be searched (records of inspections, and inventories). The inspection records of 1788 describe the Uniate church (built in 1751) in the village of Michale on the Bug as one with “three towers”. The records show a similar description of the no longer extant Uniate church in Wielka Hłusza (Velyka Hlusha) in Volhynia: according to a later description it had two towers with a prominent ave-bell turret. It could be assumed that the Uniate church in Michale had a similar appearance. This church, converted in 1881 in the Russian “national” style”, completely lost its former appearance.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0018
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Article 03PL: O roli ironii w filmach Wojciecha Jerzego Hasa, a zwłaszcza w Rękopisie znalezionym w Saragossie, ze szczególnym odniesieniem do ironii romantycznej
EN: On the role of irony in the films by Wojciech Jerzy Has, especially in The Manuscript Found in Saragossa, with particular reference to Romantic irony
47-70

MARCIN MARON


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

The study discusses the problem of irony in the fi lms by Wojciech Jerzy Has. The fi rst part defi nes the function of irony in the fi lms made by this director prior to The Manuscript Found in Saragossa [Rękopis znaleziony w Saragossie] - (Noose [Pętla], 1957; Farewells [Pożegnania, 1958; Shared Room [Wspólny pokój], 1960; Goodbye to the Past [Rozstanie], 1961; Gold [Złoto], 1962; How to Be Loved [Jak być kochaną], 1963). The second part of the study compares irony as the principle of artistic creation in The Manuscript Found in Saragossa and the concept of Romantic irony (Friedrich Schlegel, Novalis). This fi lm can be termed as the quintessence of ironic traits of Has’s creative work.
In the earlier works by this director irony manifests itself as the attitude of the fi lm characters towards the reality, as their attitude to historical problems, and as an esthetic effect or Has’s game with the audience in the artistic and philosophical dimension. Intertextualism, verbal and situational humor, repeated motifs and stylistic devices are a way of expressing the double meaning of the work, i.e. a manifestation of the author’s irony. It combines seriousness and comedy, emotionality and intellectual distance, and fi nally, a critical and a creative attitude.
All these traits gain special signifi cance in The Manuscript Found in Saragossa (1965). The poetics and form of the work resemble the Romantic concept of poetry (creative work) as an arabesque. The irony of Has’s fi lm is similar to Romantic irony because its result is the narrative experience of the Self which can transcend its experiences. Irony also manifests itself in the author’s attitude towards his work which (attitude) consists in exposing the fi ctional nature of the presented world. In Has’s fi lms, irony allows one to break free from the burden of actual existence and the problems of history, time, and memory in order to make them a subject of art.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0019
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Article 04PL: Intymny obraz śmierci we współczesnym polskim dokumencie
EN: Intimate images of death in contemporary Polish documentaries
71-90

URSZULA TES


Instytut Kulturoznawstwa Akademii Ignatianum w Krakowie

The theme of death in contemporary Polish documentary cinema is increasingly present, which is distinctly evidenced by the creative works of Marcin Koszałka, who debunks one more social taboo. The author of the paper is interested in the intimate presentation of death, which, on the one hand, has a provocative dimension, and, on the other, it stems from the personal need to confess, which is carried out by the fi lm alter egos of Koszałka, for example by his sister in Ucieknijmy od niej [Let’s run away from her] or by Piotr Korczak in Deklaracja nieśmiertelności [Declaration of Independence]. The fi lms made by Koszałka - the author of Istnienie [The Existence] are based on baroque concepts which, by shocking the audience with their form, are meant to ask fundamental existential questions. Koszałka’s creative output is viewed by scholars fi rst of all from the standpoint of self-treatment, which seems insuffi cient: when analyzing Koszałka’s fi lms, it is impossible to avoid an ethical or existentialist perspective Another interesting and separate example of intimate presentation of the death theme is the fi lm by Adam Sikora Paweł [Paul], which presents the Mikołów Institute director suffering from cancer: the camera accompanies Paweł Targiel’s “confession”, which reveals the stream of consciousness of the departing man. These extremely different presentations: baroque pieces by Koszałka and ascetic ones by Sikora essentially ask the same questions about the limits of documentary cinema.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0020
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Article 05PL: Popularyzacja twórczości artystów ilustratorów i projektantów książki adresowanej do dzieci w Polsce po transformacji ustrojowej (1989-2010)
EN: Popularization of the creative works of artist-illustrators and designers of children’s books in Poland after the political system transformation (1989-2010)
91-106

ANNA BOGUSZEWSKA


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Signifi cant changes started in the children’s books market from 1989. The market gradually began to be saturated with far less expensive reprints of Western productions. Their artistic form is based on the style of cartoons, thus replacing the diversity of illustrations which is necessary to activate the development of child’s perception. Consequently, a special role is played by measures aimed to popularize the artistic achievements of artist-illustrators and designers of books for children in Poland. After the political system transformation, earlier activities were continued (plein-air workshops for illustrators in the Roztocze region). New undertakings were also initiated (meetings with graphic layout artists, conferences, exhibitions, workshops for children and teenagers in libraries). The article discusses the activities of Gallery [Galeria] 31 at Branch no. 30 of Hieronim Łopaciński City Public Library in Lublin, Poznań Trade Fair Meetings in Poznań, and plein-air workshops for artist-illustrators. These events are an example of local and nation-wide activities. They develop a conscious attitude towards the impact of the book form as a visual communication. The forms of Polish books (including textbooks and reading list books) for the youngest readers cannot be regarded as satisfactory.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0021
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Article 06PL: Rozwijanie twórczej aktywności plastycznej uczniów klas początkowych (na podstawie analizy programów kształcenia zintegrowanego)
EN: Developing creative activity in art amongst pupils of elementary classes (Based on the analysis of integrated teaching syllabuses)
107-130

ELŻBIETA MAREK


Pracownia Pedagogiki Wczesnoszkolnej i Przedszkolnej Uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach, Filia w Piotrkowie Trybunalskim

The aim of the studies was to learn the possibility of developing creative activity of fi rst-to-third grade pupils in art. The documents (the core curriculum and integrated teaching syllabuses) examined from the point of view of aims, contents, pupils’ achievements, and description of realization methods show that the curriculum suggestions are really diverse. In the curricula created by people realizing the role which is played by creative activity in the development of a child more room is devoted to it.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0022
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Article 07PL: Ochrona twórczości dziecka z uwzględnieniem ochrony prawnej
EN: Protection of the Child’s Creative Output Including Its Legal Protection
131-141

ANNA SOKOŁOWSKA


Wydział Studiów Edukacyjnych UAM w Poznaniu

This paper is an attempt to analyze the necessity of defi ning and extending the protection of the child’s creative process. The starting point for consideration is the key role of artistic instruction in the child’s education and development which justifi es providing appropriate framework for that process. The present text defi nes artistic output as a personal good covered by legal protection and specifi es relevant legal regulations underlying the subject. It also reveals the position of the child as a creator with his/her specifi c characteristics and possible dangers arising from those characteristics. Another issue discussed here is the creative process and its components. In a further part, legal aspects of the child’s situation in the context of creative activity are analyzed with references to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), the (Polish) Family and Guardianship Code (1964), the UN Declaration on Rights of the Child (1959) and other legal acts. Finally, the paper addresses objectives of arts education in the light of the discussed issues. Conclusions include an indication of certain similarity between some areas of interest in pedagogy and in law.
The main conclusion comes down to a statement that in the education process we should take into consideration so-called creative integrity which constitutes a personal good of both the adult and the child, and which is covered by legal protection.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0023
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PL: Informacje dla autorów
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PL: Spis treści
EN: Table of contents
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Article 01PL: Gramofon w kręgu reinterpretacji
EN: Gramophone Reinterpretations
9-60

MACIEJ BIAŁAS


Instytut Muzyki Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

What is most surprising in the 150-year history of the gramophone (phonograph, record player) is that it has not ended even today. It might appear that progress in phonography which took place in the twentieth century should have made the gramophone a relic of the industrial age. Investigating the reasons why this device is still alive, the author argues that if it survived all through the twentieth century and found is place in the digital age on the eve of the new century, it was only owing to its hidden potential, which allowed creative individuals to rediscover it, fi nd its new uses, attribute new functions and assign it new roles; in short, reinterpret it in diverse ways, the outcome being gramophone music – a new discursive practice with a varied esthetic appearance.
In the fi rst part of the study the author refers to the history of those gramophone reinterpretations and successively describes early literary impressions of the gramophone, the phonograph postulates of Lászlo Moholy-Nagy, Paul Hindemith’s and Ernst Toch’s Grammophonmusik, John Cage’s Imaginary Landscapes, the art of D.J.’s and turntablists, Christian Marclay “creative gramophony”, and experimental turntablism.
The second part of the article analyzes the esthetics of gramophone music. The author distinguishes three trends in it: in the fi rst the gramophone is subordinated to the classical concept of music, in the second it is used to create poly-style sound collages, in the third the gramophone is the tool for the implementations of the principles of conceptual art.
In conclusion the author writes that it is chiefl y owing to these reinterpretations which made the sound-recording and playback invention a composer’s tool, a musical instrument and fi nally an object of elaborate artistic experiments that the gramophone was able to carry out a historic, technological and conceptual revolution in the twentieth-century and early twenty-fi rst century culture.
10.1515/umcsart-2015-0001
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Article 02PL: Krótki wykład o muzyce XX wieku. Kompendium dydaktyczne
EN: A Short Lecture on Twentieth-Century Music. A Teaching Compendium
61-94

TOMASZ JASIŃSKI


Instytut Muzyki Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

The article is a comprehensive presentation of the history of music in the twentieth century, taking into account the main trends and phenomena of this period, inter alia impressionism, expressionism, neoclassicism, dodecaphony, punctualism, and total serialism, then avant-garde solutions and pluralism after World War Two (inter alia electronic music, concrete music (musique concrète), graphic music, aleatoric music, open forms, instrumental theater, minimal music), and fi nally the most recent trends (e.g. spectral music, new complexity, polystylistics), including a clearly marked return to the Romantic tradition. The chronologically presented discourse includes opinions that concisely explain some compositional solutions, as well as the list of composers and the titles of their works that exemplifi ed the problems discussed. The paper ends with the thoughts on the future of music in the new, twenty-fi rst century.
The article is meant as teaching material for the arts and humanities programs.
10.1515/umcsart-2015-0002
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Article 03PL: Obrazy wojny i holocaustu w muzyce i sztuce. Szkic do edukacji interdyscyplinarnej
EN: The Images of War and the Holocaust in Music and Art. A Sketch for Interdisciplinary Education
95-123

RENATA GOZDECKA


Instytut Muzyki Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

The main premise of the presented study is to show the impact of World War Two events on the creative achievements of selected artists who treated these dramatic events as the direct source of inspiration. The primary object of interest are selected musical pieces composed in the twentieth and twenty-fi rst centuries, analyzed at the same time from the perspective of their correspondence with other domains of art: painting, sculpture, poetry, and partly with fi lm. The article discussed Arthur Honegger’s Second and Third Symphony, compositions: Diffrent Trains by Steve Reich, and Diaries of Hope by Zbigniew Preisner, and in the fi eld of fi ne art: inter alia the painting works by Izaak Celnikier, Xawery Dunikowski, Bronisław Wojciech Linke, and Andrzej Wróblewski, selected monument sculptures (e.g. in the Majdanek Concentration Camp in Lublin), and with special emphasis on works devoted to the tragedy of the Holocaust.
An important aim of the paper is to show the possibility of utilizing the presented content in interdisciplinary teaching provided for in the Ministry of National Education’s core curriculum for general education in art subjects and the subject Knowledge of Culture
10.1515/umcsart-2015-0003
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Article 04PL: Całe życie z muzykologią. Wspomnienia uniwersyteckie z Poznania i Krakowa
EN: All My Life with Musicology. University Memories from Poznań and Kraków
125-137

ZYGMUNT M. SZWEYKOWSKI


Instytut Muzykologii Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego w Krakowie

Zygmunt M. Szweykowski (born in 1929 in Kraków), an eminent scholar and doyen of Polish musicology, shares his memories of his postwar studies and fi rst years of university work in Poznan and a long period of teaching and scholarly activity at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. He remembers the personages of older musicologists (e.g. Tadeusz Strumiłło), and his masters (inter alia Adolf Chybiński), presents the picture of numerous determinants during the People’s Poland period and during the subsequent political- system transformations, describes the development of the Jagiellonian University’s Institute of Musicology over several decades, discusses in detail the teaching innovations he has introduced, and fi nally recalls various episodes of university life, occasionally embellished with anecdotes. Professor Z. M. Szweykowski’s autobiographical story is an interesting contribution to the history of Polish musicology in the second half of the twentieth century.
10.1515/umcsart-2015-0004
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Article 05PL: Krajobraz Le Corbusiera. Losy „superbudynków” na przykładzie realizacji w Marsylii, Berlinie i Katowicach
EN: Le Corbusier’s Landscape. The Fates of “Superstructures” as Exemplified by Their Implementation in Marseilles, Berlin and Katowice
139-152

KAMILA LUCYNA BOGUSZEWSKA


Wydział Ogrodnictwa i Architektury Krajobrazu Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Lublinie

The project of a residential building (unit) of a proper size (unité de grandeur conforme) was designed in Le Corbusier’s atelier in Paris from the late 1940s on. Prepared by Jerzy Sołtan and Gerard Hanning, it was a theoretical model and was meant to be an answer to the shortage of housing after World War Two; it would also solve the functional program in an innovative way and at the same time would be based on the principles of the contemporary architecture created by Le Corbusier. For Le Corbusier, a very important part of the project was the spatial solution of the utilitarian roof. Essential elements here were: the landscape of the south of France, its scenic connections, spatial relationships and the silhouette of the City of Marseilles: these were called basic joys (joies essentielles), which should belong to everybody. The paper shows the histories of three buildings embodying the idea of the total housing unit: the prototype – the Marseilles Unit, its late copy – the Berlin Unit, and the Polish realization designed and built in Katowice by Mieczysław Król.
10.1515/umcsart-2015-0005
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Article 06PL: Persephassa. Xenakisa architektura brzmieniowa dla sześciu perkusistów
EN: Persephassa. Xenakis’s Sound Architecture for Six Percussionists
153-172

STANISŁAW HALAT


Instytut Muzyki Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

Musical pieces composed for a percussion ensemble form a signifi cant portion of Iannis Xenakis’s creative achievements. One of major compositions in this genre is his Persephassa (1969) for six percussionists. The set of instruments used by Xenakis is divided into four sound levels: skins (peaux), pieces of wood (bois), metals (metal), effects (pierre). Each percussionist has a wide acoustic array consisting of over a dozen instruments. The sonoric aspect of the piece is enriched through the positioning of the musicians around the audience. The fi rst part of the paper analyzes the form of the composition: its course, division, structural, rhythmical, textural, agogic, energy-containing, and sound solutions, as well as the kinds of culminations and special effects (rhythmical chaos). The other part of the article describes the use of compositional devices that determine the specifi city of a musical piece, such as complicated rhythmical structuralism, (resulting from the combinations of elements of probability calculus and computer algorithms) or sonoric effects (e.g. “sound clouds”), discussed in close connection with the problems of performing technique.
10.1515/umcsart-2015-0006
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Article 07PL: Musical Evita Andrew Lloyda Webbera na tle wybranych gatunków muzyki scenicznej XIX i XX wieku*
EN: Andrew Lloyd Webber’s Musical Evita in the Context of Selected Genres of Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Stage Music
173-201

WOJCIECH BERNATOWICZ


Instytut Muzyki Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

The analytical study of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical Evita contains inter alia the description of the libretto, and the analysis of architectural-formal, rhythmical, and melodic features and stylization devices. In architectural terms, Evita shows the infl uences of operetta, heroic opera, and musical drama (e.g. in large integrated blocks of scenes, and characteristic fi nal scenes). In the internal formal relations in the piece, the links with the nineteenth-century heroic opera are observable. Regarding the use of form, the composers utilizes those that appeared in Romantic Italian and French operas, while the stylization devices present in the piece have their reference to the nineteenth-century operatic forms in France and operetta compositions. An important structural element of Evita is reminiscence motifs referring inter alia to grand opera. The conscious use of these motifs on such a large scale that have no equivalents in operetta or in the genres preceding the emergence of musical, and in other musicals, causes Evita to be closer to opera in its motivic concept. Owing to the exceptional musical language combining tradition and the present, Webber’s work is an example that the musical as a form of sublime entertainment can also satisfy the requirements of high art.
10.1515/umcsart-2015-0007
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Article 08PL: Materia mystica. Próba introspekcji w kolorach złota i czerni
EN: Materia Mystica. An Introspection in Black and Gold
203-227

ALICJA SNOCH-PAWŁOWSKA


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

The article is an attempt to combine refl ection on the mystical side of artistic activity with the author’s self-comment on her creative work in graphic art. The discourse shows multi-aspectual thoughts on the secret of the act of creation and the matter itself that serves art, based on the philosophical background of different religious, cultural and worldview traditions; it also touches upon the sphere of self-cognition, symbolism, and transcendence. The author’s narrative is accompanied by the thoughts of inter alia William Blake, Samuel Coleridge, Stanisław Fijałkowski, Hildegard of Bingen, Carl Gustav Jung, Kabir, Wassily Kandynsky, Paul Klee, Czesław Miłosz, Meister Eckhard, Rainer Maria Rilke, Andrzej Strumiłło, St. John of the Cross, and Zhuangzi. These considerations are combined with the analytical explication of the author’s selected works and with an attempt to introspectively look into herself.
The author examines the following: understanding of the concept and phenomenon of matter (Materia – proch ziemi i kwantowa pustka [Matter – the Dust of Earth and Quantum Void]); mystical and spiritual aspects of art (Mistyka – ulotność wizji i realność duchowości [Mysticism – Transience of Vision and the Reality of the Spiritual]); the world (identifi ed with the matter of creation) of inner experiences of her own artistic imagination (Materia tworzenia [Matter of Creation]); symbolic-formal features of her own graphic works (W granicach formy [Within the Form]); and the unfathomable problem of cognition and self-cognition through art (Laboratorium sztuki i sztuka przemiany [Laboratory of Art and the Art of Transformation]).
10.1515/umcsart-2015-0008
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PL: Informacje dla Autorów
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PL: RECENZENCI VOL. XII/1-2 2014
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Volume 11 - 2013

PL: Spis treści
EN: Table of contents
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Article 01PL: Oranżerie województwa lubelskiego w świetle polskich wzorników sztuki ogrodowej z XIX i XX wieku
EN: Orangeries in the Lublin Province in light of the selected Polish models of garden art of the 19th and 20th centuries
9-25

KAMILA LUCYNA BOGUSZEWSKA


Wydział Ogrodnictwa i Architektury Krajobrazu, Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Lublinie

Orangery structures were built in the whole Polish Commonwealth already from the 18th century. These structures were constructed both in large complexes of landed estates owned by aristocracy and in smaller manor-house/park complexes owned by the gentry. The popularity of these glasshouses (greenhouses) stemmed from their utilitarian functions and from the fashion for exotic plants which were often used and placed in the open as decoration for the gardens surrounding palaces and manors.
Greenhouse buildings were divided into cool greenhouses, so-called orangeries, and heated greenhouses, called hothouses. The former type, often called orangeries, prevailed in the Lublin province. The models of ready-made orangery structures could be found in various guides. In the 19th and early 20th centuries the publications by Edmund Jankowski and Józef Strumiłło were highly popular. The books presented the basic principles of developing greenhouse buildings and adapting the already existing old orangeries, and described plant species suitable for different types of hothouses and cool greenhouses, taking their requirements and ways of growing into account.
The article presents the basic assumptions of constructing these types of buildings. The author characterizes the still extant orangeries in the Lublin province as compared with the available design patterns. Apart from orangeries, the study also presents winter gardens accompanying palaces and manors, which functionally complemented the residences. The article also discusses the rules of designing these types of interiors and the basic plant species used in those facilities.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0007
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Article 02PL: Cudowna maszyna optyczna zograscope
EN: The wonderful optical machine zograscope
27-43

MAREK LETKIEWICZ


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Zograscope is an optical device made to generate the illusion of immaterial space and its projection from a fl at picture. Zograscopes appeared in the 1740s and were used until the late 1830s. They are a type of devices called “optical diagonal machines”, classifi ed today as “the early visual media”. The emergence of the zograscope was a turning point in the history of generating and projecting pictures because it opened the chapter of constructing devices to project immaterial 3D pictures.
From the historical perspective, zograscopes were something more than a popular parlor entertainment. They embody the Enlightenment drive for seeking knowledge and improvement. The patrons and lovers of science gathered around the optical devices for 3D projection constructed by members of scientifi c societies supported by aristocratic patrons of art and science, who were collectors at the same time, which may have happened already in the second half of the 17th century. However, those devices were not in general use at that time. The situation changes in the 1740s when zograscopes became desired consumer goods of the English elites and the subject of industrial interest.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0008
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Article 03PL: Interakcja w sztuce
EN: Interaction in art
45-50

PRZEMYSŁAW J. MOSKAL


Wydział Sztuki Mediów Canisius College w Buffalo, Nowy Jork

Technological progress in the last three decades has considerably changed the creative process in many fi elds of art. Computer technologies of the 1980s became available to large numbers of users owing to the appearance of personal computers on the market. These computers enabled artists to manipulate the sound and picture to a far greater extent. Through interaction they also made it possible for the spectator to interfere in a work of art, thereby introducing a multitude of interpretations and direct infl uence on works of art. The idea of the spectator’s participation in jointly creating a work of art was utilized long before a personal computer was constructed. Such artists as Marcel Duchamp, John Cage, Allan Kaprow, or Nam June Paik, to name only a few, were pioneers of interaction and the audience’s involvement in the creative process.
The article discusses the term “interaction in art” and, which is the main subject of discourse, selected theoretical and practical aspects of the concepts utilizing the interaction phenomenon that are represented by Roy Ascott, Ryszard Kluszczyński, Ron Burnett, Filipp Tommas Marinetti, Marcel Duchamp, John Cage, Allan Kaprow, and Nam Jun Paik.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0009
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Article 04PL: Ciało me, wklęte w korowód istnienia… O poszukiwaniu słów do pieśni bez słów Mieczysława Karłowicza
EN: My body, charmed and blended into the pageant of life… On seeking words for Mieczysław Karłowicz’s eternal song without words
53-67

RENATA SUCHOWIEJKO


Instytut Muzykologii UJ

The present article looks at the music of Mieczysław Karłowicz from the perspective of Bolesław Leśmian’s philosophical poetry. The aim of the discussion, however, is not to seek parallel themes or musical transpositions but to capture certain traits of ideological attitude, which is founded on the question about the meaning of human existence. Leśmian’s poetry is characterized by profound meditation on the mystery of existence, by the search for truth about man, and by familiarization with death through discovering its diverse manifestations in art, nature, and in life. His poems show a strong presence of mystical experience, the so-called “oceanic feeling” or “pantheistic experience of unity”, which was one of the leading motifs of Young Poland poetry. It was readily utilized by Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Jan Kasprowicz, or Antoni Lange. In the symphonic music of Mieczysław Karłowicz we can recognize a similar type of sensitivity and emotional mood that perfectly harmonizes with the spiritual and artistic atmosphere of the period. His works refl ect the tendency, characteristic of modernism, to cross boundaries and penetrate the mystery of being. Listening to this “song without words” is at the same time an encouragement to enter the world of values and human experiences, which is usually omitted by scholars in musicological analyses.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0010
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Article 05PL: Problematyka powszechnej edukacji muzycznej w prasie polskiej okresu międzywojennego
EN: Problems of universal music education in the interwar Polish press
69-90

MIROSŁAW GRUSIEWICZ


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

In the interwar years the press was the main medium that provided specialist knowledge, current information, or entertainment. It is from the articles in the press of that time that we can learn a lot about the universal music education in that period. These articles are an invaluable source of knowledge: both in the fi eld of educational practice and in the sphere of ideas, thoughts, discourse, and normative and axiological assumptions.
The present paper is a comprehensive approach to the issues concerning universal music education that were discussed in specialist and socio-cultural periodicals of that time. The purpose of the study is not to analyze in detail but to present a general description of the content found in the available sources. Nevertheless, even this superfi cial treatment enables one to perceive the state of education and the principal themes of discussions on music education held during the interwar period.
The survey of the interwar press takes into account over a dozen titles representing teaching/methodology journals and some periodicals dealing with other subjects. They are “Muzyka w Szkole” [Music at school], “Śpiew w Szkole” [Singing at school], “Nowa Muzyka w Szkole” [New Music at school], “Śpiewak Śląski” [the Silesian singer], “Przegląd Muzyczny” [Music review]” “Chór” [Choir], “Orkiestra” [Orchestra], “Muzyka Kościelna” [Churhc music], “Hosanna”, “Wiadomości Muzyczne” [Music news], “Muzyka” [Music], “Kwartalnik Muzyczny” [Music quarterly], “Muzyka Polska” [Polish music], “Lwowskie Wiadomości Muzyczne i Literackie” [Lvov literary and music news]. The characteristics of the content of these periodicals provokes the following refl ections: despite the passage of time many questions and problems of universal music education have not lost their relevance at all; both articles on teaching methods and the texts discussing theory can be highly inspiring even today, not only to scholars interested in the subject but to ordinary readers as well.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0011
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Article 06PL: Wybrane aspekty badań narracyjnych w kontekście analizy biografii muzycznych
EN: Selected aspects of narrative studies in the context of analysis of biographies
91-102

JOANNA JEMIELNIK


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

The article shows selected problems of contemporary narrative studies. They are a special type of qualitative analyses characteristic of many humanistic disciplines: e.g. sociology, psychology, or pedagogy. They may also apply to musical issues, inter alia biographical studies in the broad sense.
In Polish literature on the subject there are many publications concerning different aspects of the life, creative work, and artistic and pedagogical activities of persons connected with art, culture, and music education. The article stresses that the specifi city of the facts and phenomena learned in that way is the subjective character of their transmission. The experiences and refl ection contained in the collected utterances and descriptions show an inner dialogue – the world of unspecifi ed, immeasurable and variable phenomena dependent not only on external conditions but also on inner, personal standards. This makes it possible to analyze musical biographies in a new way.
In light of the theoretical and methodological discussion presented in the article, biography and narrative appear to be a special type of methodological approach that uses different kinds of relationships and covers many areas associated with the study of musicians, their activities, development, and career. The narrative approach is a valuable source of unique information on the biographies of musicians. It is also a worthwhile way of learning about socio-cultural changes concerning awareness of and thinking about the profession of musician and music education.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0012
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PL: Spis treści
EN: Table of contents
-

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Article 01PL: Od liryki do ekstazy: Chopinowskie repryzy-apoteozy i ich analogie w twórczości Liszta
EN: From the Lyrical to the Ecstatic: Chopin’s Reprise-Apotheoses and Their Analogies in the Works of Liszt
9-47

ANDRZEJ TUCHOWSKI


Instytut Kultury i Sztuki Muzycznej Uniwersytetu Zielonogórskiego

The subject of the present study is a specifi c type of thematic metamorphosis, in which the initially lyrical theme transforms into its ecstatic or heroic, sublime alter ego and which usually appears as the fi nal culmination of the work. Three questions were asked regarding Chopin: how did the evolution of the technique of thematic metamorphoses develop and what was its formal-expressive and aesthetic context like?; which technical and composing techniques can be regarded as characteristic of the technique of thematic metamorphoses?; and how does the relationship between Chopin’s conception of “reprise-apotheosis” and Liszt’s fi nal “syntheses-apotheoses” develop? The object of observation are works of the mature stage of Chopin’s creative activity, representing narrative-dramatic genres: Ballad in G minor op. 23 (1833), Ballad in A fl at major op. 47 (1841), Ballad in F minor op. 52 (1842-1843), Barcarolle in F sharp major op. 60 (1845- -1846) and Polonaise-fantasia in A fl at major op. 61 (1846). The fi rst example of thematic metamorphosis in Chopin can be found in the Ballad in G minor. The place of thematic metamorphoses compared with the formal level of the work shows their more transformative than recapitulative function. In the Ballad in A fl at major the tendency to strengthen the dramatic effect of thematic metamorphoses leads to an ecstatic reprise – the fi nal apotheosis, the “last word” of the whole sequence of musical occurrences: the initial lyrical phrase undergoes a metamorphosis and returns in an ecstatic form in a short reprise, which is the ultimate culmination of the composition. The Ballad in F minor restores the serious, dramatic tone of the Ballad in G minor, as well as the conception of the metamorphosis of the second, lyrical theme; at the same time Chopin does not give up the tendency – developed in the Ballad A fl at major – to place the metamorphosis of the lyrical into the ecstatic in the fi nal, reprise stage of the composition. In the works composed in the fi nal stage of transformation of Chopin’s style the strategy demonstrated in the Ballad in A fl at major was combined with the tendencies governing thematic metamorphoses in the Ballads in G minor and F minor. And thus, in the Barcarolle in F sharp major and in the Polonaise-fantasia in A fl at major the principle of transformation of the lyrical into the ecstatic was combined with the tendency to return in the reprise of themes, originally expressed in different keys, to the primary key of the work. This is how the ending was composed, which can be called “reprise-apotheosis”.
Lyrical themes, which return as transformed into ecstatic apotheoses in the reprise parts, show many features in common: they have triple meter, most of them being in trochaic rhythms; they are in major keys and are built in a similar way (they contain a motif consisting of an ascending pure fourth, after which follows a descending second). It is signifi cant that all cases of thematic metamorphoses are present in those works by Chopin which suggest narrative-literary associations and can be interpreted as the musical metaphor of one of the most signifi cant archetypes in Polish Romanticism: transformations of the main characters in Adam Mickiewicz’s Konrad Wallenrod and Dziady [Forefathers’ Eve] and in Juliusz Słowacki’s Kordian. Chopin’s concept of the fi nal “grand apotheosis” anticipated Liszt’s sublime reprisesynthesis, which crowns the symphonic poem Les Preludes. Does, however, the clear chronological anticipation indicate Chopin’s infl uence? Or rather, the two masters may have developed the same type of musical narrative independently of each other?
The Chopin-Liszt model of reprise-apotheosis became attractive to many composers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, its impact, which infl uenced masters of the late Romantic piano concerto (Grieg, Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninov), also going beyond the boundaries of the genre. Skriabin broadened the principle of fi nal apotheosis to include piano sonatas (IV Piano Sonata in F sharp major) and The Poem of Ecstasy, while Claude Debussy based the musical dramatics of The Island of Joy on the fascinating metamorphosis of the lyrical theme with an almost Chopinesque tone. Metamorphoses of the lyrical into the ecstatic can be found in many symphonic works of the fi n de siècle (II Symphony by Karol Szymanowski, Variations on the Theme of Mozart by Max Reger), while the captivating fi nals of Rachmaninov’s concertos became an attractive model for George Gershwin (Piano Concerto in F major) and many composers of fi lm music.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0013
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Article 02PL: Muzykolog Józef Reiss – prelegent perfekcyjny
EN: Musicologist Józef Reiss – A Perfectionist Lecturer
49-81

MAŁGORZATA WOŹNA-STANKIEWICZ


Instytut Muzykologii Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego

The present study discusses the activities of the musicologist Józef Reiss (1879-1956) as lecturer in 1912-1927, mainly in Krakow, taking into account inter alia the problems he discussed and information about the performers of musical illustrations to his lectures.
In 1912 Reiss began delivering lectures as part of the Public University Lectures at the Jagiellonian University and the Adam Mickiewicz People’s University; he then worked for the Music Society and its Conservatoire, and somewhat later, during the First World War, for the Institute of Music and the College of Scientifi c Lectures; later, after Poland regained independence, he collaborated with the E. Bujański Concert Agency and Radio Krakow. He also gave talks and lectures organized by the Social Readery, Oratorian Society, Workers’ Youth Union “Znicz” [Torch], Association of Women Teachers, Professional Musicians’ Union, and by Witold Herget’s National Theater and Concert Agency. He delivered scientifi c lectures or popular-science and non-specialist lectures and talks. They were usually illustrated with musical compositions or excerpts, most often performed by pianists. Reiss presented his lectures as one-subject series (e.g. Ancient Greek music, The Romantic period in music, Subjectivism in music). He sometimes delivered single lectures, which usually discussed the artistic achievements of one composer (Chopin, Brahms, Tchaikovsky), or relationships between two composers (e.g. Stanisław Moniuszko and Carl Loewe, Ferenc Liszt and Juliusz Zarębski). The tendency to present historical-musical issues as larger wholes was also seen in the way of planning music mornings and evenings (e.g. series of mornings devoted to Wagner’s works).
Reiss usually presented historical-musical subjects from several perspectives: the period in the history of music; a selected nation; a trend or style in music; the kind of music; a music genre; the artistic achievements of one composer; or one musical work. Because of the musical preferences of his audiences Reiss gave slightly preferential treatment to the operatic and song compositions of the 19th century, along with piano achievements. A special position in the subjects discussed by Reiss was devoted to Ludwig van Beethoven. At the same time he also gave lectures on entirely different musical phenomena, e.g. a lecture on jazz illustrated by the playing of a jazz band.
In 1927 Reiss gave lectures and talks on the Polish Radio in Krakow before concerts (e.g. The Struggle for Jazz and Waltz, The Beethoven Ideology, The Outstanding Figures of Russian Music, On the 16th-Century Vocal Art, A Glance at French Music).
The success of many well-executed lecture-cum-concert projects in which Reiss took part as well as the interest aroused by his talks and lecturers is evidenced by the large number and social composition of his audiences. For example, on 13 March 1913, at a music evening with a lecture on Beethoven, Reiss, and the pieces providing musical illustration, was listened to with unabated attention by over 250 people; they were workers for whom the event was organized by the People’s University. More socially diversifi ed audiences listened to Reiss at events organized by the People’s University during World War One: in January 1916 three lectures on impressionism in music attracted many listeners whom the lecture room could hardly seat; at the music mornings with Reiss, organized for example in the “Uciecha” cinema (seating 430), there were also large audiences. It so happened that at a music morning devoted to jazz the room could not accommodate all those interested and the program had to be repeated at a later date.
The data showing attendance at Reiss’s lectures and opinions about them permit a conclusion that the diffi cult art of talking about music with Reiss as the speaker attained a very high level satisfying the audiences.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0014
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Article 03PL: Rękopiśmienny zbiór pieśni maryjnych Józefa Urody z Buczkowic
EN: The Manuscript Collection of Marian Songs by Józef Uroda of Buczkowice
83-143

TOMASZ JASIŃSKI


Instytut Muzyki Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

Józef Uroda (1901-1956), today entirely forgotten, was an organist at the Transfi guration church in Buczkowice near Szczyrk from 1925 to 1942. At that time he was a signifi cant fi gure in the cultural and artistic life of his village. He was engaged in many kinds of activities: he conducted the parish choir, collected and noted down religious songs, composed musical pieces, wrote poetry, theatrical plays, and translated from foreign languages. An ardent lover of literature and theater, he set up a theater group, which embraced young and older people, with whom he staged some plays (Mazepa by Juliusz Słowacki, Zemsta [The Revenge] by Aleksander Fredro, Chata za wsią [The Cottage behind the Village] by Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, or Zemsta Cygana [Gypsy’s Revenge] by Seweryn Goszczyński). He was also active in his community, taking part in the local cultural and educational undertakings. He cooperated with OMTUR [Youth Organization of the Workers’ University Association]), sat on the Board of the Buczkowice section of the People’s School Society, and he was a member of the Polish Gymnastics Association “Sokół” [Falcon]. During the German Nazi occupation he was imprisoned in the concentration camp Polenlager 92 in Kietrz for two years. He died in Buczkowice in 1956.
In the musical collections left by J. Uroda, there is his manuscript collection of Marian songs of 1936, titled Ave Maria! Największy zbiór pieśni religijnych do N. Maryi Panny [Ave Maria. The Largest collection of religious songs to Virgin Mary]. This is a large song collection containing as many as 343 Marian songs. It should be added that the collection was not completed, it had been planned to contain 420 songs. The Marian repertory collected by Uroda is impressive because of its vastness and diversity. The songs are intended for the Feasts of Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Our Lady of Loreto, Espousal of Virgin Mary, Our Lady of Lourdes, Purifi cation of Virgin Mary, the Annunciation, Virgin Mary of Perpetual Help, Virgin Mary Assisting the Faithful, Virgin Mary the Gracious, Visitation by Virgin Mary, Virgin Mary Refuge of the Sinners, Our Lady of the Scapular, Our Lady of the Angels, Our Lady of Snows, the Assumption, Our Lady of Częstochowa, Our Lady of Consolation, Our Lady of Sorrows, Our Lady of La Salette, Our Lady of the Rosary, Our Lady the Merciful, and the Feast of Oblation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Many songs are written for Marian months – May and October. A large set of songs consists of pilgrim songs, sometimes associated with a specifi c sanctuary or place (“To Our Lady of Gidle near Częstochowa”, “On Virgin Mary in the Floriańska Gate in Krakow”, ”To Our Lady at Piasek in Krakow”, “To Our Lady of Piekary”). Uroda chose this repertory mainly from published songbooks and collections containing organ accompaniments to songs – mostly from the collections of Ryszard Gillar and Tomasz Flasza, moreover, from those of Rev. Michał Marcin Mioduszewski, Rev. Franciszek Walczyński, Rev. Jan Siedlecki, Rev. Józef Surzyński, Teofi l Klonowski, and Rev. Emilian Schindler.
From the cognitive point of view it is most important that Józef Uroda’s Marian collection contains over twenty previously unknown songs, which enrich the Polish Marian repertory and shed additional light on it, especially with regard to Poland’s southern regions. These are both previously unknown melodies and song texts and Polish contrafacta of German songs. Among these unidentifi ed and previously unknown items there are six songs authored by Józef Uroda: his three compositions – Do Marii pospieszajmy [Let us hurry to Virgin Mary] Dzwoneczku nasz miły [Our lovely bell] and Tam, gdzie cudowny [Where the miraculous… ]); and his three contrafacta of German songs – Jak wiosny kwiat [Like a spring fl ower] (for an unidentifi ed German tune), Mario! maja Królowo [Mary, the Queen of May] (for the song melody of Maria, Maienkönigin) and Źródło łaski, witaj nam [Be greeted, the Source of Grace] (for the song melody of Gnadenquelle, sei gegrüsst).
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0015
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Article 04PL: Missa Pro Peccatis Mundi Grzegorza Duchnowskiego. Forma – styl – symbolika
EN: Missa Pro Peccatis Mundi by Grzegorz Duchnowski. Its Form, Style, and Symbolism
145-178

MARCIN ŚLĄZAK


Orkiestra Reprezentacyjna Wojska Polskiego im. Gen. Józefa Wybickiego w Warszawie

One of the noteworthy Polish sacred musical works in the last decade is the Missa Pro Peccatis Mundi by Grzegorz Duchnowski (b. 1971). The composition has its own, extremely interesting formal traits, an intriguing stylistic and expressive character, and meaningful symbolism.
The Mass was composed in 2004 for The General Józef Wybicki Representative Band of the Polish Armed Forces, with the performing collaboration of the Band with a mixed choir in mind. The work, a series of Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei, was written for a large force. The vocal parts consist of a mixed choir ((sopranos, altos, tenors, basses) a mezzo-soprano solo; the instrumental parts consist of wood wind instruments (fl ute I and II, oboe I and II, bassoon I and II, clarinet I, II and III, bass clarinet, soprano saxophone, alto saxophone I and II, tenor saxophone I and II, and baritone saxophone), brass instruments (horn I, II, III and IV, trumpet I, II, III and IV, tenor saxhorn I and II, baritone saxhorn, tuba I and II), and, additionally, the piano and rich percussion instruments.
Duchnowski’s work combines the contemporary language of music with many composing solutions from the earlier epochs. The achievements of the musical art of 20th century and of the present period include inter alia minimal music, motorism, orphism style, the method of tonal centers, and modern harmonic language. From the older tradition – medieval music, Renaissance, Baroque, and partly classicism – the principle of strict diatonicism, modality, chorale melody, and archaisms at the tonal-harmonic level are derived. In many sections the vocal parts and instruments are led in parallel fi fths in the form of a parallel organum. There are also chorale and song reminiscences, polyphonic parts a cappella with a Renaissance-Baroque tone and fairly elaborate fugues. These phenomena are matched by a transparent segmentation of form.
The level of expression is suggestively shaped. For the joyful, laudable segments of the texts the composer selects a fast tempo, motoric rhythm, the ostinato, and lively rhythm: he refers to the esthetics of vitalism in these parts. The other parts show different faces of expression: they are stern, ascetic, meditative, contemplative, hymnic, and sometimes gloomy or mysterious. Worth noting is the fact that – according to inspirations dating back to older epochs – the following categories do not appear: the lyrical, the sentimental, the emotional, or the poetic, which shows an evident distance towards the musical legacy of the 19th century. All these characteristics make the Missa Pro Peccatis Mundi fall into the neoclassicist trend.
The work is distinguished by its material cohesion and formal integration. Among the many ways of achieving this integration the fundamental role is played by the thematic use of the fi rst four tones of the Bogurodzica [Mother of God] song and by the fi gure (derived from these tones) of imaginatio crucis. These structures that are present in many segments integrate the work. Owing to this, the composition is characterized by the unity of substance and by internal thematic coherence. At the same time, the imaginatio crucis reveals the symbolic message of the Mass. The whole composition by Duchnowski is imbued with this fi guration, which is a very clear sign in light of the title of the piece: Mass for the Sins of the World; the sins, which Christ redeemed by dying on the cross.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0016
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Volume 10 - 2012

Article 01PL: Czas w filmie. Część II – Przemiana kinematografu w kino. Narracja filmowa i paradoksy czasu niechronologicznego.
EN: Time in film. Part II – The transformation of cinematograph into cinema. Film narrative and paradoxes of non-chronological time.
9-34

Marcin Maron


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

The two-part article Time in Film (Part I. Cinematograph and Modernity, Part II Transformation of Cinematograph into Cinema) is a kind of survey, with the author’s comment, of the most important philosophical and fi lm-studies conceptions which investigate this subject. Film time is examined in two principal aspects: as time arising from the possibility of recording reality by the camera and transforming it (reality) into moving pictures (the fi lm-reality relation), and as time connected with a fi lm’s narrative capabilities (the fi lm-spectator relation). The discussion on this subject is accompanied by a belief in the rich and surprising possibilities of transforming time by man (the creator and the spectator), which fi lm affords. This determines the mental qualities of fi lm time, which should be examined in close relationship to human temporality. Part two of the article (Przemiana kinematografu w kino [The Transformation of cinematograph into cinema) discusses the issues concerning fi lm time from the perspective of the fi lm-spectator relationship. The study also presents the problems of narrative time and the infl uence that narrative time exerts on the spectator’s mental sphere. According to Edgar Morin, cinema above all refl ects man’s mental links with the world. A great advantage of cinema is the ability to make the past the present and, as it were, to spatialize time. The feature fi lm is capable of creating surprising transformations of time, thereby approximating the human, subjective sense of time, which is fully revealed during sleep. The similarity between fi lm and dream was also the subject of interesting discussions by the Polish fi lm critic Konrad Eberhardt. In his book Film jest snem [Film is dream] he presents his refl ections on the links between fi lm and dream and analyses fi lm oneirism using the examples of selected works by the most eminent directors. In contrast, Étienne Souriau, a French aesthetician, made a fundamental distinction between two basic levels of fi lm time: fi lmophanic presentation (duration of a fi lm show) and the fi lm world (diegetic time). He also pointed out that time manipulations largely enable the rise of new fi lm reality, and signifi cantly infl uence the audience’s emotions. The article then discusses the differing interpretations of fi lm time proposed by the French linguists Christian Metz and Roland Barthes, and phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The study concludes with an extensive presentation of the fi lm time theory developed the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. The article gives a detailed account of his concept of the history of cinema, which is based on the analysis of transformations of narrative time forms. Its two extreme poles are “cinema: movement-image” and “cinema: time-image”. Deuleze argues that the contemporary model of “cinema: movement-image”, exemplifi ed by works e.g. of Alaine Resnais, the French New Wave, Orson Welles, Federico Fellini, and others, evokes mental time: the time of remembrance, mental images, hallucinations, and dreams. According to Deleuze, fi lms create virtual reality, highly approximating the one which another French philosopher Henri Bergson called “pure consciousness” (duration).
10.2478/v10075-012-0017-3
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Article 02PL: Pies andaluzyjski – w stronę filmowej symulacji marzenia sennego
EN: The Andalusian Dog – Towards the film simulation of dream
35-57

Marek Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

The subject of the article is a debut short fi lm Un Chien andalou (The Andalusian Dog) made in 1929 by the Spanish director Luis Buñuel with collaboration of the artist Salvador Dali. This fi lm, regarded as the main work of surrealist cinema, is one of those few masterpieces of experimental cinema that received a lively reception of the wide audience. Critics even accorded him the name of the best-known short fi lm in history. This was a work entirely different from what had been made before: “the densest and the most puzzling seventeen minutes in the history of cinema” showing intense, vivid pictures but at the same time fragmentary and ambiguous, and hard to understand. A detailed interpretation of the content is diffi cult if possible at all. From the beginning, however,there was agreement about the general message of the fi lm. It was read as the projection of consciousness, full of iconoclastic, delirious pictures with inspirations verging on obsessive-compulsive disorders. The ecstatic visions were interpreted, in accordance with the authors’ intentions, as revelations attacking the empty rites of tradition and challenging the dogmas of the “logic” of the existing world order. The timeless value of the fi lm does not consist in Buñuel’s new view of the world, because the edge of the once iconoclastic meaning the work has become blunted with time, abut in the use of fi lm as a medium of communication utilized in a new, revolutionary way.The Andalusian Dog is not a representation of dream images or it does not tell daydreams as this used to be before. Nor the dream sequences are a fi gure of speech in the classic fi lm narrative called “dream sequence”. The permanent value of The Andalusian Dog consists in that this motion picture is the fi rst fi lm simulation of dreaming while sleeping, evoking sensations close to experiencing an actual dream. The article discusses mutually complementary issues. These are, inter alia, the synergy of sound and projection of moving pictures; The Andalusian Dog and total art; The Andalusian Dog as an instrument of introspection; dream as a method of creation; The Andalusian Dog and psychic automatism; distillation of dreams; The Andalusian Dog among art disciplines; the open work of art; The Andalusian Dog – the composed sleep. All these themes and aspects set this work in the twentieth-century paradigms, which ensures its effective impact even today. Owing to this we are “immersed” in the fi lm and allow full play to fantasy: perhaps this makes us wiser…
10.2478/v10075-012-0018-2
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Article 03PL: Muzyczne kontakty między Spiszem a Śląskiem w XVI i XVII wieku
EN: Music contacts between Spiš and Silesia in the 16th and 17th centuries
61-75

Marta Hulková


Katedra Muzykologii Uniwersytetu Komeńskiego w Bratysławie

Many years of research on the musical past of 16th- and 17th-century Slovakia recently uncovered new facts that demonstrate that there were intense contacts between Spiš and Silesia. These relationships pertain fi rst of all to religious music played in Evangelical churches. The evidence of musical contacts between Spiš and Silesia in the 16th century is the choirbook (with only the tenor voice extant) from the high school library in Kežmarok(Hungarian Késmárk, German Käsmark, Kesmark). This relic contains many similarities with the content of music manuscripts from Wrocław (inter alia the works of composers Jacobus Gallus [Handl], Jacobus Le Maistre, or Michele Varotto), as well as compositions by the Silesian composer and intellectual, Martin Kinner von Scherffenstein. Starting from the late 16th and early 17th centuries far more musical pieces were preserved in Spiš. Worth noting among them is the music collection from Levoča (Hungarian Lőcse, German Leutschau). This collection comprises both manuscripts (tablatures, choirbooks), and music prints. Silesian traces can be also found here, inter alia in the form of entries by Johann Plotz of Brzeg (Brieg) and many repertoire similarities with the then contemporary manuscripts and music prints from Wrocław. In the 17th century Spiš and Silesia were also connected by direct personal contacts of musicians, other artists, and intellectuals. For example, the Silesian musician Daniel Speer, and the pastor Lucas Wencelius of Bielsko (Bielitz), Cieszyn Silesia, stayed in Spiš for some time.
10.2478/v10075-012-0019-1
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Article 04PL: Anonimowy motet Exsultate gaudete laeti omnes kompozycją Gorczyckiego?
EN: The anonymous motet Exsultate gaudete laeti omnes – a composition by Gorczycki?
77-111

Tomasz Jasiński


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

The anonymous motet a cappella Exsultate gaudete laeti omnes preserved in manuscript, catalogue no. Kk I 1, in the Archives of the Krakow Cathedral Chapter, recorded by the provost of the Rorantists’ Capella, Józef Tadeusz Benedykt Pękalski in the mid18th century, is an extremely intriguing composition as far as the question of its author is concerned. This work exhibits many ties and even overt similarities with the style of an eminent representative of the Polish Baroque, Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki (1665/67-1734). The analysis presented in this article reveals the features that clearly link the anonymous motet with the musical language of this composer (evident inter alia in the melodic pattern,texture, and harmonics) without omitting other elements at the same time, those that would not support Gorczycki’s authorship. Thus, although in light of the whole of the observed phenomena Gorczycki’s authorship appears probable, there is no conclusive argument to attribute it to him. Despite the absence of a fi nal conclusion that would clearly settle the matter, the author of the study decided to publish the motet together with its analysis, hoping that another scholar might fi nd some overlooked detail, or encounter helpful concordance, etc, which will allow us to defi nitively confi rm, or, on the contrary, to rule out Gorczycki’s authorship.
10.2478/v10075-012-0020-8
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Article 05PL: Literacka działalność Mieczysława Karłowicza w świetle jego estetyki twórczej, stylistyki kompozytorskiej oraz cech osobowości
EN: Mieczysław Karłowicz’s literary activities in light of his creative aesthetics, his style as composer and his personality traits
113-144

Andrzej Tuchowski


Instytut Kultury i Sztuki Muzycznej Uniwersytetu Zielonogórskiego

Mieczysława Karłowicz’s literary output can be divided into autonomous (i.e. functioning independently) and non-autonomous (i.e. subordinated to particular musical works as their conceptual and expressive basis). The fi rst group covers six articles about the Tatras and seven minor notes published in the tourist press in 1895-1909, reviews and reports from the concert life in Berlin of 1896, 1897, and 1905; four polemical-journalistic articles concerning musical life in Warsaw, and four musicological/documentation publications, its culmination being apparently a humorous-grotesque story Orfeum Warszawskie w roku 1910 [Warsaw Orpheum in 1910]. Two articles should be added, which are devoted to outstanding Berlin music teachers who contributed to Polish culture (a remembrance of H. Urban and the text devoted to Karl Friedrich Rungenhagen), as well as reviews of the singing handbooks authored by Teofi l Kowalski and Feliks Konopasek. The non-autonomous publications comprise literary programs: symphonic prologue Bianka z Moleny [Bianca of Molena], Symphony E-minor Odrodzenie [Rebirth] and a symphonic poem Powracające fale [The Returning waves]. The program of the poem Stanisław i Anna Oświecimowie was published after the composer’s death in 1912, while the program of Smutna opowieść [A Sad tale] was published in the form of an impression from the press interview. Karłowicz’s literary output is in a way an aesthetic “complement” to his musical achievements: it presents these characteristics of the composer’s complex personality that were not revealed in music, or, as for example his sense of humor, were shown only marginally. Owing to the literary program of his musical poems we know that Karłowicz utilized music to express sublime themes oscillating on the verge of philosophical refl ections, and truths about the depths of human psyche, which were at the same time the truths about himself: about the sphere of his most personal experience, emotions, refl ections and dreams. This range of themes and motifs, metaphors and literary expressions that we meet in the verbal comments to the symphonic poems, fully expresses the neo-romantic (Young-Poland-trend) character of Karłowicz’s non-autonomous literary creations. The scope of infl uence of Polish literary modernism on the composer is specifi c and incomplete at the same time: the dominant theme area is characteristic of the poetry of the then most popular representative of neo-romantic (Young-Poland) literature – Kazimierz Przerwa Tetmajer. Selected already in Karłowicz’s song period and suited to his imagination, the Tetmajer themes and motifs would be continued in his mature symphonic creations. In contrast, in his autonomous literary creations Karłowicz was able to express the traits of his personality that go, as it were, “outside” the private sphere” of his dreams, recollections, and emotions.. That is why in this part of literary creations the infl uence of neo-romantic aesthetics diminishes, being replaced by devices more characteristic of Polish positivism. Consequently, in his articles about the Tatras, relationships with Tetmajer’s rhetoric appear only in passages containing descriptions of nature and at the moments of personal refl ections, particularly philosophical ones. Orfeum Warszawskie, anticipating the grotesque and satirical tendencies as well as prophetic, disturbing literary visions characteristic of the interwar period (in particular of S. I. Witkiewicz), demonstrates the aspects of Karłowicz’s personality that were refl ected only in some of his letters. Karłowicz’s whole literary output confi rms certain characteristic features of his composing style and his creative aesthetics. His works manifest his excellent sense of form as a whole, the ability to subordinate detail to the general dramatic outline, or the use of distinctive contrasts. Karłowicz’s musical and literary discourse is lively, devoid of longeurs and hesitations, at the same time being clear and lucid. Moreover, reviews, journey reports, and Orfeum Warszawskie give us an interesting insight in the composer’s musical preferences, his attitude towards tradition, and his understanding of modernity in music.
10.2478/v10075-012-0021-7
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Article 06PL: Obraz żywiołu wody w muzyce i sztukach plastycznych. Przyczynek do edukacji interdyscyplinarnej.
EN: The image of the element of water in music and plastic arts. A contribution to interdisciplinary education.
145-167

Renata Gozdecka


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

The themes of the four elements – with their extremely rich symbolism – have been taken up by many artists. The forming of knowledge about nature, initiated already in the ancient times, resulted in the four-component conception of the elements, which distinguished earth, water, air and fi re. These elements aroused and shaped the imagination of many artists and composers. After all, fi re means warmth and light but also confl agration and destruction; water keeps one alive but it also fl oods; wind in turn revives but it also causes devastation; similarly, earth is the mother of all riches, but at the same time it hides destructive forces that lie dormant in its mysterious interior. The present article discusses the problems of inspiration by the element of water, found in musical pieces and in plastic arts; at the same time it places the subject matter so defi ned in the perspective of correspondence and integration of arts. The study presents the analysis of the problems of inspiration by the water element in reference, inter alia, to the relationships and parallels occurring between the sphere of architecture and music, and to the subject matter of the river, sea and ocean present in painting and music, occasionally taking achievements in sculpture and literature into consideration. The principal object of observation was music. Therefore, the works of the following composers have been discussed: Ottorino Respighi, Francisco Tarrega, Karol Szymanowski, Bedřich Smetana, Nikołaj Rimsky-Korsakov, Claude Debussy, and Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis. The present study is fi rst of all a contribution to interdisciplinary education, being chiefl y meant for music teachers.
10.2478/v10075-012-0022-6
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Article 07PL: Muzykowanie przejazdowe w tradycyjnej obrzędowości wiejskiej na Lubelszczyźnie
EN: Transit playing in the traditional country rites in the Lublin region
169-186

Agata Kusto


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

“Transit” playing or playing “transit” music comes from one of the names of a musical piece called “transit” (przejazdowy), which was played by folk musicians while the wedding procession moved from one house to another. The term transit playing should be treated in a conventional way, as music practice performed while moving in space by cart or on foot, and as stationary playing music in the place to which it was necessary to move. Folkloristic situations conducive to transit playing can be classifi ed according to the criteria adopted for folk rites. This makes it possible to follow the intensity of occurrence of this musical practice during the ritual year, from singing carols to the harvest festival, and in family rites such as wedding and funeral. The article shows the rites and customs during which transit music playing is practiced most often.
In the Lublin region, until the outbreak of WW2, the most popular caroling rite during Christmas period was the custom of door-to-door visits by boys carrying the Star of Bethlehem. Some of them played musical instruments (the fi ddle, or drum), which also suited the needs of the wedding practices of the time. At Easter time, on Holy Saturday, there was a well-known custom of “drumming” and Easter caroling visits. The practice of playing music while covering some distance was also applied in a number of formal situations. The musicians, whether individually or within a band or orchestra, marked their position in a particular social group by participating in religious processions, marches, ceremonial processions, pilgrimages, and or harvest festivals. Their function was to perform instrumental repertoire, to accompany or play along with singing, while at the same time displaying their own folk costumes and musical instruments. Among family rituals one should mention the participation of folk musicians in funeral ceremonies (which is still frequently practiced). When the coffi n has been laid in the grave, musical pieces are usually played at the deceased’s explicit request or according to what is known about his preferences. However, transit playing is strongly associated fi rst of all with wedding ceremonies. The rich wedding ceremony contributed to the emergence of a wide range of instrumental music forms played while covering the distances from one house to another. Apart from fi rmly established two-part marches, these are three-beat pieces, inter alia podróżniak, powiślak, majdaniak, suwak, krowiarz, buracarz.
10.2478/v10075-012-0023-5
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Article 08PL: Uczestnictwo w kulturze muzycznej w dobie mediów cyfrowych
EN: Participation in music culture in the age of digital media
187-216

Maciej Białas


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

In the 21st century, music culture has become one of the basic fi elds of the functionality of digital media, while the latter have become its important element. By thoroughly transforming music culture in technical and psychosocial, or in quantitative and qualitative terms, at the levels of music production, distribution, and consumption, the digital media have at the same time re-shaped the relations between this culture and its recipients, and established news patterns of participation in it.
Seeking to answer the questions about the character of participation in music culture in the age of the digital media, the author examines, fi rst, the impact of these media on participation in culture and on music culture itself. Second, in order to obtain as full a picture as possible of participation in music culture in the digital media age, he refers to the empirical data collected, analyzed and presented in two research reports devoted to participation in culture (including music culture) in the digital media age.
The conducted analyses show a fairly complex picture of participation in music culture because, shaped by technological innovations and affordances, the new type of activity of participants in music culture is not uniform. However, the author notices two distinct tendencies in it: a tendency to prefer old, institutionalized forms of participation albeit with the use of the digital media; and a tendency to favor new, de-institutionalized forms developed in the digital environment. They allow the researcher to outline a fundamental dichotomy (because it essentially refl ects deeper cultural-technological discrepancies) between participation in music culture and the music culture of participation. The author culminates his discussion with the conclusion, in which he briefl y considers the potential consequences of the emergence of digitally mediated participation in music culture.
10.2478/v10075-012-0024-4
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PL: Spis treści
EN: Table of contents
-

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Article 01PL: Miasto w muzyce i sztukach plastycznych. Jerozolima – Paryż – Nowy Jork. Głos edukacji interdyscyplinarnej
EN: The city in music and fine arts. Jerusalem – Paris – New York. A voice of interdisciplinary education
9-41

RENATA GOZDECKA


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

The main assumption of the article is to show the motif of three cities – Jerusalem, Paris and New York – in selected works from different areas of art treating the urban subject matter as the main source of inspiration. The choice of the cities was motivated by many factors, inter alia by historical, and geographical, cultural and linguistic, and by architectural differences.
In the sphere of music – the main fi eld of observation – the works by Krzysztof Penderecki (Seven Gates of Jerusalem), George Gershwin (An American in Paris), Steve Reich (City life), and by Wojciech Kilar (September Symphony) were chosen. At the same time these compositions prompt one to look at them from the perspective of their correspondence with other spheres of art: architecture, painting, literature, and fi lm. Selected works from other fi elds of art, chiefl y from painting, were discussed (inter alia those by Rembrandt van Rijn, Wandalin Strzałecki, Jan Sawka, Olga Boznańska, Ludwik de Laveaux, and by American painters of the late 19th/early 20th century), which make reference to the above compositions in question, fi rst of all because of their multiple contexts.
An important goal of the present article is also to show the possibilities of using the presented content in interdisciplinary teaching, in particular in application to education in high school.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0001
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Article 02PL: Wybrane założenia rezydencjonalne majątków ziemskich na terenie województwa lubelskiego
EN: Selected residential complexes of landed estates in the Lublin Province
43-73

KAMILA LUCYNA BOGUSZEWSKA


Wydział Ogrodnictwa i Architektury Krajobrazu Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Lublinie

Residential complexes are an inherent element of the Lublin province’s cultural landscape. Currently, the register of Lublin’s heritage monuments conservator lists 143 palaces and villas, and 146 manor houses. The condition of these buildings varies, which is the result of the way they were utilized after WW2. The article presents selected palace- -park complexes and manor-house/park complexes in the province of Lublin. The author explains the terminology and classifi cation of residential complexes. The study also describes the history, spatial arrangement, transformations, and the present-day condition of the selected palace-park complexes and manor-house/park complexes in the Lublin region. The author also took into account the structures accompanying residential complexes, which are their integral part and functional complement. Special attention was paid to design patterns of garden art developed both in Poland and abroad.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0002
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Article 03PL: Reykjavik – wulkan sztuki nad Zatoką Faxa
EN: Reykjavik – the volcano of art on Faxa Bay
75-94

MAŁGORZATA STĘPNIK


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Over the last decades Reykjavik has transformed from a culturally insignifi cant place into one of the most signifi cant art centers in the world, both in the realm of so-called high arts and alternative culture. Its cultural life inspires and even astonishes. Especially those who come to visit Reykjavik for the fi rst time may be overwhelmed by the number of museums and galleries functioning in that small area, as well as the amount of events dedicated to various branches of art.
The main purpose of the article is to describe important places of interest, characterizing the architectural landscape of Reykjavik, and – most of all – to present those prominent artists who have contributed greatly to the evolution of Icelandic art. Special emphasis has been placed on depicting Erró’s artistic oeuvre. In his paintings, Guðmundur Guðmundsson – as this is Erró’s real name – smartly and compellingly combines surrealistic imagery with iconography typical of Pop Art. What is more, his rhetoric, sometimes bitter and strongly critical, enables us to classify his canvases as belonging to the Narrative Figuration. Separate paragraphs also discuss inter alia the specifi city of Icelandic architecture (e.g. the Harpa concert hall with the façade designed by Olafur Eliasson), or the works of the eminent sculptor Einar Jónsson.
Reykjavik as a crucible of culture, a veritable volcano of art, attracts internationally recognized artists like Yoko Ono, whose light installation titled Peace Tower was built on the islet of Viðey.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0003
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Article 04PL: Drzwi do nowej percepcji – londyński festiwal Kinetica Art Fair 2013
EN: Doors to a new perception – the London Festival Kinetica Art Fair 2013 Ilustracja 1.
95-106

MAREK LETKIEWICZ


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

From 28 February to 3 March 2013 the festival of contemporary kinetic art Kinetica Art Fair 2013 was held in London. It was its fi fth edition, the motto being Doors of Perception: The Thin Veil. It was attended by representatives of the United Kingdom, Brazil, Russia, Poland, USA, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Germany, Turkey, Indonesia, and Israel. Those invited to take part were artists and computer scientists exploring transdisciplinary areas verging on kinetic and electronic art, design, visual illusion, cybernetics, cyberneurology, construction of virtual machinery, and archeology of the media. Many attendees to the festival presented works and ideas which – while participating in the development of present-day culture, science and technology – are far ahead of the surrounding everyday realities and carry ambitions to participate in global civilization transformations associated with present-day revolutionary processes. Most of the exhibited works at the Kinetica Art Fair 2013, although characterized by aspirations to create solutions geared towards the future, are strongly anchored in the tradition of the visual media. The Kinetica Art Fair plays a signifi cant part in creating a new type of sensitivity characteristic of the new generation of artists and audiences. This is sensitivity susceptible to electric vibrations, subliminal stimuli, and states close to entoptic visions combining illusion with reality, stimulating our perception mechanism to go beyond its limitations, and opening the doors to a new perception.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0004
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Article 05PL: Estetyczne walory XIX-wiecznych rękopisów muzycznych z kościoła św. Mikołaja w Bielsku-Białej
EN: The Esthetic values of 19th-century musical manuscripts from St. Nicholas Church in Bielsko-Biała
107-125

JADWIGA Jasińska, TOMASZ JASIŃSKI


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

The collection of old musical objects in St. Nicholas Church in Bielsko-Biała, which come from the late 18th century through the second half of the 19th century, is worth noting particularly for its manuscripts. This time it is not their repertory content we are interested in but their esthetic aspect. Many of the copies are manuscripts made extremely carefully, with great attention to the legibility and appearance of the musical notation and the verbal text. The majority of the manuscripts were written on handmade paper and the entries were made with concentrated ink, which turned out to be durable until the present. What is most important, however, is that some of the Bielsko manuscripts are far more than just the products of solid craft of scriptors: they exhibit such graphic and decorative characteristics that in many cases we could say that we are dealing with products that are very close to the sphere of fi ne arts. Indisputable esthetic values are discernible inter alia in the perfectly ordered manner of and well-formed musical notation, beautiful and highly calligraphic kinds of handwriting, decorated title pages, exquisite initials and other ornaments, and fi nally, the fi ne signatures of copyists and manuscript owners.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0005
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Article 06PL: Missa in Dis Die Zauberflöte z dawnego rękopisu kościoła św. Mikołaja w Bielsku-Białej. Dzieło Mozarta czy mistyfikacja?
EN: Missa in Dis Die Zauberflöte from the old manuscript in St. Nicholas Church in Bielsko-Biała. Mozart’s piece or a hoax?
127-155

TOMASZ JASIŃSKI


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

The article is devoted to a previously entirely unknown vocal-instrumental mass preserved in St. Nicholas Church in Bielsko-Biała. Missa in Dis – signed with Mozart’s name – is a composition based on the material of Mozart’s singspiel Die Zauberflöte. The article contains the description of the manuscript and its history, discusses the question of the forces of the mass, the problem of mutual relationships between the sound substance of Missa in Dis and The Magic Flute, and dwells extensively on the question of who the author of the piece was: between a hypothesis that the mass might have been composed by Mozart and a supposition that we are dealing with a late 18th/early 19th-century mystifi cation concerning the composer.
10.2478/umcsart-2013-0006
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Volume 09 - 2011

Article 01PL: Cechy recytatywu Michelangelo Rossiego w Erminia sul Giordano
EN: The Features of Recitative by Michelangelo Rossi in Erminia sul Giordano
9-29

Zygmunt M. Szweykowski


Instytut Muzykologii UJ w Krakowie

The theatrical piece Erminia sul Giordano by Michelangelo Rossi, written for Giulio Rospigliosi’s libretto, satged in Rome in 1633 and published there in 1637, is worth noting for the form of recitative parts. Rossi’s recitative is special and different from recitatives by the earlier authors of dramma per musica because it contains solutions which are never or only seldom found in other authors, but also the opposite is the case: solutions used most often by other composers hardly ever appear in Rossi’s work. What is characteristic is that almost all features of his recitative can be found in each scene of Erminia sul Giordano. The present analysis covered the fi rst scene of Act One.
The scene is Erminia’s monologue-lament. She wakes up entirely lost in a foreign country, in the forest on the bank of the Jordan river, disguised as a knight. She has come to look at Tancred (who has just come here) at least from a distance. Erminia’s situation is dramatic: she loves Tancred, who is a knight in the enemy camp, therefore he is her foe; moreover, he is in love with Clorinda. Erminia’s crying-monologue is a strong complaint about the fate and an apostrophe to Nature (the forest and the Jordan river) because only She – friendly to Erminia – can sympathize with her. The states and emotions, which Erminia experiences, are very much alike. They are all centered on her situation: her terrible loneliness, nightmares, awkwardness, and even thinking about death.
Rossi prepared this scene in an objective way, as if it was not Erminia who was weeping over her fate but someone else was telling about Erminia’s condition and her changeable feelings without, however, undergoing these emotions by himself. Consequently, the composer used a strikingly high percentage of repetitions in this scene’s recitative: consequently, the scene has a very uniform and monotonous course. Nevertheless, Erminia’s emotions change, even reaching the extreme, for example her thoughts about death. These changing emotions needed to be emphasized. Along with modal variability, introduction of cadences to various sounds with different modal references, Rossi used a whole arsenal of technical means, which would be almost exactly duplicated in the next acts and scenes, with some modifi cations, however, depending on the emotions carried by the text.
The analysis of the fi rst scene in Act One – basically oriented towards grasping the expressive features of the recitative – comprises phenomena occurring in the modal (e.g. the role of cadences and accidences), interval and melodic structures (e.g. interpretive meanings of leaps, triadic progressions, fi gures of the type of anabasis and catabasis, exclamations and madrigalisms), in the tonal structure (e.g. illustrations by means of high and low registers, rare but expressive dissonances), and fi nally in the declamatory sphere (e.g. highly individual treatment of the language matter). In the presented analytical procedure there always coincide musical aspects emerging from sound forms with semantic/ emotional aspects
10.2478/v10075-012-0001-y
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Article 02PL: Na tropie pierwszych wystawień dramma per musica w Pradze. Hipotezy w świetle nowych materiałów źródłowych
EN: On the Track of the First Stagings of dramma per musica in Prague. Hypotheses in Light of New Source Materials
31-43

Stanislav Bohadlo


Katedra Muzyki, Uniwersytet w Hradec Králové

The search for fi rst manifestations of the baroque in music in Bohemia in the early seventeenth century always had the undertone of “sensational” adventure because it was research only in individual and fragmentary historical sources; at the same time, researchers invariably had to note the absence of the genre of dramma per musica, which was after all fundamental to the newly emerged style.
With this state of affairs, a highly signifi cant occasion was the publication of the large collection I Gonzaga e l’Impero. Itinerari dello spettacolo, edited by Umberto Artioli and Cristina Grazioli as part of the theatrical source series Storia dello spettacolo. Fonti, in Florence in 2005. Owing to the studies and historical documents published in I Gonzaga e l’Impero we can learn about previously unknown events in the artistic life, connected with Prague. The most valuable are source statements and opinions concerning the stagings in Prague of two plays: La Transformazione di Callisto e Arcade and La Maddalena – regretfully, we do not know their musical content today.
On 27 November 1627 the Czech capital witnessed the performance by famous Mantuan Comici Fedeli, who presented a “sung comedy” titled La Transformazione di Callisto e Arcade. When we examine all the four terms of the period applied to La Transformazione – “commedia cantata”, “commedia in musica”, “comedia recitata in musica con intermedia” and “pastorale in musica”, then the predominance of operatic features emerges when compared with the properties that would characterize the form of theatrical drama performance with musical interludes. This permits us to surmise that a dramma per musica play might have been performed on that occasion.
The other play was La Maddalena, with a libretto by the Florentine dramatist Giovan Battista Andreini, which was staged in Prague after 1 January 1628. The Prague publication of the libretto of the play La Maddalena was labeled “Composizione Sacra” and dedicated to Archbishop of Prague, Cardinal Harrach. On this occasion the Mantuan Comici Fedeli, their manger and author of the libretto Giovan Battista Andreini, and his wife, famous singer and actress Virginia Ramponi, came to Prague. We do not know, however, what the music sounded like at that time. Andreini showed the fi rst version of La Maddalena in 1617 in Mantua, the musical setting of the performance having been created by Claudio Monteverdi, Muzio Effrem, Salomone Rossi and Alessandro Ghivizzani. Was their music also performed in Prague eleven years later? Or perhaps these were compositions authored by Giovanni Valentini or Ludovico Bartolaia, which accompanied the staging of the third version of Andreini’s La Maddalena, which was presented in Vienna in 1629? Unfortunately, we do not know that.
We will therefore confi ne ourselves to a cautious hypothesis that in Prague in 1627 the Italian Comici Fedeli probably performed the fi rst early baroque dramma per musica in Bohemia, i.e. the opera La Transformazione di Callisto e Arcade, and in 1628 – the fi rst baroque sepolcro or religious opera, La Maddalena, with a libretto by Andreini. However, the undeniable fact, highly signifi cant from the standpoint of history of music in Bohemia, is that with the arrival of the Mantuan troupe Comici Fedeli with Andreini and Virginia Ramponi, Prague was enriched for some time with eminent representatives of the Monteverdi tradition.
10.2478/v10075-012-0002-x
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Article 03PL: Muzyczne kontakty dworów polskich Wazów i austriackich Habsburgów w świetle dawniejszych i nowych badań
EN: Music Contacts of the Courts of the Polish Vasas and the Austrian Habsburgs in Light of Former and Recent Research
45-58

Barbara Przybyszewska-Jarmińska


Instytut Sztuki PAN w Warszawie

Studies of the musical life in the courts of the Polish Vasas (1587-1668) focus their attention on Italian musicians operating under the Vasas’ patronage, especially those who came directly from Italy, the greatest number having arrived from Rome. Owing to the fact that Sigismund III Vasa’s two wives (Anna and Konstancja) and Władysław [Ladislaus] IV’s fi rst wife (Cecylia Renata) came from the House of Austrian Archdukes of Graz, and that Archduke Ferdinand, who ruled in Innerösterreich (Inner Austria) from 1596, and as the later Emperor Ferdinand from 1619, was Sigismund III Vasa’s brother- -in-law and Władysław IV’s uncle, Godfather and father-in-law, research was also conducted on the music contacts between the two courts of those related monarchs, including studies on the two-way migration between these Polish and Austrian centers during the reign of Ferdinand II and his son Ferdinand III.
This paper has collected the fi ndings in this area present in existing literature and complemented with the results of research surveys carried out by the author. Among the musicians, who, operating under the Austrian Habsburg patronage, visited Poland, were the Venetian tenor singer and composer Pietro Antonio Bianco, composer Bartolomeo Mutis, Duke of Cesana, singers Margherita Basile-Cattanea and Lucia Rubini with her husband, violinist Giovanni Battista Rubini, as well as the German tenor, instrumentalist (lutenist) and composer Johann Nauwach. Apart from musicians, ballet masters Ambrosio Bontempo and Santi Ventura also came from the Emperor’s court.
Musicians of the Austrian courts came to the Commonwealth of Poland not only as guest performers but sometimes, by changing the patron, they went into service to Polish kings. They included Vincenzo Gigli (Lilius), trombonist Antonio Patart (who came via Munich), tenor and composer Vincenzo Scapitta da Valenza, theorbist and architect Giovanni Battista Gisleni, violinist and composer Aldebrando Subissati, and the harpist Paolo da Ponte.
In the opposite direction, i.e. from the Vasa courts to the Habsburg courts, moved the alto singer Francesco Mengacio, probably the singer and composer Giovanni Battista Cocciola and, most probably, his brother, singer Andrea Battista, the alto-singer and composer Ippolito Bonanni and the organist and composer Giovanni Valentini, who, after serving on Sigismund III’s band for ten years, became Archduke Ferdinand’s organist in 1614 (from 1619 he was the imperial organist in Vienna, and from 1626 until his death in 1649 he was the Kapellmeister of the imperial musical band). Among the Vasa-hired musicians who left Poland during the “Swedish deluge” and found refuge at the Emperor’s court were the castrato singer Baldassare Ferri, probably also the royal bandmaster Bartłomiej Pękiel and unknown Francesco de Franceschi (Johann Francisco Franosck). Some musicians invited to the Habsburg bands from Italy had earlier stayed at the court of Sigismund III Vasa. These included bass singers Pietro Giorgio Piccolini and Giovanni Bernardo and the organist Angelo Simonelli.
The author also draws attention to the dedications in the collections of musical pieces authored by musicians under the Vasa patronage, which were addressed to representatives of Austrian Habsburg families, and he points out the signifi cance of family contacts between the Vasas and the Habsburgs for the staging of the fi rst opera in the Commonwealth of Poland and the establishment of Władysław IV’s opera theater.
10.2478/v10075-012-0003-9
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Article 04PL: Melodyczny ślad jednej z XVII-wiecznych pieśni wielogłosowych o Janie Karolu Chodkiewiczu
EN: The Melodic Trace of One of Seventeenth-Century Polyphonic Songs about Jan Karol Chodkiewicz
59-66

Tomasz Jasiński


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

Out of the baroque repertory of songs handed down only in a verbal form, worth noting are works in honor of Jan Karol Chodkiewicz contained in Franciszek Małkot’s seventeenth-century collection Tureckich i infl anskich wojen o sławnej pamięci Janie Karolu Chodkiewiczu […] Głos [Voice about the Turkish and Livonian wars in famous memory of Jan Karol Chodkiewicz]. The collection had three editions. The fi rst was published in Vilna in 1622, the second in 1624 also in Vilna, while the third in 1640 without noting the place of publication. Single copies of 1622 and 1640 editions have survived until the present: they contain only the texts of songs. Despite its title, the fi rst edition contains only one song – Głos tureckiej wojny [Voice about the Turkish war], the third – six songs: apart from Głos tureckiej wojny they are Głos Gryfa Chodkiewiczowskiego [Voice of Chodkiewicz griffi n], Głos Infl antskich Wojen [Voice of Livonian wars], Głos Urody [Voice of Beauty], Głos Sławy [Voice of fame] and Pieśń o zacnym książęciu Samuelu Koreckim [Song about the good Duke Samuel Korecki]. The second edition of 1624 went missing, which is an irretrievable loss from the standpoint of the history of Old Polish music, because this edition, almost identical with the third edition (it did not have the song about Duke Korecki), contained the musical notation. From Zygmunt Gloger’s description (who knew this copy), we know that four songs Głos Gryfa Chodkiewiczowskiego, Głos tureckiej wojny, Głos urody and Głos sławy had their polyphonic arrangements in that edition, while the Głos infl anskich wojen was probably sung with music to Jana Kochanowski’s Pieśń o spustoszeniu Podola [Song about the devastation of Podolia] (“Wieczna sromota [Undying infamy]”), previously unknown to us. However, the 1624 copy has not been found, nor any other source of the period has been discovered which would contain at least one of the foregoing songs.
Fortunately, in such cases help may be found in publications of much later periods. Such a source is Śpiewnik szkolny, Part 1 Pieśni treści historycznej. Historja Polski w 130 pieśniach [The Songbook. [..] Songs of historic content. History of Poland in 130 songs] authored by Józef Życzkowski (Krakow ca. 1932). Among the many pieces contained there, there is the Pieśń o Chodkiewiczu [The Song about Chodkiewicz] with the text of the song Głos Gryfa Chodkiewiczowskiego (i.e. “Chodkiewiczowski Gryfi e uwielbiony”), with notes “After Poliński”, “Melody of 1632”. Życzkowski thus borrowed the melodic line from the famous collection of Aleksander Poliński’s old musicalia (mostly already lost) and arranged it for two voices, adding the lower voice to the primary melody of the higher voice. All the rhythmical/melodic and formal characteristics of the higher voice show explicitly that we have to do here with the highest voice part in a polyphonic piece. The general form of this cantus fully corresponds to the style and form of many old polyphonic songs, especially those of the second half of the sixteenth and the early decades of the seventeenth centuries. There is no doubt that it is there that the origin of our song dates from. We have therefore at our disposal the cantus of the polyphonic song Głos Gryfa Chodkiewiczowskiego, which, in all probability, was a four-voice composition. We can also easily assume that this part is a true quotation of the period. It is an important clue for the search of the missing whole, which, in all probability, was a four- -voice composition. For, if Małkot’s musical edition of 1624 and “the Poliński source of 1632” turned out to be lost forever, the hope of fi nding the complete song lies in the newly arisen possibility: we may fi nd a polyphonic piece (e.g. one functioning with a different set of words) in which the melodic line of the highest voice coincides with the cantus preserved by Józef Życzkowski in Pieśni treści historycznej.
10.2478/v10075-012-0004-8
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Article 05PL: Chromatyka w muzyce polskiej epoki baroku. Między muzyczną retoryką a inwencją kompozytorską
EN: Chromatics in Polish Music of the Baroque Period. Between Musical Rhetoric and Composer’s Invention
68-107

Tomasz Jasiński


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

Chromatics was a rare phenomenon in the Polish music of the baroque period. Although individual chromatic alterations can be occasionally found in the work of all Polish composers, yet more elaborate chromatic sequences are incidental. The extant work by Polish composers of the period in question includes only several pieces which contain extended chromatics of this type. When examining all cases of the appearance of chromatics in the pieces by Polish composers, we are struck by its extremely clear and explicit connection with the semantic level of the musically prepared texts. Chromatic progressions do not appear “by accident” but obviously depend on specifi c semantic categories carried by the verbal text. The leading position among them is occupied by two groups of expressions: one, associated with emphasizing the broadly understood category of mercy, both in the meaning of the occurrence of the word itself and, for example, a request for mercy and mercifulness (“recordatus misericordiae suae”, “misericors”, ”misericordia eius”, “miserere nobis”), and the other group, which refers to negative states and the sphere of sad feelings: weeping and sorrow (“ploratus et ululatus”, “et fl entes”, “ulula, misera, et plora”), and suffering and death (“Crucifi xus etiam […] et sepultus est”, “commendo spiritus meum”, “in tribulatione”, “turbatus est a furore oculus meus”, “nunc et in hora mortis nostrae”). Other types of content are sporadically associated with chromatics. This is irrefutable proof that Polish composers regarded the chromatic genre as a par excellence musical/rhetorical fi gure, i.e. the means which interprets specifi c meanings.
This paper is divided into the following four parts: I. Presentation of selected examples of incidentally introduced chromatic progressions according to the chronological order of their occurrence; II. Analysis of more elaborate and structurally advanced chromatic courses, which is oriented – on the one hand – towards the musical/rhetorical aspect, and on the other – towards the features of sound construction; III. Comparison of the general picture of chromatics in Polish music with chromatic phenomena occurring in the work of foreign masters, which leads to the conclusion that Old Polish composers used and shaped chromatic courses with moderation and restraint; IV. Discussion: for what reason did Polish composers use chromatics so seldom and why were its manifestations characterized by far-reaching restraint? The answer involves both esthetic/stylistic and methodological arguments, chiefl y related to the technical capabilities and the scope of invention in the area of counterpoint and harmonics.
10.2478/v10075-012-0005-7
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Article 06PL: Malarstwo kwadraturowe – projekcja przestrzeni (nie)możliwych. O barokowych korzeniach wirtualności
EN: Quadratura Painting – Projection of (Im)Possible Spaces. On the Baroque Roots of the Virtual
109-130

Marek Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

In art history there are fascinating pictures which deceive us with the illusion of images walking out of their frames. The most spectacular phenomena in this fi eld include quadratura painting: baroque wall painting, whose “visions” walk beyond architectural limits into the imaginary space: virtual but interpreted as real.
The desire to attain an illusion of the full-size world using painting means appeared already in Roman antiquity. More tangible roots of the quadratura painting can be found in the fi fteenth-century Renaissance painting and in the sixteenth-century Mannerist painting. The proper history of quadratura painting begins in the seventeenth century, and reaches its height in the late seventeenth century and in the next one. The nineteenth century is the epigone period of this style. The Baroque quadratura painting, deprecated during the Classicist period, disappeared after steel was introduced into architecture in the nineteenth century. Attempts to revive it during the Neo-baroque and Neo-Rococo went unheeded. It is only today, in the era of simulators and virtual art, that quadratura painting began to focus vivid interest on it, especially by media scholars and artists.
Despite its excellent source bases the phenomenon of quadratura painting still poses interpretive diffi culties. There are even uncertainties about the etymology of the concept. The present paper points to a trail found in the theoretical treatises of the period, which shows the relationships of the quadratura painting with the then newly introduced projection geometry and the related mathematical concept of quadratura, which appeared at the close of the sixteenth century. The author points out that the quadratura painting combines not only different conventions of illusionist painting but it merges with illusionist architecture and the art of scenography. It uses in an original way the hybrid perspective (characteristic of the seventeenth century) of building the space of side stage, which combines perspectivae artifi cialis with their opposite – perspectivae naturalis. The present study interprets quadratura painting not only in its relationship with architecture but it also sees it as a non-historical problem theme of Gesamtkunstwerk, in association with other components of the baroque topos of theatrum mundi, which treats being as a total or comprehensive work of art.
From this point of view, quadratura painting appears to be an effi cient instrument for the self-staging of political programmes in a baroque absolutist Europe, which operates according to the interpretation of the methodology of baroque rhetoric and appeals fi rst of all to the senses of the spectators in order to thereby impress them, and make them internally moved and convinced.
10.2478/v10075-012-0006-6
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Article 07PL: Mapa jako dzieło sztuki i źródło ikonograficzne
EN: A Map as A Work of Art and Iconographic Source
131-144

Irena Rolska


Instytut Historii Sztuki KUL

Old maps and atlases are among some of the most valuable works of art. For many centuries they have been sought after not only for purely practical reasons but also as collector’s items. A map is also one of the sources used nowadays by the art historian, historians of urbanism and architecture, students of the history and foundations of families, or by the costume studies scholar. Maps are useful in restoring occasional art, reconstructing ceremonies associated with religious ceremonials (e.g. the holy picture coronation ceremonies) and secular rites (ceremonial arrivals of monarchs). Of greatest value to the art historian are fi rst of all copperplate maps, in particular those showing the views of towns and outlines of buildings.
A map contains concise and accurate information about the world around us and its history. However, when treated as a historical source it has to be interpreted and, if possible, compared with written sources. The development of cartography depended on political events, in particular military ones, but also on economic occurrences and geographical discoveries. Very soon cartography was able to utilize progress in various branches of science and technology, with the invention of print as the leading branch. It was also subordinated to art: graphic art and painting. The most magnifi cent period in the development of cartography was in the years 1500-1700 when maps were true works of art.
One of the most valuable iconographic sources concerning Polish towns and above all illustrating their historical monuments as well as inhabitants is the work Civitates orbis terrarium (1617) by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg. Towns and also the pictures of magnate residences and churches in Poland and Lithuania were shown on the maps made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by Tomasz Makowski, Fryderyk Getkan, Józef Naronowicz-Naroński, Guillaume le Vasseur de Beauplan, Erik J. Dahlbergh, Pierre Ricaud de Tirregaille, Giovanni Antonio Rizzi Zannoni, Jakub T. Marstaller, Franciszek Florian Czaki and Herman Karol de Perthées. In the collections of Polish collectors in the eighteenth century – in the libraries of King Stanisław August Poniatowski, of Józef Jabłonowski, and of Bishop Józef Andrzej Załuski – there were not only maps illustrating the Polish and Lithuanian territories but also the works of well-known European cartographers of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries.
10.2478/v10075-012-0007-5
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Article 08PL: Symbolika klejnotów miłości, przyjaźni i braterstwa
EN: The Symbolism of Jewelry of Love, Friendship and Brotherhood
145-157

Ewa Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Jewelry was given as gifts from time immemorial: as tokens of love, to show friendship, or to confi rm the contracts/treaties concluded. On some of them there were special signs, symbols and engravings, owing to which we can identify their original function and purpose. Some signs, symbols and jewelry forms, repeated for hundreds of years, have survived until today; in many cases they have preserved their unchanged shape.
Already in the ancient time the symbolism of love developed motifs which carried love messages, many of which (motifs) are still relevant and still repeated in jewelry. These are, for example, effi gies of the god of love, Eros, or Heracles knot, rings with engraved love adages, images of the divine couple of Mars and Venus, their son Cupid with a bow and arrows, or of the burning torch – a symbol of marriage. Of Roman origin is the annulus pronubus, made of iron, without precious stones, in token of confi rmation of the marriage contract. The representations dating back to the Roman times are those of the hand pinching the ear, with the engraving “Remember me” placed on the jewel. The ear was regarded until the twelfth century as the home of emotions and memory before it was “discovered’ that it was the heart that preserves remembrance and feelings. Since then until the present the heart has been one of the most popular motifs in love symbolism. A long history, going back as far as the ancient Roman times, is a characteristic of jewels with the motif of two clasped hands, called dextarium iunctio, which initially stood for the contract of promise of marriage made by the betrothed couple. With time, the functions of the motif of joined hands broadened. Jewels with such images could symbolize friendship, love, brotherhood, or engagement. Immensely popular were jewels with monograms, miniature portrait painted on ivory, or silhouettes, which were often combined with hair curls. A variety of jewels with miniature portraits were jewels with the images of an eye. Such a jewel was called “the eye of love”. Popular jewelry motifs in the service of love were also representations of doves, “messengers of love”, which symbolized pure love.
10.2478/v10075-012-0008-4
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Article 01PL: Kino przed kinem – wczesnorenesansowe początki ruchomych konfabulowanych obrazów. Uwagi o dwóch kartach z manuskryptu Giovanniego Fontany Bellicorum instrumentorum Liber
EN: Cinema before Cinema – The Early-Renaissance Beginnings of Confabulated Moving Pictures. Remarks on Two Pages from the Manuscript of Giovanni Fontana Bellicorum instrumentorum Liber
9-37

Marek Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

The article presents an interpretation of two pages from a technological Renaissance manuscript by a Venetian physician and engineer, Giovanni de Fontana (1395-1455) – the treatise Bellicorum instrumentorum Liber, stored at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich (BSB Code.icon. 242), and dated to 1420-1430. Fontana’s projects with picturetexts Castellum umbrarum [The Castle of Shadows] and Apparientia nocturna [Night Appearance] are the starting point in Europe of the history of optical projections of confabulated moving pictures. Europe had already known three techniques of production of moving (motion) pictures (apart from hypnosis, hallucinations, trance, and ecstatic visions): camera obscura, mirror refl ection and projection of shadows as well as the natural optical phenomenon of Fata Morgana in the south of European Continent, but these produced real-time optical projections of moving pictures; they showed a copy of the really existing environment. Fontana’s ideas, however, opened a prospect of realizing the concept of projection of artifi cially produced and recorded diapositives that could be repeatedly screened at any time as kinetic pictures. In the fi eld of production of moving pictures this was a technological and media breakthrough, which paved the way to modern cinema and the electronic media.
The author discusses the scientifi c, aesthetic, esoteric, technological, psycho- and sociocultural as well as media-related themes of this issue. He also deals with the problem of reproduction of the communication codes used by Fontana, characteristic of his epoch but later abandoned, and tries to reinterpret his designs in their light. Moreover, he attempts to make a virtual reconstruction of Fontana’s Castle of Shadows as a cubature object in the digital 3 D space, which makes the problem of the reception of Fontana’s ideas more intelligible. The author also examines the picture-texts in question from the spectator’s perspective and discusses the ontological aspect of the projections of phantoms of light and shadows.
Fontana’s designs, like other products of magnifi cent fi fteenth-century engineering (e.g. the structure of Brunelleschi’s dome), were a kind of testimony to the competence of the human intellect. They were associated with the titles of ingegneri or ingeniatores, which shows Fontana and his contemporary constructors-inventors as men of intellect, geniuses, and the constructors of new, smart devices. These terms are the track leading to the forgotten trend of the magnifi cent art of kinetic visual objects, only fragmentarily preserved until the present, in which Fontana’s contemporaries saw the refl ection of the glory of human inventiveness.
10.2478/v10075-012-0009-3
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Article 02PL: Olgi Boznańskiej widoki Paryża
EN: Olga Boznańska’s Views of Paris
39-51

Dorota Kudelska


Instytut Historii Sztuki KUL

The achievements of the eminent Polish painter Olga Boznańska (1865-1940) include very few pictures with city views – an absolute minority. Most of the city views by Boznańska are views from windows; the artist painted them less often from the pedestrian’s position. They range between two different conventions of presenting the town, which come from the early and late 19th century. The fi rst is the German tradition, which the artist encountered and became acquainted with in Munich – one with Romantic roots in the Dresden school (inter alia in the works by Caspar David Friedrich). The second way of looking at the town was the then contemporary trend in French paining, with which Boznańska became acquainted already before she came to live permanently in Paris, defi ned as open air painting and developing from the late 1870s in the works by impressionists and supporters of Salons of the Independent Painters (inter alia Claude Monet, or Auguste Renoir). In her pictures of views the artist utilized both traditions in a specifi c way.
Boznańska’s oldest known view of Paris shows Les Invalides [Church of the Invalids] (1899); the next were: Widok Paryża [A View of Paris] (1899), Cour de Dragon (ca. 1900), Plac Ternes [Place de Ternes] (1903), another Widok Paryża [A View of Paris] (1903), Widok z okna [A View from the Window] (1903), Ulica w Paryżu [A Street in Paris] (1906) and Widok z pracowni [A View from the Studio] (1907). Paris tends to be different and ambiguous in these pictures. Not only because the artist does not always show places easy to identify: in each case, although in different ways, Boznańska emphasized the subjectivity of view. The artist did not like the idea of unrefl ectively duplicating the French instructions of how to present modern metropolises. None of her known pictures today of Paris shows popular depictions with long metropolitan perspectives and a swarm of moving fi gures. All of them, however, use the plasticity of forms, which Boznańska was able to develop precisely in Paris – and only there. Preserving the elements of the composition of “a room with a view”, the artist showed the variability of Paris in the language of her own, delicate palette derived from postimpressionism. She told the old story about the advantage of the artist’s view over the reality, in the new language of vivid forms.
10.2478/v10075-012-0010-x
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Article 03PL: Lubelskie dzieło Oskara Sosnowskiego
EN: The Lublin Work by Oskar Sosnowski
53-68

Jerzy Żywicki


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Oskar Sosnowski (1880-1939) was one of the most outstanding architects active in Poland in the fi rst half of the 20th century. He was also well-known for his artistic and scientifi c achievements and for his organizing work. He was the founder and Head of the Department of Polish Architecture at Warsaw Technical University’s Faculty of Architecture. His life was connected with Warsaw, where he fi nished school and then graduated from the Architectural and Construction Faculty at the Polytechnic Institute, started a family, and worked professionally. From 1906 he took part in architectural competitions. He gained successes (distinctions and awards) in competitions to design the manor house in at Opinogóra (1908), the Immaculate Conception of Holy Virgin Mary church in Grójecka street in Warsaw (1909) and the church at Orłów Murowany (1910). Sosnowski’s architectural achievements comprise over 50 items: designs and realizations, and, additionally, a series of fantasy drawings thematically related to architecture. The overwhelming majority of Sosnowski’s attainments were designs of contemporary churches. He won particular renown for the design of St. Roch church in Białystok, in which he drew from historical forms combined with a modern, reinforced concrete structure. Sosnowski designed a total of 17 churches.
One of them, still without a reliable monograph, is St. Michael the Archangel church in Lublin. Efforts to have the church built began in 1900. The Ministry of Internal Affairs issued its consent in 1906. However, fi rst construction work began almost 30 years later. Previously, it was held back by the outbreak of World War I, disputes over the location of the church, and by the lack of suffi cient funds. Meanwhile, the concept of the shape of the planned church also changed. The initial intention was that its form should resemble the appearance of Lublin’s former parish church, the Gothic St. Michael’s church pulled down in 1856 because it was in ruin. Finally, a decision was made to choose the modernist church designed by Sosnowski. Its construction begun in 1930 lasted until 1946, while interior decoration works were also carried out in the subsequent years.
The St. Michael the Archangel church is a monumental brick and ferroconcrete structure, the main elements of its mass are: the bulk of the three-aisle basilica, the transept with distinctly protruding lateral arms, the presbytery as high as the central nave, and the four-sided bell tower over the intersection of the aisles. In the bulk and decorations of the St. Michael the Archangel church many historicizing elements and borrowings from Sosnowski’s earlier architectural works can be distinguished. The whole should be seen as a highly successful combination of the motifs of historicizing architecture with modernity.
10.2478/v10075-012-0011-9
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Article 04PL: Czas w fi lmie. Część I – Kinematograf i nowoczesność. Paradoksy związane z fi lmowym zapisem czasu
EN: Time in Film. Part I – Cinematograph and Modernity. Paradoxes Connected with the Film Recording of Time
69-96

Marcin Maron


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

The two-part article Time in Film (Part I Cinematograph and Modernity, Part II Transformation of Cinematograph into Cinema) is a kind of survey, with the author’s comment, of the most important philosophical and fi lm-studies conceptions which investigate this subject. Film time is examined in two principal aspects: as time arising from the possibility of recording reality by the camera and transforming it (reality) into moving pictures (the fi lm-reality relation), and as time connected with a fi lm’s narrative capabilities (the fi lm-spectator relation). The discussion on this subject is accompanied by a belief in the rich and surprising possibilities of transforming time by man (the creator and the spectator), which fi lm affords. This determines the mental qualities of fi lm time, which should be examined in close relationship to human temporality.
The essential subject of Part I (Cinematograph and Modernity) of the article presented in this volume is the mysterious character of the fi lm recording of time which stems from the dialectics of continuity and discontinuity. The discourse begins by recalling two classic theories defi ning fi lm as a temporal art: Roman Ingarden’s phenomenological theory and Jan Mukarovsky’s semiotic theory. Both the theories defi ne the layered character of a fi lm work and its temporal span, which makes the theories similar. For Ingarden, however, the time of a fi lm work is fi rst of all associated with the temporality of the perceiving subject, while Mukarovsky argues that the most signifi cant aspect of fi lm time is one connected with the temporal span of the work as a sign. The two approaches stem from two different conceptions and cognitive possibilities, with which we also deal in the case of reception of a fi lm: the possibility of direct inspection or symbolic (sign) representation.
The article then discusses the “linking” between the creation of fi lm visibility, motion and time, as well as the main paradox of the fi lm recording of time, i.e. the phenomenon of creating an illusion of continuity of motion (and time) with the use of motionless pictures (movie camera and projection apparatus). This paradox is referred, inter alia, to the philosophical conceptions advanced by Henri Bergson, who developed his own refl ection on the continuity of time, motion, and specifi city of human perception. Bergson’s criticism of modern concepts of time as linear and divisible, which originated from empirical and rational tendencies of the epoch, found its reference in the possibilities provided by the mechanism of action of the cinematograph right after it was invented.
The paper then discusses expectations linked with the possibilities observed in the mechanical way of recording reality and time in the early silent cinema fi lms (the so-called cinema of attraction). In their case, the duality of fi lm time stemmed from the paradoxical properties provided by cinematographic reproduction and its impact on the spectator. On the one hand, it manifested a tendency to standardize and systematize phenomena and time, while on the other hand, the sphere of indeterminacy or even unawareness made itself felt. This part of the article is based on studies by Mary Ann Doane, who refers inter alia to the conceptions of Walter Benjamin, Sigmund Freud, and to Étienne-Jules Marey’s photography experiments. According to M. A. Doane, the early cinema (Edison, Lumiere brothers, and Melies) was characterized by two opposing tendencies: a characteristic tendency of modernity to record and organize the fl ow of present time (standardization) and at the same time a fascination with unpredictable phenomena (novelty). It was only at the next stage of cinema that temporal unpredictability was adjusted by means of narrative patterns, which
10.2478/v10075-012-0012-8
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Article 05PL: Magnifi cemus in cantico – przyczynki do problemu atrybucji w zespole rękopisów 5272 Biblioteki Jagiellońskiej
EN: Magnifi cemus in cantico – Contributions to the Problem of Attribution in the Set of Manuscripts no. 5272 in the Jagiellonian Library
100-119

Aleksandra Patalas


Instytut Muzykologii UJ

The set of music manuscripts kept at the Jagiellonian Library, with the catalogue number 5272, is one of the most important sources for the history of Polish music culture at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. It comprises 55 church concertos, most of which being anonymous pieces. A comparison with the seventeenth-century printed versions resulted in the identifi cation of the authors of two compositions: Magnifi cemus in cantico and Tubae ferales.
The fi rst, noted down in the manuscript of 1674, previously regarded as a work by the Polish composer Jacek Różycki (kapellmeister at the royal court since the reign of King Jan Kazimierz [John Casimir II Vasa]) is a musical piece composed by Giovanni Felice Sances (the emperor’s musician in Vienna), which he published in his authorial collection Motetti a 1, 2, 3 e 4 voci (Venice 1638). In the manuscript BJ 5272 the copyist Kazimierz Piliński recorded this concerto with a modifi ed bass part reduced to the tenor range, which resulted in errors or illogical solutions in the music text. It turned out that similar adaptations were used in the Exsultemus omnes, another concerto signed by Różycki, which was copied into the same manuscript and at the same time as Magnifi cemus in cantico.
During the studies on Różycki’s music, it was ruled out that he allegedly had a middle name – Sebastian. Information was also verifi ed about him being closely related to Stanisław Różycki, the Łęczyca deputy provincial governor (voivode).
The second work, Tubae ferales, previously regarded as a piece composed in the Commonwealth of Poland at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, turned out to be a concerto by Giovanni Battista Bassani, from his collection of Concerti sacri. Motetti a 1, 2, 3, e 4 voci con Violini e senza, op. 11 (Bologna 1692). This printed version was defi nitely well-known in Poland, as demonstrated not only by two copies of Tubae ferales kept at the Jagiellonian Library and one stored at the Diocese Library in Sandomierz but also by copies of other pieces from the Concerti sacri collection preserved among the music works from the repertoire of the collegiate bands in Łowicz and Grodzisk Wielkopolski.
We may expect that studies on the manuscript set no. BJ 5272, including the comparison with the content of music prints, will provide further conclusions regarding the problem of the authorship of anonymous compositions and widen the knowledge on the reception of foreign repertoire in the Commonwealth of Poland at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries.
10.2478/v10075-012-0013-7
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Article 06PL: Cechy weneckie w Pensieri adriarmonici Giacoma Facca
EN: Venetian Features in Giacomo Facco’s Pensieri adriarmonici
121-141

Piotr Wilk


Instytut Muzykologii UJ

The collection of Pensieri adriarmonici by the Italian composer Giacomo Facco (1676-1753) has not been studied in detail to date. When the composer published it in two books in 1716 and 1719, he had already worked for the Spanish Crown for twenty years. By introducing a reference to the Adriatic on the title page and by calling himself Musico Veneto, Facco in a way confi rmed the connection of the twelve concertos in the collection with the musical tradition of his native Venice. A comparative analysis shows a genuine, close affi nity between Pensieri adriarmonici and the Venetian concerto compositions by Tomaso Albinoni, Antonio Vivaldi, Benedetto Marcello, Giorgio Gentili and Giulio Taglietti in respect of performers, the form and type of performing of concerts, and even the melody of themes.
10.2478/v10075-012-0014-6
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Article 07PL: Polska recepcja Wagnera i Mahlera w latach sześćdziesiątych i siedemdziesiątych XX wieku w kontekście odradzania się postaw romantycznych u krytyków muzycznych i kompozytorów
EN: The Polish Reception of Wagner and Mahler in 1960s and 1970s in the Context of the Revival of Romantic Attitudes among Music Critics and Composers
143-154

Magdalena Dziadek


Instytut Muzykologii UJ

The article reconstructs the main stages of the revival in postwar Poland of interest in the music of Richard Wagner and Gustav Mahler. This process, reconstructed on the basis of music criticism sources (inter alia from the “Ruch Muzyczny” and “Tygodnik Powszechny” magazines), was connected with a more general phenomenon, which was the re-emergence of Romantic attitudes proceeding very clearly since the early 1960s. The impulses to rediscover Romanticism by Polish composers and critics (led by Bohdan Pociej) were sought, on the one hand, in them being tired of the avant-garde in music, and on the other, in the impact of the social atmosphere of the late 1960s, when, in connection with the celebration of the millennium of the Polish state and with the March 1968 events, a general demand arose for traditional values. “Value”, “sense”, “truth”, “freedom” – are the key words which defi ne this process and at the same time they are the slogans of the then discussion about the music of Wagner and Mahler.
10.2478/v10075-012-0015-5
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Article 08PL: Praktyczne i teoretyczne wymiary muzycznego technokratyzmu Glenna Goulda
EN: Practical and Theoretical Dimensions of Glenn Gould’s Music Technocratism
155-179

Maciej Białas


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

Although Glenn Gould remains known to a large number of music lovers mainly as an eccentric performer, as frequently worshipped with idolatrous admiration as denied any talent and reason for his uncommon, original interpretations, the academic circles also see him as a brilliant thinker who left behind impressive albeit kaleidoscopic achievements. One of the most controversial issues over which discussions on Gould are still going on among the academics even today is his music technocratism. Throughout almost all his life Gould manifested his apologetic attitude to the recording technology: on the one hand, he tried bold experiments with recorded music, while on the other, he promoted radical if not iconoclastic ideas concerning the all-round and benefi cial infl uence of the recording medium on musical culture.
In the part Praktyka [Practice] the author discusses the techniques which Gould developed in the recording studio: techniques of musical montage, sound correction, or “acoustic choreography”; he also refers to Gould’s experiments with the quadraphonic sound system, work on “counterpoint radio documentaries”, his endeavors in fi lm, or attempts to enrich music with visual elements. In the part Teoria [Theory], the author presents Gould’s technocratic ideas closely corresponding to his accomplishments in the studio. He shows what Gould valued most highly in the recording medium, how he diagnosed the effect of recorded music on performers, composers, and the audience; he also examines where Gould saw the moral dimension of technology, and what role he ascribed to technology in music education.
Finding exceptional correspondence between practices used by Gould in the recording studio and their extensive theoretical basis, the author perceives Gould as a great musical visionary-futurist, who outlined a prophetic vision of re-creation of the musical world.
10.2478/v10075-012-0016-4
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Volume 08 - 2010

Article 01PL: Silhouette - XVIII-wieczny portret sylwetowy i źródła jego powstania
EN: Silhouette - the 18th-Century Silhouette Portrait and Its Origins
9-19

Ewa Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

In the latter half of the 18th century Europe witnessed the period of fascination with the portrait, in which the individual features of the model were defined by the contour of facial profile, filled with dark, usually black color, and drawn on a contrasting light background. Portraits with dark-contoured facial silhouettes replaced the traditionally painted pictures. They were most often of miniature size, which made it possible to place them on snuffboxes, brooches, pendants, earrings, and bracelets; they also adorned buttons, buckles, pins, and watches. The invention of silhouette portraits is most often attributed to Étienne de Silhouette (1709-1767), a French finance minister. However, Silhouette's position as the first inventor of silhouette portraits is sometimes challenged because the first silhouette portraits were made already a hundred years earlier in the 1660s and 1670s. It is believed that for the formation of the silhouette portrait, figures in the Chinese shadow theater may have been of importance: the theater was popular in the East as early as in the 3rd century BC, and in Europe from the end of the 17th century. A significant contribution to the rise of silhouette portraits may have also been spectacles with magic lanterns, the devices that bewitched European audiences since their first shows in the 1640s. Moreover, the development of silhouette portraits may have been influenced by the qualities of contour drawing discovered by Europe in the mid-18th century on the wave of interest in antiquity and in the Greek skiagram. The problems connected with the silhouette were investigated by Johann Caspar Lavater (1741-1801) in his studies. Interpretations of the shadow cast by the human figure resulted in the development of a discipline known as physiognomy and in the development of theoretical studies, which tried to read the moral and mental properties of a given man from the silhouette of a human figure. Tremendous demand for silhouette portraits in the 18th century led to the invention of mechanical devices that enabled production of any number of such portraits. One of the most popular devices was the machine known as physionotrace. The virtues of silhouette portraits lost their importance, however, when in 1839 Louis Daguerre (1787-1851) presented his new device: a camera. It exceeded in precision and image fidelity not only handicraft portraits made in all techniques known at the time but also all known "machines for drawing silhouettes", which soon slipped into complete oblivion.
10.2478/v10075-011-0001-3
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Article 02PL: Kształcenie kadr dla potrzeb Królestwa Polskiego w zakresie architektury, budownictwa oraz inżynierii cywilnej
EN: Education of Personnel for the Needs of the Kingdom of Poland in Architecture, Construction, and Civil Engineering
21-50

Jerzy Żywicki


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

The intense urbanization and building development during the period of the Kingdom of Poland was accompanied by the demand for specialists necessary for the implementation of investment projects connected with the conversion of various public buildings, and construction of macadam roads, bridges or canals. Well-trained architects-designers were needed as well as a large range of practicing personnel: builders, engineers, technicians, and surveyors. In order to meet so diverse needs for specialist personnel, it was necessary to establish appropriate vocational education. Each of the national liberation uprisings produced highly significant changes in the educational system in the Kingdom of Poland. That is why the presentation and evaluation of the possibilities of training personnel for the needs in architecture, construction or civil engineering in 1815-1915 has to be conducted in three stages. Stage one covers the constitutional period of the Kingdom of Poland, stage two - the period between uprisings, and stage three describes the years after the January uprising. It is also necessary to mention foreign institutions of higher learning where Polish young people studied architecture and engineering. From 1816 on there were Examination Boards, whose task was to review candidates for state offices, including posts in construction and in civil engineering. During the period of the Congress Kingdom of Poland architecture was taught at the highest level at the Universities of Warsaw and of Vilna. For several years architecture could also be studied at the Preparatory School for Technical Studies, and from 1829 at the Polytechnic Institute in Warsaw. Many architects and engineers owed their professional training to military schools. After the November Uprising the Universities of Vilna and Warsaw as well as the Polytechnic Institute were closed down. Military schools and secondary vocational education were also eliminated. Because of the lack of any technical schools, vocational training was conducted in the form of various courses. This was the status of education in the Practical Building School in Warsaw. After it was closed down in 1838 the only place where it was possible to receive technical education was two-year Additional Courses organized in 1836-1846 at the Warsaw's Gimnazjum Gubernialne (Provincial High School). From 1841 training in technical sciences was offered at the Gimnazjum Realne (High School) in Warsaw. In 1844 it was combined with the School of Fine Arts, whose scope of education also included training in architecture. With the educational reform in 1862, the School of Fine Arts acquired the status of a higher education institution and autonomy. In 1862 the Polytechnic Institute opened in Puławy, with one of its departments training builders. Shortly after the January Uprising the Kingdom of Poland was deprived of institutions of higher education. The School of Fine Arts was closed down to be replaced by the so-called Drawing Course, whose curriculum included elements of architectural training. In 1869 Warsaw's Main School was closed down after seven years of functioning - its graduates included many building specialists. In 1898 the Polytechnic Institute was set up in Warsaw. One of its three departments was the department of construction and engineering. Starting from the 1860s and 1870s, young people from the Kingdom of Poland, who wanted to obtain education in architecture and civil engineering, chose first of all the Polytechnic Institute in Riga and the Institute of Civil Engineering in Petersburg and the Petersburg Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, also the Technical Academy in Lvov, the Technical Institute in Krakow, as well as polytechnic schools in Vienna, Zurich, Munich, Karlsruhe, Liège, Ghent, and the National School of Bridges and Roads as well as the Ecole Centrale (Central School) in Paris.
10.2478/v10075-011-0002-2
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Article 03PL: "Idea pięknej książki" w dwudziestoleciu międzywojennym w Polsce
EN: "The Idea of Beautiful Book" in the Interwar Period in Poland
51-63

Anna Boguszewska


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

The development of the "idea of beautiful book" during the interwar period in Poland was supported by many theoretical works devoted to editorial issues. Many authors (inter alia Michał Arct, Przecław Smolik, Bonawentura Lenart, and Karol Homolacs) put forward concrete, specialist postulates concerning the esthetic revival of the book art. This idea was also promoted by such organizations as Book Lovers Society, Ex-Libris Lovers Society, and the Society of Polish Bibliophiles. A significant role was played by publications appearing in specialist periodicals (inter alia in "Grafika Polska (Polish Graphic Art)", "Grafika (Graphic Art)", "Sztuki Piękne (Fine Arts)", "Wiadomości Graficzne (Graphic Art News)", "Technika Graficzna (Graphic Technique)", which often had instructional character. The graphic designs of books, especially their illustrations, were often the work of devoted distinguished artists, inter alia: Jan Bukowski, Edmund Bartłomiejczyk, Stanisław Dębicki, Tadeusz Gronowski, Józef Mehoffer, Stefan Mrożewski, Edward Okuń, Stanisław Ostoja-Chrostowski, Antoni Procajłowicz, Władysław Skoczylas, Zofia Stryjeńska, Ferdynand Ruszczyc, and Henryk Uziembło. Many Polish printed houses significantly enhanced their editorial level, for example the Wacław Anczyc one in Kraków, the Michał Arct firm in Warsaw, the Printing Company "Biblioteka Polska (Polish Library)" in Bydgoszcz, the Św. Wojciech (Adalbert) Publishers in Poznań; and indisputable services in popularizing the art of book were rendered by the Warsaw Book Council. It is also important to note that in the interwar period Polish graphic artists had great successes in the international arena, including book graphics.
10.2478/v10075-011-0003-1
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Article 04PL: Szkice do genezy multimediów i animacji komputerowej
EN: Sketches on the Origin of Multimedia and Computer Animation
65-83

Marek Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych

The multimedia and computer animation are interrelated disciplines. Their common denominator is the computer, which make sit possible to combine different media, thereby integrating many previously separate forms and strategies of communication. Reduced to a binary code, they fuse into a plexus of sensations that stimulate many sensual, cognitive and affective paths of perception, which have an effect on the brain's modalities at the same time. This is a mode of perception close not only to our everyday feeling of the world but also corresponding to the dynamics of our lively imagination. Just as in popular human perception, a significant role is also played in the multimedia by the image, yet it is received not as a static one but as an incessant flow of the stream of changing visual impulses, which makes kinesis and animation important elements of the multimedia. However, because digital animation has at its disposal a broad range of techniques of controlling real mechanical movement or generating motion-illusion pictures, the origin of the multimedia also appears to be thus complex and multidirectional. The directions that usually suggest themselves are performances of the neo-avantgarde of the 1960s, and film, especially film animation, popularly often identified with the term 'animation'. While agreeing with the fact that these relationships occur in many multimedia areas, the author points at the same time to other directions of the origin of the multimedia, including the importance of the early visual mechanical media and the performative character of their spectacles. In this context, a significant point of reference is the rich history of mechanical simulations of forms of life. Automatons with human and animal shapes, whole mechanical theaters driven by a hidden mechanism, whose working can be described with a mathematical algorithm, have absorbed the imagination of the most eminent designers since the ancient times. Another important reference perspective is magic lantern performances. The career of that lantern started in Europe from the 17th century. The interest in it was accompanied by many inventions which contributed to the multi-theme history of that medium, whose height of popularity lasted from the close of the 18th century to the next one. One more interesting theme concerning the origin of the multimedia is the history of a discipline, which is called visual music, and the related ideas of music of colors and instruments of colors, which mechanically modulate hues according to the musical notation. These several themes pertaining to the early visual media point to the often underrated context of multimedia origin. In the royal courts, at fairs and in theaters variétés there were held spectacles arousing general interest, which used media devices. From the point of view of the so-called cultured man these were merely shows of trivial curiosities and contemptible entertainment. However, it was they that opened the visual media to new possibilities. In the ludic form they promoted the inventions of human genius that aimed at the illusion, simulation or representation of the world in as complete manifestations of it as possible. These "frivolous" toys seem too be crucial from the perspective of the origin of a new paradigm of multimedia culture being formed in front of our eyes. The media drawing on that earlier tradition became a vehicle for transforming consciousness, broadening memory, enlarging the knowledge to strengthen the mind and creativity. They simultaneously appeal to all the senses, imitate and enhance the creative abilities of the human mind, at the same time emphasizing the possibility of individual choices, freedom of speech and association, and personal self-expression.
10.2478/v10075-011-0004-0
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Article 05PL: Uniwersyteckie ośrodki kształcenia nauczycieli wychowania plastycznego w latach 1945-1989
EN: University Training Centers for Visual Arts Education Teachers in 1945-1989
83-103

Anna Marta Żukowska


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Among many higher education institutions that trained teachers for conducting classes in visual arts education as a school subject and visual arts classes in out-of-school centers, especially worth noting are universities, where this training was implemented most completely. University-level education in visual arts in 1945-1989 was conducted by Maria Curie Skłodowska University (UMCS) in Lublin, Nicolaus Copernicus University (UMK) in Toruń, and the University of Silesia (UŚ) Branch in Cieszyn. At the UMCS, training teachers in visual arts started in 1973 at the Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology, with the starting of the intramural and extramural professional study program in visual arts education. The strengthening of the position of these study programs contributed to the setting up of the Institute of Art Education in 1976. In the first period of the existence of the Institute of Art Education it consisted of the Department of Painting, Graphic Arts and Sculpture, and the Department of Theory and Pedagogy of Visual Arts Education, which, with time and according to the emerging specificity of teaching individual disciplines, were divided into a larger number of units. In the academic year of 1977/78 the Institute of Art Education made endeavors to acquire the status of a non-faculty institute. These initiatives were realized only in 1989, when the Institute of Art Education started to function with the status of an independent faculty. In the early years of the forming of the Art Faculty at the UMK in Toruń only art education was conducted. Initially, this was the Chair of Fine Arts with six sections at the Faculty of Humanities of the then newly established university, which (the Chair) was transformed into a separate faculty in 1946. In 1950-1968 two study programs were set up at the Faculty of Fine Arts: in art and pedagogy and in preservation and restoration of cultural property. In 1953 the Teaching Lab was set up at the Chair of Drawing, a year later it was transformed into the Department of Methodology of Teaching Drawing and Visual Arts Subjects. In 1969 two institutes were established at the Fine Arts Faculty: the Pedagogical and Arts Institute and the Institute of Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property. In the Pedagogical and Arts Institute the Department of Arts Pedagogy and Development of Visual Forms was setup and in 1972 it was divided into two separate departments. The educational activities in visual arts at the UŚ Branch in Cieszyn began in 1973, when the Department of Visual Arts Education was set up in the then higher education college of pedagogy and arts (without faculties), which offered four-year master's degree programs. In 1977 this UŚ Branch obtained the status of the Pedagogical and Arts Faculty, which enabled the establishment of the Institute of Musical and Visual Arts Education. Four years later the Chair of Visual Arts Education was set up, which was transformed into the Institute of Visual Arts Education in the academic year 1982/1983. In the Institute there were two departments: the Department of Painting and Sculpture, and the Department of Structures of Environment Forming and Graphic Art. The starting of the uniform intramural and extramural master's degree study programs in visual arts education was aimed at training teachers of this subject to work in primary and secondary schools (general education and vocational ones), instructors for visual arts clubs, and experts in this subject. The syllabus of the visual arts course published in 1977 by the Ministry of Science, Higher Education and Technology combined the subjects in the field of visual arts creation (inter alia painting, graphic art, or sculpture) with the study of theoretical and historical subjects. The program was bidirectional: visual arts and pedagogical subjects. The basis was the course in visual arts but the two program parts were to be understood as broadly as possible and to supplement each other.
10.2478/v10075-011-0005-z
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Article 06PL: Instrumenty muzyczne w prywatnych zbiorach muzyków ludowych na Lubelszczyźnie. Z badań nad tradycją muzyczną regionu
EN: Musical Instruments in Private Collections of Folk Musicians in the Lublin Region. Studies on The Musical Tradition of the Region
107-131

Zenon Koter, Agata Kusto


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

Field studies carried out in the Lublin region, documenting the data on musical instruments functioning in folk culture, revealed a fascinating phenomenon, which involves collecting, keeping and building musical instruments by folk musicians. When presenting the musicians, a number of factors were taken into account that could have had an influence on arousing their interest in musical instruments: the circumstances of growing up and contact with musical culture, family background and the local environment, general and individual education (received from amateur musicians in the family or connected with the family circle), participation in the musical life of a local community (inter alia in folkloristic presentations and events), and individual forms of making music. The paper presents the profiles of three folk musicians from the Lublin region (from Tomaszów, Janów and Lubelskie Powiśle microregions) and their collections of musical instruments. The figure of Antoni Bednarz (born 1929) is closely connected to the history of the Bednarz Folk Band, which he co-created. Bednarz keeps and preserves with great care all instruments that are left after the Band's joint music-making, he acquires and buys the ones whose owners are already dead, and he tries to repair or reconstruct them so that they could still be used. Marian Pomorski (born 1944) associates his passion for musicmaking with the Wojciechów (Wojciechowska) Band, although he has been member of the band for several years only - this is a return to his family tradition of making music broken for the period of economic emigration. The set of instruments collected by Pomorski reflects his many-year-long interest in the music of brass bands, in which he played for many years. Zbigniew Butryn (born 1952) is associated with the Dudek Band from Zdziłowice, although his passion for making music and making musical instruments does not stem from his family traditions. Butryn still plays with the Dudek Band, he also runs the instrument-making workshop (mainly small drums and suki [string instruments]), attended by young people from Poland and abroad.
10.2478/v10075-011-0006-y
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Article 07PL: Pomiędzy fachową a popularną krytyką muzyczną
EN: Between Professional and Popular Musical Criticism
133-153

Maciej Białas


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

There is no doubt that with the development of modern society, the cultural status of music, especially grand music, has changed. This had its effect on the way of writing about music - the manner of pursuing this activity as respectable as it is peculiar. Musical criticism in the broad sense had thereby to face new challenges. The author brings back to memory the history of musical criticism, recalling the names of the people who had a decisive impact on its formation; he tries to look into its essence and problems musical criticism is grappling with. He perceives here two lines of its development: one is associated with the development of musicology and specialist press, the other - with the development of popular press and musical public relations. On this basis he distinguishes two kinds of musical criticism: professional and popular, and shows their determinants. He also settles the question whether writing about music in the public-relations manner is musical criticism at all. These reflections lead to the conclusion that in the present-day world, which abandons great music more and more often and which is poor in music lovers, esthetically sterile, practicing popular musical criticism makes much more sense than doing specialist criticism despite the unquestionable value of the latter.
10.2478/v10075-011-0007-x
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Article 08PL: System wartości młodzieży kształcącej się muzycznie. Na przykładzie studentów Akademii Muzycznej w Łodzi i Wydziału Artystycznego UMCS
EN: The Value System of Young People Studying Music. As Exemplified by the Łódź Academy of Music and UMCS Faculty of Arts Students
155-191

Joanna Jemielnik


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

The basis of theoretical and research discussion in the present study is the connection between music education with the process of development of the value hierarchy. The specificity of professional music education is close, very often individual contact of the teacher (master) and with the student. This situation creates a special opportunity for influencing not only the student's artistic and performing skills as well as sensitizing him/her to esthetic values, but it can also be highly significant in building a mature personality and attitudes to life. The theoretical part of the paper shows selected ways of defining the concept of value, and the issue of hierarchy of values depending on the scientific discipline within which research problems related to these issues are considered. The empirical part present the analysis and conclusions arising from surveys conducted among the group of fourth- and fifth-year students pursuing different music study programs at the Academy of Music in Łódź and in the Faculty of Art Institute of Music at the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. Two basic instruments were used in the surveys: one - the survey questionnaire, which served to collect data concerning the background, study specialization, stages of music education and significant artistic/musical achievements during the course of studies; the other instrument was the system (scales) of terminal and instrumental values designed by Milton Rokeach. The article briefly outlines the assumptions of the American psychologist's theory of values and then presents the theory's interpretive abilities in the context of problems associated with artistic education. The Rokeach scales turned out to be an interesting instrument for showing and comparing the value hierarchy of the student group surveyed. Statistical analyses and interpretation of the results obtained made it possible to discern the essential goals, behaviors and life attitudes and the comparative relation between preferences for the values selected by respondents and the music education they took up. Although the results of the survey indicate the convergence of conclusions with analyses of this type carried out in recent years in Poland, they showed without doubt specific preferences for values characteristic of respondents connected with various ways of obtaining music education.
10.2478/v10075-011-0008-9
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Article 01PL: Żółty ptak klepak i polskie ślady mechanicznego życia
EN: Yellow Bird klepak and Polish Traces of Mechanical Life
9-25

Marek Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Klepak is a wooden kinetic toy produced since the 1930s in the vicinity of Leżajsk. Its attractiveness consists in the fact that it moves its wings "itself". The "mystery" of animation lies in the crank mechanism which converts rotary movements of the wheels into oscillatory movements of the wings. From the point of view of mechanics klepak is a semi-automatic machine. Many similar semi-automatic machines have been produced before, including metal toys made from the first half of the 19th century in factories in Nuremberg and America. The Croatian klepetajka, produced from the 19th century onwards, in Hrvatsko Zagorie region, is very close to klepak. Klepak is traditionally painted yellow. It is a very rare color in the world of Polish birds. So why has it been chosen and why is it so consequently used? The historical context should give a hypothetical answer. From the Baroque organ front of the basilica of Observant Friars in Leżajsk a gold eagle-machine, which moves its wings, looks down and bows during consecration. The yellow glitter of the bird klepak may represent the preciousness of the gold of the mechanical eagle. Because klepak, reduced to the position of a toy, is a relict of the art, flourishing since he ancient times, of building automatic machines, kinetic sculptures imitating living organisms by their appearance and action. The ability to move "on their own" was stressed in this category of artifacts and it was treated as the simulation of the basic property of nature. Today we notice the art of illusion in it. In the past these were not illusion but manifestation of life and they were treated as symbolic-magic figures with all metaphysical implications. B. J. Chmielowski (1700-1763), the author of the first Polish general encyclopedia Nowe Ateny albo Akademia wszelkiej scyencyi pełna (New Athens or Academy full of All Science) […] parts 1-2, Lvov 1745-1746, wrote about them in the same spirit. What is art for us, for him it belonged to the domain of knowledge described in the chapter titled Of Magic or Sorcery. Chmielowski twice touched upon the problem of independently moving man-made figures. Once, when he described the field of natural magic, the second time when he discussed artificial magic. He distinguished, in this way, two routes of creation of "artificial life": the animistic line in which to animate - meant to breathe the spirit or soul into the matter; and the mechanical line which treated the animate world as a kind of machine. Both routes can be traced within the last three thousand years. Texts edited in the 10th century BC in Salomon's court started their history. It is the description of the creation of a human being (Genesis) and reports about Salomon's throne surrounded by the menagerie of animals-automatic machines (Targum, Book of Esther). Those texts started the history of two interweaving concepts of creation of artificial life. They formed an aura in which the eagle from basilica in Leżajsk was born at the end of the 17th century. The author of the article, stressing the Polish motive, shows its place in the history of automatic machines. In the shadow of this great history the klepak bird, which strikes us with crude workmanship, became even more inconspicuous. But this modest kinetic toy is a distant echo of a brave idea which absorbed human minds from the beginning of civilization - the idea of creating mechanical life.
10.2478/v10075-011-0009-8
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Article 02PL: Lwów w ceremoniale Trybunału Koronnego prowincji małopolskiej
EN: Lvov in the Ceremonial of the Crown Tribunal in Małopolska Province
27-41

Krzysztof Gombin


Instytut Historii Sztuki KUL

At the beginning of the reign of Stanislaus Augustus the Crown Tribunal which had so far sat in sessions in Piotrków and Lublin was divided into two separate Tribunals - Tribunal of Wielkopolska Province (which included Mazowsze [Masovia]) and Tribunal of Małopolska (which included Crown Ruthenia). The last one sat in sessions in Lublin and in Lvov. The Lublin Tribunal at the moment of division was almost two hundred years old so the ceremonial of the Lvov Tribunal was based on it. I. Krasicki became the President of the reformed Tribunal and I. Cetner became its Speaker. The Tribunal sat in sessions in Lvov, at first in the Dominican monastery then in the lower castle. The archive of the Tribunal was kept in the Wallachian Orthodox church next to the Dominican buildings. Lustracya generalna (…) ziemi lwowskiej [General Inspection (…) of Lvov Land] from 1765 provided information concerning the appearance of the courtroom; it was a large room with a new floor and newly plastered walls, with benches situated along them. In the above inventory there is no information about the décor of the room but it can be reconstructed by comparing it with the décor of the Court Room of Lublin Town Hall. Décors of courtrooms in Lvov were probably much more modest than those in Lublin but some basic attributes had to be present because they were stressed in speeches in the Tribunal. The cross, the portrait of the King, possibly the portraits of Stefan Batory and Jan Zamoyski and former Speakers and Tribunal Presidents which emphasized The tribunal's historic continuity. The Speaker's and the President's aim was to limit the splendor of the Tribunal. An inner regulation (so called Monita secreta) was passed on the initiative of Krasicki: it was to discipline the Tribunal deputies during sessions. The Speaker and the President tried to limit feasts and revels which were inseparable attributes of sessions. Tribunals in Lublin and Piotrków set the tradition that the Speaker and the Presidents moved around under military escort. During Lvov term this tradition was largely reduced. As a consequence of this limitation, President Krasicki was attacked in Lvov by a group of drunken gentry, which was an unprecedented event.
10.2478/v10075-011-0010-2
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Article 03PL: Liryka przedmiotowości. "Krytyka poetów" wobec malarstwa Jana Tarasina
EN: The Lyric of Objectiveness. "Criticism of Poets" and the Jan Tarasin's Painting
43-56

Piotr Majewski

The present article discusses selected critical texts of 1956-1972 concerning the painting of one of the "classics of modernity" - Jan Tarasin (1926-2009). The author tries to reconstruct some features of the language of Polish art criticism after the period of socialist realism. While reading the critical texts concerning Tarasin's painting, the author noticed that a certain interpretation canon was established comparatively quickly: it contained a set of expressions which described the pictures of the artist; especially the term "objectiveness" was frequently used. The critical vocabulary was full of all kinds of expressions indicating vagueness, understatement and semantic mysteriousness of this painting as well as its lyrical subjectivity and use of metaphors. On the other hand, the critics emphasized the sensuous and material aspects of his painting in many ways, trying to capture them by means of a descriptive language.
10.2478/v10075-011-0011-1
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Article 04PL: Pojęcie visual literacy w kontekście socjologii sztuki. Dzieło sztuki jako lustro społeczne
EN: The Notion of Visual literacy in the Context of Sociology of Art. The Work of Art as a Social Mirror
57-74

Małgorzata Stępnik


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

The purpose of the present article is to show the rudimentary assumptions and the main search directions in the field of sociology of art. The author also emphasizes the question of the parallels linking the sociological reflection on art with the problems centered the around the concept of visual literacy. The text is first of all concerned with the person of the artist and characteristic mythology of creativity; it contains both references to P. Bourdieu's already classic writings and to more recent conceptions formulated by V. Zolberg and H. Becker. Another section considers the subject of the work of art as a culture text and the "center of new social relationships". In this case the author has used S. Ossowski's pioneering studies. Selected case studies from Polish and English-language literature aptly illustrate the second constituent of the title: The Work of Art as A Social Mirror. The last section of the article deals with the social reception of J. Duda-Gracz's metaphoric painting. The author has largely based her considerations on A. Matuchniak-Krasuska's writings: she refers to the results of the latter's studies and formulations associated with the "mirror model" and the "floodlight model". She also cites the statements by her students, which distinctly differ from the previous interpretations of the same pictures. During her discussion the author concludes that the knowledge of visual signs and codes is just as essential as the knowledge of words and grammar of verbal language because visual grammar constitutes a substantial part of the world of culture. That is why proper esthetic education should be conducted at all stages of school learning.
10.2478/v10075-011-0012-0
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Article 05PL: Styl polifonii a cappella Bartłomieja Pękiela
EN: Bartłomiej Pękiel's Style of polyphony a cappella
77-85

Tomasz Jasiński


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

One of the most important tendencies in the 17th century polyphony a cappella was the creative processing of the Renaissance idiom. Such tendency can be found in the vocal compositions by one of the most eminent representatives of Polish musical Baroque, Bartłomiej Pękiel (died about 1670). Pękiel's style is old and at the same time new. The novel aspect forms as the transformation of tradition and its "rendition". Into the Renaissance type of melodic line Pękiel incorporates the leap of diminished fourth, moderately expanded progressions, and quasi-instrumental formulae. The basically continuous form is equipped with rhythmical contrasts and various kinds of antithetons. Harmonics is filled with discords while the tonal course with alterations. The texture evolves into a motif counterpoint although it has never reached it fully because the short condensed motifs present in each of his compositions are deeply rooted in the linear conception. The level of their autonomy is still too small to form a completely new type of polyphonic tissue where the broadly sophisticated melody line is no longer the centre of reference to the counterpoint tectonics but is replaced by microstructure: motif, formula and a turn. In this respect Pękiel prefers an indirect state - the tendencies in both directions are balanced.
10.2478/v10075-011-0013-z
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Article 06PL: Dawne muzykalia kościoła św. Mikołaja w Bielsku-Białej
EN: Early Music Collections in St. Nicolas Church in Bielsko-Biała
87-143

Jadwiga Jasińska


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

St. Nicholas church in Bielsko-Biała belonged to dynamic music centers. Musical tradition of this church is marked by local song-books, dated from the 17th century, the church's vocal-instrumental group established in the second half of the 18th century and active till the end of 19th century and finally the choir Katolischer Kirchenmusik-Verein (Catholic Association of Church Music), established in the last decade of the 19th century and active till 1945. The following persons were connected with this parish church and with its thriving musical-liturgical life: the writer L. Wencelius (17th century), the poet and writer of the hymn-book Cithara sanctorum, J. Trzanowski (1592-1637), the propagator of Polish culture Rev. M. Opolski (1780-1850), the author of the Catholic hymnbook Rev. P. A. S. Matuszyński (1832-1881), and composers V. V. Hausmann (1850-1903) and V. C. Czajanek (1876-1952). As modern evidence of this history there are preserved manuscripts and printed documents, catalogues, letters, photographs and large group of music collections. The group of music collection consists of almost five hundred volumes (manuscripts and prints) from about 1800 to 1940; they are mostly preserved in very good condition. Two groups of information can be distinguished: the first one comprises earlier music collections written or collected in 1800-1870, the second one - manuscripts and more recent prints written in 1870-1940 and editions from the second half of the 20th century. The earlier music collections, which are the subject of this article and the content of the thematic catalogue, comprise about one quarter of the collection. The oldest manuscript dates from 1805 but without any doubts some of the records come from the earlier period. Various inscriptions, watermarks of the handmade manuscript paper and manufactory trade labels prove the local origin of some parts of manuscripts. The old prints are mainly from Austrian publishing houses but some of them come from Czech ones. St. Nicholas church's music collections contain exclusively religious music, assigned for the vocal-instrumental group. Its repertory - dominated by the mass and numerous hymns Pange lingua and Tantum ergo - consists of compositions of 18th and 19th century composers. There are compositions by very known and popular composers (J. Haydn, J. M. Dreyer, J. L. Kunerth, A. Diabelli, J. B. Schiedermayr and R. Führer) and by forgotten ones who are not even present in musical lexicography; some of them e.g. F. Schoen or S. Schön might have belonged to the group of Bielsko-Biała musicians. The inscriptions and postscripts (names, dates dedications) written on old prints and manuscripts enable identification of local bandmasters, copyists, owners of manuscripts and patrons caring for the musical equipment of the church. The thematic catalogue of early music collections of St. Nichols church in Bielsko-Biała was drawn up in accordance with the instruction model RISM (Répertoire International des Sources Musicales).
10.2478/v10075-011-0014-y
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Article 07PL: Pedagogika przedstawicieli ukraińskiej szkoły pianistycznej: dialog międzypokoleniowy
EN: The Pedagogy of Representatives of the Ukrainian Piano School: Intergenerational Dialogue
145-166

Natalia Guralnik


Instytut Sztuki Narodowego Uniwersytetu Pedagogicznego im. Dragomanowa w Kijowie

Polish and Ukrainian cultures (and the piano school is not an exception) have been and still are historically proven examples of music-creative and pedagogical "duos". In this article, the author discusses some pedagogical ideas and examples of their practical application by Ukrainian musicians and pianists-pedagogues directly connected with Poland. Mutual relations between traditional and innovative attitudes concerning piano teaching, which can be noticed in different types of reference to the pedagogy of leaders of piano schools, finally contributed to the creation of new formations which appeared as coherent all-national historic-cultural phenomena, formed in the 20th century by eminent Ukrainian pedagogues-pianists. The active use of methodological principles in building methodological systems by the leaders of piano school determined the decisive and independent development of pedagogues-pianists as continuators of particular schools. It also determined the process of improvement of methodological concepts and introduced changes to the contents of those concepts which in turn enabled them to move from the level of traditional imitation to more independent and transformed pedagogical technology. When pointing to the types for imitation present in tradition, the following types should be mentioned: type I - subconscious (or conscious) historically mediated imitation of traditional principles of a single piano school leader preserving the dominant role of tradition; type II - traditional, conscious imitation of principles of one or two figures in piano schools with elements of transformation of those principles; type III - individually marked imitation of some of the piano schools leaders, retaining at the same time the dominant role of mutual enrichment; type IV - independently defined forms of imitation of eminent pianists' historical ideological and "leadership' achievements in their "parent" piano school. Showing the dialogic character of the development of the Ukrainian piano-school pedagogy we focus on the characterization of the activity of its leading representatives, outstanding pianists-pedagogues: W. Puchalski (1848-1933), W. Barwiński (1888-1963), M. Tutkowski (1857-1931) and H. Neuhaus (1888-1964). In their pedagogical activity we can notice the continuity of both the Ukrainian piano tradition as well as its variety and creative changes accomplished with time and producing many excellent pianists.
10.2478/v10075-011-0015-x
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Article 08PL: O źródłach inspiracji w muzyce. Z perspektywy wieków
EN: On the Sources of Inspiration in Music. From the Perspective of Centuries
167-186

Rafał Rozmus


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

In colloquial language we often use the expressions inspiration and creativity usually as synonymous expressions. Looking at works of art and analyzing them, we can find the influence of these categories which are derived from specific phenomena, experiences, forms etc. which could have had an influence on the creation and form of the work of interest to us. Some of them clearly refer to a specific source of inspiration, e.g. literary content, a concrete event, experience or feeling; others only suggest what was the motive of an artist during his/her artistic vision, what inspired and inflamed his/her imagination. We then ask the question concerning the essence of inspiration and creativity. Directing them mainly towards music we must enter the field of philosophical thought, sometimes also theological philosophy as the necessary basis for such meditations and indispensable context which allows us to throw light on the sources of musical compositions. This article is a review of selected situations in musical compositions within the space of all history of music, in successive epochs - from the ancient till contemporary times; the composition seen from the angle of multiple inspiration and creativity and commented upon and explained by various contexts and parallel phenomena connected - among others - with philosophical and theological views (among others Aristotle, St Augustine, St Thomas Aquinas, F. W. J. Schelling and John Paul II), the revealed word (the Bible), interdisciplinary references (e.g. J. S. Bach, folk music), with ideological and political conditions (e.g. totalitarian doctrines), nature (e.g. birds singing), historic events or the specificity of culture of a given time (e.g. globalism).
10.2478/v10075-011-0016-9
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Volume 07 - 2009

Article 01PL: Fryderyk Chopin. Szkic do portretu
EN: Fryderyk Chopin. A Sketch for the Portrait
9-36

Mieczysław Tomaszewski


Akademia Muzyczna w Krakowie

We get to know Fryderyk Chopin's personality through countless sources of all kinds and origins. Two types come to the fore, which complement each other: Chopin's music and Chopin's letters. When we read the letters the figure of their author appears before our eyes in - sometimes pedantic - detail. Chopin is shown as a person living life with his head in the clouds on the one hand but keeping his feet firmly on the ground at the same time. By listening attentively to his music we are able to grasp the categories of expression with which the composer responded to historical events and changes of his fate. What Chopin himself expressed with the verbal language and with the language of music is followed by what the close or distant witnesses to his life remembered about him and recorded in writing. The whole of source-based knowledge about Chopin's personality was complemented by a wide range of testimonies scattered throughout epistolary, journalistic and monographic sources. Chopin was of short height, had grey blue eyes, his hair, eyebrows and beard were blond, his face was oval. "His eyes were more spiritual than dreamy, his bland smile never writhed into bitterness […] his bearing so distinguished, his manners stamped with […] high breeding" (Ferenc Liszt). He was a dynamic personality - according to George Sand he united noble contradictions, seemingly incompatible, which God alone could only combine and which had their own unique logic. As a musical genius he was one of the few of whom one could say that they were "born musicians". Each of his artistic crises was overcome, and Chopin would come out of them like a real "natural genius": even stronger and regenerated. He also had other talents, first of all those of a writer and an actor. His letters aroused vivid interest with their simple, elegant, individual style of writing, and with the aptness and depth of thinking. Chopin's talent as an actor went far beyond being amateurish, his contemporaries believed. Honoré de Balzac introduced into one of his novels a character "endowed with such a talent for imitating people as the pianist Chopin uses to a high degree". The composer was exceptionally sensitive to painting - he was interested in the problems of color and chiaroscuro. The nature of his mentality is usually defined as an Enlightenment mind. Chopin's Romantic imagination, however, which was at first on an equal footing with his Enlightenment mind, was becoming more and more the chief driving force behind his creative realization. In his emotional sphere, love and family feelings as well as feelings of friendship and patriotism made themselves distinctly felt. They tended to be strong, deep and lasting. His feelings of love (for Konstancja Gładkowska, Maria Wodzińska, George Sand, or Delfina Potocka) evolved but from the very beginning they were marked by Petrarchan idealism. Fascination was accompanied by restraint, with devotion and fidelity becoming the supreme value. In Chopin, feelings were sublimated, poetized, and elevated. People saw in him unblemished rectitude, honesty, selflessness, generosity, and unwavering devotion (according to Solange Clésinger) as well as praiseworthy diligence, straightforward character and aristocratic bearing. They admired Chopin's attitude to his own illness and his distancing himself from it: he never yielded to pessimistic moods. His lifestyle was high class, dignified and refined, determined by the circles with which he had come to socialize, but at the same time it was natural since it was based on his impeccable manners. Demanding and critical of himself, he also tended to be critical towards others, especially when significant matters were considered. For Chopin, who found himself abroad, his family hearth and home was his support and point of reference. So was his country, for whose fate he showed patriotic feelings of solidarity. None of those who encountered his music ever doubted that Poland was present in it. He was sometimes unjustly suspected of religious indifference. Chopin acquired faith in God and respect for religious tradition from his home, mainly thanks to his mother. This faith had its place in his strictly private sphere. Whenever it manifested itself, it left no doubt about the fact that it was there. Chopin's music, which appeared, like his life, a dynamic unity of opposites, tended to be called "dolorous bliss", "bitter happiness", "an expression of pain despite Raphaelite perfection", "heroism of defeat and smiling through tears", "a combination of southern ardor with the seriousness of the North", and "bitter joy".
10.2478/v10075-008-0012-x
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Article 02PL: O fragmentach muzycznych Chopina z ostatniej karty "Tria g-moll" op. 8
EN: On Musical Fragments Written by Chopin on the Last Page of Trio in G minor Op. 8
37-49

Maciej Gołąb


Katedra Muzykologii, Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego

The object of analysis are handwritten musical fragments, previously superficially examined, which Fryderyk Chopin wrote on the last page of the manuscript of Trio in G minor Op. 8 [ref. no. Tic: M/1] at the turn of 1829/1830. The author rejects Krystyna Kobylańska's suggestion that "this is a draft autograph of piano part fragments" [Kobylańska 1977: catalogue no. 80]. The purpose of the analysis is first of all to establish the origin of these dozen-odd short fragments, which the author links to some of Chopin's composition projects, with which he was preoccupied shortly after he graduated from Warsaw University's Main School of Music, having studied under Józef Elsner. Some of the "certain" fragments by Chopin from this source undoubtedly relate to Piano Concerto in F minor Op. 21 [Kobylańska 1977: catalogue no. 255]. With regard to others, less obvious, the author discusses the hypotheses that would link these fragments with other last pieces written by Chopin in Warsaw, in particular with Waltz in E major WN 18, Nocturne in B flat minor Op. 9 No. 1 and with a plan to compose an etude in C major, which the composer abandoned.
10.2478/v10075-008-0013-9
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Article 03PL: "Podniesienie krzyża" w exordium "Poloneza fis-moll" op. 44 Fryderyka Chopina
EN: "The Raising of the Cross" in the Exordium of Fryderyk Chopin's Polonaise in F sharp minor Op. 44
51-76

Tomasz Jsiński


Instytut Muzyki, Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

The present article is an analytical insight into the expressive layer of Fryderyk Chopin's Polonaise in F sharp minor Op. 44. Of special interest is the eight-bar introduction to the piece, which is the exordium of the composition. The starting point for scientific interpretation is the initial motif of the composition, which the author regards as the musical-rhetorical figure imaginatio crucis, productive in the music of the Baroque, which served to interpret the words speaking of Christ's cross, crucifixion etc. by means of sounds. At least three premises support the likelihood that Chopin consciously utilized this figure: Chopin's veneration of the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, who left numerous distinct examples of the use of imaginatio crucis; the fact that the image of the cross - in the interpretive sense - was known to Józef Elsner (which we can see in his Missa in C major Op. 22); finally, Maciej Gołąb's supposition that Chopin used this figure in his songs Poseł [The Messenger] and Melodia [Melody]. The acceptance of the presence of imaginatio crucis in the introductory motif of the Polonaise leads to an iconographic interpretation of the whole eight-bar opening, which appears - very suggestively - as a musical-rhetorical expression of the "elevation of the cross" i.e. the raising of the cross with Christ transfixed to it: both in the pictorial (iconographic)/symbolic and kinetic-energetic sense, which corresponds both with the iconography of "elevation of the cross" in plastic arts and with the actual, physical scene of the event referred to. The return of the exordium in the later part of the work as well as other musical shapes related in various ways to the initial figure of imaginatio crucis reinforce and expand - in their oratorical significance - the adopted interpretation of the exordium. In light of the phenomena of imaginatio crucis and elevation of the cross Chopin's work appears as one in which the national aspect of artistic expression - clearly observed and emphasized by many scholars - is enriched with a religious and messianic element. The analysis conducted seems to prove that in Chopin's pieces there are yet undiscovered aspects of creative poetics, where thinking in terms of the iconographic and the symbolic in the broad sense comes to the fore, being clearly marked by the idea of semantic communication. Consequently, the appended picture by Jerzy Duda Gracz - Polonez fis-moll op. 44 [Polonaise in F sharp minor Op. 44] - appears to be a unique, amazing and faithfully vivid reflection of the symbolic-iconographic layer of Chopin's Polonaise.
10.2478/v10075-008-0014-8
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Article 04PL: "Barkarola Fis-dur" op. 60 Chopina. Pieśń sentymentalna czy romantyczny poemat?
EN: Chopin's Barcarole in F sharp major Op. 60. A Sentimental Song or a Romantic Poem?
78-95

Artur Szklener


Instytut Muzykologii, Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego

Chopin's Barcarole in F sharp major Op. 60 is one of the compositions characterized by an especially ample reception. The work was frequently described in programmatic terms, which can be called "external" impressions but at the same time these impressions were marked by a certain detachment from internal musical phenomena that could determine programmatic interpretations of one kind or another. The author poses a question about why there are hermeneutic interpretations of the Barcarole (inter alia those by Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, and Karol Stromenger) and carries out a detailed analysis examining internal, strictly musical relationships within the structure of the whole composition. The method of analytical discourse is the observation of the clash of two idioms: the idiom of song (Gondoliera) and the epic idiom. The analysis of the whole composition carried out from this perspective shows a characteristic balancing of musical action between the two idioms and the possible consequent repercussions for the reception of the Barcarole, which surprises the listener with its complexity and multifaceted nature also in this aspect The composer surprises us from the first tunes of the piece by referring to the idiom other than that indicated in the title - to the narrative, epic idiom with a tempestuous tone. Despite the fact that all the main musical themes in their original shapes refer to selected external features of Gondoliera, they are in a way woven in the narrative structure, which consistently and inevitably leads to an extremely dynamic and even dramatic finale. The listener is exposed to both idioms and finds himself as if at the crossroads: on the one hand, he feels the stimuli that indicate a sentimental romance, on the other hand the musical idiom of the narrative and its finale evoke associations with some indeterminate but ongoing drama. In this way the composer's strategy vis-à-vis the genre, consisting in the clash of two largely contrasting musical idioms and certain indeterminate sets of musical features, creates an indistinct semantic range, which can be defined in different ways by different interpreters, but it is probable that with different points of view there will remain such common features as 'the mysterious', 'a hidden message', 'hidden depths'. The present research suggestion sheds light on the possibilities of understanding the work itself, its reception and the possibilities of its performing interpretations for Chopin's Barcarole remains a unique composition in the history of musical literature, an unprecedented work no one tried to continue, which is placed among the jewels of European music like the carefully cherished memory of a kiss in a cosy gondola.
10.2478/v10075-008-0015-7
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Article 05PL: Chopinowskie szkice analityczne: 4 "Scherza", 4 "Ballady", "Fantazja f-moll", "Barkarola Fis-dur"
EN: Analytical Sketches on Chopin: 4 Scherzos, 4 Ballades, Fantasia in F minor, Barcarole in F sharp major
97-113

Mariusz Dubaj


Instytut Muzyki, Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

The author's method of analytical sketch introduces the structural properties of selected evolutionary one-movement works by Fryderyk Chopin: 4 Scherzos, 4 Ballades, Fantasia in F minor Op. 49 and Barcarole in F sharp major Op. 60. Special attention was paid to the uniqueness of Chopin's creative concepts. In Scherzo No. 1 in B minor, Scherzo No. 2 in B flat minor, Ballade No. 2 in F major and in Scherzo No. 3 in C sharp minor these consist in a play of tensions between extreme expressive categories; in Ballade No. 1 in G minor - in changing emotions culminating in a dramatic ending, in Ballade No. 3 in A flat major and in Scherzo No. 4 in E major - in transformations of the material culminating in joyous elation; in Fantasia in F minor and in Ballade No. 4 in F minor - in the wealth of related thematic material, while in Barcarole in F sharp major - in the conciseness of motifs.
10.2478/v10075-008-0016-6
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Article 06PL: Z zagadnień recepcji twórczości Chopina (na przykładzie recepcji "Polonezów" op. 40)
EN: Problems Concerning the Reception of Chopin's Work (as Exemplified by the Reception of Polonaises Op. 40)
115-121

Zofia Chechlińska


Instytut Sztuki, Polskiej Akademii Nauk w Warszawie

The reception of Fryderyk Chopin's works, both in musical life and in literature, has changed during over 150 years since the composer's death. An example of this is the degree of popularity and the assessment of Chopin's two highly contrasting polonaises Op. 40. One, in A major, enjoyed immense popularity in the nineteenth century. It was often performed both at public concerts and at homes and private salons. There were also numerous transcriptions of it. The other, in C minor, was rarely played in public and there is no information about it being performed in private homes. Nor were there any transcriptions of the piece. Their disparate popularity was accompanied by diametrically different evaluations of the two pieces. The Polonaise in A major was highly valued in the nineteenth-century musical literature and regarded as one of the best or by many authors as Chopin's best polonaise. It was believed to contain scenes from Poland's knightly past. The Polonaise in C minor was clearly underestimated and regarded as Chopin's less successful piece. It was only Friedrich Niecks who was the first author to appreciate this Polonaise and it was only then that a gradual change in the assessment of the two works began. The causes of the nineteenth-century judgments and changes which took place later lie in the structure of each of the works. The Polonaise in A major closely follows the convention of the genre, it contains distinct connotations with popular music, practical dancing and with popular patriotic songs. The Polonaise in C minor defies the convention of the genre, breaks the existing norms, and the musical means it uses are far more refined and go far into the future. It appears that it was not the very fact of departure from the convention that determined one or other nineteenth-century assessment of a work but rather whether and to what extent this departure from the convention was compensated for by the use of musical means which had the easiest and most direct effect on the listeners' senses, such as sharp contrasts, expressive melodic patterns, dynamism and strong tensions. This is shown by the Polonaise in A flat major Op. 53, which, despite the fact that it departs from the then conventions of dancing and has a novel form and rich harmonics, was one of Chopin's most highly regarded and most often performed works. The Polonaise in C minor, while departing from the convention, is devoid of dynamism at the same time, its nature being more static, the piece being largely based on a play of tonal nuances, and thereby it was far more difficult to accept. It was only later changes that took place in music that allowed it to be understood.
10.2478/v10075-008-0017-5
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Article 07PL: Chopin w refleksji estetycznej i twórczości kompozytorskiej Karola Szymanowskiego
EN: Chopin in the Esthetic Reflection and Composition Work of Karol Szymanowski
125-153

Andrzej Tuchowski


Instytut Kultury, Sztuki Muzycznej Uniwersytetu Zielonogórskiego

Karol Szymanowski's views on Fryderyk Chopin's legacy, which he formed in the 1920s, played a significant role in the development of the contemporary model of reception of the music composed by the master of Polish Romanticism. They largely contributed to a move away from the dominant nineteenth-century tradition of heteronomic description of Chopin's music for the development of analytical methods that allowed one to describe specifically musical features. Szymanowski was one of the first to approach Chopin's works from the standpoint of twentieth-century sonic constructivism, and his repeated suggestions that there was the Bach-Mozart-Chopin parallel were confirmed - in the area of structural-formal features - by the analytical studies authored by the most eminent German theoreticians of the time: Heinrich Schenker and Hugo Leichtentritt, which in turn led to the change of Chopin's image on a global scale. Szymanowski's articles, correspondence and press interviews show a coherent picture of his views on Chopin's creative work. These can be presented in four thematic lines: 1) Chopin in the historical context; 2) The essence of Chopin's genius and the creative impact of Chopin's music; 3) Chopin and the essence of national music; 4) Chopin and educational, teaching and organizational activities. Especially interesting - in the aspect of Chopin's influence on Szymanowski's creative imagination - appears to be the second thematic range. The question arises about to which of Chopin's works refers the famous statement naming him as "a futurist of the Romantic era" and which of Szymanowski's works (apart from Mazurkas thoroughly studied in this respect) may, in turn, show their inspiration by this "futurism"? When recapitulating the harmonic, textural, melodic and rhythmical influences described in literature on the subject, the author shows the previously little-emphasized aspect of the inspiring influence of novel construction ideas developed by Chopin, mainly in his Sonata in B flat minor Op. 35 - a masterpiece which occupies a special place in Szymanowski's writings and, in all probability, had a crucial impact on the development of his (Szymanowski's) musical language. The similarities, presented in this study, between the structural integration techniques developed by Chopin in Opus 27, 28 and 35, and those whose germs can already be seen in Szymanowski's Opus 1, and in a more mature form in Opus 21, 24 and 42 give a special significance to the above-mentioned statements of the maestro of the "Atma" villa.
10.2478/v10075-008-0018-4
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Article 08PL: Norwid - Chopin. Korespondencja serc i sztuk
EN: Norwid - Chopin. Correspondence of Hearts and Arts
155-166

Józef F. Fert


Instytut Filologii, Polskiej Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego

Relationships between Cyprian Norwid and Fryderyk Chopin are one of the most interesting pages in nineteenth-century Polish and European literatures. The historic meeting of the two great Romantic artists, who are part both of Polish national culture and of the world's ideological and artistic heritage, has already been studied and described many times and in many aspects, especially in Polish literary studies and musicology as well as in philosophical thought. A musical order permeates the whole of Norwid's oeuvre, which is meaningfully demonstrated by the anthology compiled by Władysław Stróżewski (Cyprian Norwid o muzyce [Cyprian Norwid on music]). This order was expressed in a mature and especially noble way in Norwid's poem Fortepian Szopena [Chopin's Piano]. In its incomparable evocations this work absorbed the whole depth of Norwid's genius and consolidated a perfect combination - unique and the only one in Polish (or perhaps even world) literature - of the musical and the literary, the picture and sense, the visionary and the logical, or perhaps even some kind of the incomprehensible superlogical, thus becoming an equal literary companion to Chopin's music. It is difficult to find out what ultimately provided the main impetus for the creation of Norwid's masterpiece. It might have been the faithful memory of the "last days" of Chopin, which the poet remembered since he took more or less part in them. Perhaps the memory of the heart shaken by the brutal noises coming from his native Warsaw: the clatter and moans of Chopin souvenirs being smashed over the capital's road cobbles. That was how the Russian authorities took revenge on Warsaw in retaliation for the de facto failed assassination attempt of 19 September 1863 on the tsar's viceroy of the Kingdom of Poland: by vandalizing the house of Chopin's sister and destroying the Chopin memorabilia kept there. Moreover, we must not fail to mention an even more tragic situation at the close of 1944: German troops are blowing up and burning the remnants of blood-bathed Warsaw - in one of the pillars of the St. Cross Church there is the urn with Chopin's heart, which had been smuggled by his sister to his native Poland as he had wished. The church is about to share the fate of the whole capital. Its remnants will be blown up by the meticulous Wehrmacht soldiers, to be turned into dust and rubble. And at that moment an unknown German officer sends a secret warning about this to the people who tried to save national treasures from Warsaw while it was being demolished. Chopin's heart was saved. That very Heart! Despite the horrific destruction of the national substance, the majority of Norwid's manuscripts collected in Warsaw were also miraculously saved, including the masterpiece "Chopin's Piano". It is said that in order to love we have to listen; in order to understand - we have to hear and hear someone out… Not everyone is heard by everyone. Some have gained the grace of participating in the world of universal human culture, others are still waiting. Let us hope that - as Norwid put it - this is active waiting, in which "the word is a testament to the act" (Norwid's words from the poem Promethidion. Epilogue).
10.2478/v10075-008-0019-3
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Article 09PL: Chopin w krainie mitu
EN: Chopin in the Land of Myth
167-183

Maciej Białas


Instytut Muzyki, Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

When we take into consideration a plethora of various types of popular publications and mass events (concerts, festivals, recordings, performances) devoted to Fryderyk Chopin and organized in Poland for decades, we can come to the conclusion that this eminent composer is in a way overrepresented in Polish culture. Logic demands that Polish admiration for Chopin should be found in musical sensitivity deeply-rooted in the collective consciousness, or at least in the general enchantment with Chopin's tunes. The reality looks different, however. The Poles are hardly connoisseurs of music who indulge in esthetic pleasures with delight. So what's it all about? The author suggests that Chopin's unique position in Polish culture stems first of all from the continuing vitality of the Chopin myth. Trying to look into its essence, he refers to two conceptions of myth widespread even today in cultural sciences, i.e. those of Claude Lévi-Strauss and Roland Barthes. It appears that in the light of these conceptions, which place myth in a special way in the sphere of organization of the images of reality, the Chopin myth emerges with extreme clarity. On the one hand, therefore, the author shows how Chopin fits in the anomaly category overcoming Lévi-Strauss's binary oppositions, while on the other hand, in reference to Barthes, he reminds us about the process, begun already in the 19th century, of the ideological appropriation of Chopin by the bourgeoisie. He also gives examples of splinter tendencies, i.e. anti-myths arising in the dominant Chopin myth. Since both Lévi-Strauss and Barthes appear to share a view that the myth-making mechanism is set in motion by metaphors and metonymies, the author tries to present the working of this mechanism. He therefore quotes parts of Chopin performances both with a poetic and realist nature, thereby seeking to exemplify the mythopoeic discourse. In the Chopin myth the author sees the element that preserves high musical culture, defines Polishness (with its Romantic inclination), sets axiological standards, and also recently - creates the context in which commercial games are played. The discussion ends with a conclusion that the status of Chopin as an archetype of Romantic Polishness, deeply-rooted in the Polish mind and embodied in a unique myth, appears to be amazingly long-lasting; consequently, Chopin as a timeless composer, widely listened to, understood and admired in Poland, still waits, paradoxically, to be discovered.
10.2478/v10075-008-0020-x
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Article 10PL: Dziedzictwo chopinowskie we współczesnej edukacji polskiej
EN: Chopin's Heritage in Contemporary Polish Education
185-211

Renata Gozdecka


Instytut Muzyki, Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej

The purpose of the present study is to examine Fryderyk Chopin's oeuvre from the perspective of the principles of general artistic education relating both to the subject "Music" in all stages of education and - in accordance with the trends in contemporary teaching - in the context of interdisciplinary approach to his works. As the analysis of coursebooks approved for school use shows, the position of Chopin's music in contemporary education has been significantly emphasized. The authors of all coursebooks included the compositions of Poland's great Romantic composer, having selected them most often by the diversity of genres, by sounds of stylized folk music, by the Polish nature of his music against the background of historical events, by the performing personalities, and by the possibility of analytical listening depending on the age of school students and their perception skills. Primary school pupils are offered in all the coursebooks a total of 27 pieces of different genres. These include three songs (Życzenie [The Wish], Hulanka [Merrymaking] and Wojak [The Warrior]), three Polonaises (juvenile in G minor, in A major Op. 40 No. 1, in A flat major Op. 53), seven Mazurkas (in B flat major Op. 7 No. 1, in A minor Op. 68 No. 2, in G minor Op. 24 No. 1, in D major Op. 33 No. 2, in C major Op. 7 No. 5, in E major Op. 6 No. 3, in F major Op. 68 No. 3), three Waltzes (in D flat major Op. 64 No. 1, in A minor Op. 34 No. 2, in F major Op. 34 No. 3), five Preludes (in D flat major, in E minor, in A major, in D minor, and in A flat major Op. 28), one Etude (in C minor Op. 10 No. 12), Scherzo in B minor Op. 20, and the initial fragments of two first movements of Concerto in E minor and Variations in B flat major Op. 2. The compositions by Chopin contained in gimnazjum [lower secondary school] coursebooks are somewhat fewer in number. This is accounted for by the fact that, unlike the three-year cycle in primary school, in which children have music classes for three years, gimnazjum students have only one hour of music class per week in their first year of instruction. The coursebook authors therefore recommend that students learn five Mazurkas (which are all included in the coursebooks for fourth-sixth forms): in F major Op. 68 No. 3, in D major Op. 33 No. 2, in B flat major Op. 7 No. 1, in F major Op. 68 No. 3 and in A minor Op. 68 No. 2. The remaining pieces are Preludes (in E minor, in A major, in D minor), Polonaises in G minor, in A major, in A flat major Op. 53, in C sharp minor Op. 26 No. 1) and Scherzo in B minor, Etude in C minor Op. 10 No. 12, Ballade in G minor, Waltz in D flat major Op. 64 No. 1, Rondo à la Krakowiak, Song Życzenie [The Wish] in a local version and in a piano arrangement by Liszt; and the fragments of both Concertos. An analytical study concerning the place of Chopin's music in Polish coursebooks shows that there is a group of his compositions, which can be called especially popular. These are: Waltz in D flat major Op. 64 No. 1, Mazurka in D major Op. 33 No. 2, Polonaise in A major Op. 40 No. 1, Polonaise in A flat major Op. 53, Scherzo in B minor (the fragment with the carol) and Prelude in D flat major Op. 28 No. 15. More difficult and longer compositions, which are, consequently, intended for more mature listeners, were included only in some gimnazjum textbooks. It should be observed that no coursebook has included any nocturnes in its repertory despite the fact that Chopin made this genre a form of piano poetry, transforming them into the most beautiful and best known lyrical compositions. Chopin's music inspired and still inspires many artists in different fields of art and in various areas of music. This is demonstrated by countless painting and literary works, sculptures, photos, or by original musical arrangements ranging from jazz to rock. While avoiding far-reaching judgments of some of these undertakings, there is certainly no denying that their intention is to discover anew the lasting value of the beauty of Chopin's music, which in the case of young people can breed new ways to become acquainted with the oeuvre of Poland's genius composer.
10.2478/v10075-008-0021-9
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Article 11PL: Chopinowi Duda Gracz, wyd. Magdalena Sroka, Fundacja Conspero, Warszawa 2005
215-226

Mariusz Drzewiński, Renata Gozdecka

10.2478/v10075-008-0022-8
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Article 12PL: Mieczysław Tomaszewski, Chopin. Fenomen i paradoks. Szkice i studia wybrane, Wydawnictwo Archidiecezji Lubelskiej GAUDIUM, Lublin
228-239

Tomasz Jasiński

10.2478/v10075-008-0023-7
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Volume 06 - 2008

Article 01PL: Recepcja antyku w biżuterii Europy u progu czasów nowożytnych
EN: The Reception of Antiquity in European Jewelry at the Beginning of Modern Times
9-22

Ewa Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, Poland

The purpose of the paper is to verify the widely held opinions about the alleged great effect of ancient jewelry (Greek and Roman) on the jewelry at the beginning of Modern Times and to examine what its actual influence consisted in. In the light of the conducted studies the propositions that antique jewelry largely shaped jewelers' art in modern Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries can be regarded as unjustified and untrue. It is a fact that from the latter half of the 16th century Western Europe started to develop new attitudes towards the past, the unknown regions of the globe and towards Nature. The study of the past encouraged people to seek manuscripts of ancient works, collect medals, or carry out excavations that unearthed works of art and materials remnants of Antiquity. Some artifacts, e.g. ancient gems, became the object of close study, and were the pride of collections beside medals. Very often the new owners had the gems set again. Through this setting they changed their designation, turning them from glyptic objects into jewelry. The jewelry of the kind can be regarded as half modern, half ancient. This is one of the categories of modern-times jewelry, in which Antiquity, through genuine ancient gems, is introduced into circulation owing to modern settings. The second category of jewelry, which draws from ancient sources, is jewelry created on the basis of ancient patterns, imitating ancient sculpture, and often literally copying this sculpture. These are above all portrait cameos and intaglios, imitating ancient patterns, in precious and decorative stones, shells, in gold and in glass. Especially popular were the portraits à l'antique, which showed the head or bust in profile. The common feature of this category of jewelry is the imitation of the ancient manner, and borrowing patterns from sculpture, glyptics and numismatics. Portraits made in this way, framed in elaborate, colorfully enameled settings, became valuable gifts given to favorites or persons of special merit. The third category was jewelry which was not directly modeled on the fine arts but was inspired by Antiquity themes drawn from ancient literature, interpreted according to the conceptions regarded as ancient and created as gems from precious stones, shells, bones, or plaques cast in gold. At the beginning of Modern Times Europe hardly knew ancient jewelry, therefore the latter could not influence it. We can speak of the actual impact of this jewelry only as late as before the mid-18th century when great numbers of jewelry artifacts were obtained from the exploration of the Roman towns of Herculaneum and Pompeii buried during a Vesuvius explosion.
10.2478/v10075-008-0001-0
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Article 02PL: UMCS w obiektach zabytkowych. Budowa gmachu Rządu Gubernialnego Lubelskiego
EN: UMCS in Historic Buildings. Construction of the Lublin Provincial Government Building
23-59

Jerzy Żywicki


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, Poland

The Congress Kingdom started the practice of housing the organs of territorial state administration in representative buildings. In Lublin, the major offices of the partition-time public administration occupied two large structures situated in the northern side of the Litewski square - the city's main square. One of them, the so-called Radziwiłł palace was the seat of the Commission for Lublin Province from 1824, and from 1837 - the Lublin Provincial [Guberniya] Government. The other was a new building, built in 1859-1862 especially for the Administration and Treasury Department of the Lublin Provincial Government. Today the two buildings belong to Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, the former housing the Faculty of Political Science (pl. Litewski 3), the latter - Institute of Psychology (pl. Litewski 5). The history of the older building has already been scientifically studied. We can only recall briefly that refurbishment and conversion works carried out in 1823-1824 converted the former magnatial residence into a building suitable for the needs of state offices. The then seat of the Commission for Lublin Province resembled a Baroque residence but it survived in this form only until the fire of 6 March, 1829. The subsequent reconstruction carried out in 1829-1830 by a Warsaw architect Henryk Marconi, gave the building a classicist form, which has been retained with small changes until today. The Commission for Lublin Province's palace, which was the most representative architectural object in the area of today's plac Litewski [square], influenced the form of next structures built on its sides, including the second building of the Provincial Government. Preparations for the construction of the second building of the Lublin Provincial Government went on from 1852 but it was not until 1859 that construction work started. The building was designed by a Warsaw architect Julian Ankiewicz, and the work was supervised by a specially appointed several-person committee manned by well-known respectable citizens of Lublin. Many craftsmen representing various crafts were hired for construction works. Most of them came from outside Lublin, the majority being Warsaw craftsmen, but there were others as well. Some of them came from very far, e.g. bricklayers, who were brought from as far as Russia. The local craftsmen, however, were employed only to a very small extent. Also the building materials were largely brought from outside the region. All this shows that the then Lublin building circles were weak. Construction works had several stages (earth work, mason work, finishing work). Construction was essentially completed in 1861, but for the next two years the new building was equipped, furnished and decorated, and financing of the investment was accounted for. The presented history shows a typical 19th-century investment process connected with the construction of a public building of great importance. The presented facts show the care which was taken so that it would be not only long-lasting but also have the highest quality attainable then in the buildings of this kind.
10.2478/v10075-008-0002-z
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Article 03PL: Oskar Fischinger — Czarodziej z Friedrichstrasse
EN: Oskar Fischinger — the Wizard of Friedrichstrasse
61-72

Marek Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, Poland

The chapter on wizards and witches, a part of William West's Simboleography (London 1594), defines wizards as those who, by saying certain magic words, dare to try to achieve things contrary to the order of Nature and shows others things that are concealed. And that was exactly who Oskar Fischinger was, called the Wizard of Friedrichstrasse. Because talent and hard work alone would not be enough to create such masterpieces of virtuosity of abstract animation, which he produced in 1929-36 in his Berlin studio in Friedrichstrasse, the street in which in the interwar years there were the headquarters of the largest film production companies operating in Germany, and during his work in Hollywood in the next decade. What was needed was the most important thing - a magic idea-formula that the application of laws of acoustics to optical expression is possible. Oskar Fischinger's intriguing statement in the catalog of his Los Angeles 1951 exhibition in Frank Perls Gallery that music is not confined to the realm of sounds but there is also the music of the visual world opens a fascinating perspective of viewing the world through the prism of music. The perspective of reaching metaphysics, the inspirational vision of Being, highly spiritual experiences. Oskar Fischinger was born in Gelnhausen near Frankfurt in 1900 and died in Hollywood in 1967. His impressive filmography comprises at least 56 completed films made during the quarter of century between 1921 and 1947. Moreover, he left 900 pictures. He also composed synthesized music drawn on rolls as abstract ornamental borders, photographed and played as a film soundtrack. He designed one of the first of camera systems which recorded film picture in color, and he was a designer and virtuoso of optic light instruments. He is regarded as a forerunner of polycinema and audiovisual multi-projection shows. He cooperated with Fritz Lang (1929), with the Paramount company (1936), MGM (1937), Walt Disney Studios (1939) and with Orson Welles (1941). The vast range of Oskar Fischinger's achievements shows his cognitive and contemplative attitude, ranging between the avant-garde imperative of anti-traditionality, Plato's concept of ideas and things, and mysticism of the Far East, which (attitude) is rooted in the absolute cinema. This trend in the German avant-garde film of the 1920s and 1030s was termed by its founders Zeit mit Malerei [painting in time] (Walter Ruttmannn), Bewegungskunst [movement arts], and by critics Kinomalerei [cinematic painting] (Yvan Goll), Augenmusik [music for the eye], Lichttonsymphonie [light and sound symphony], or Zeitraumliche Eurythmie [time-space eurythmy] (Bernhard Diebold.) From these descriptions emerges the picture of a five-head media hybrid, which Fischinger mounted. The bringing together and integration into one, of five media - music, visual arts, the art of life, movement, and the cinema - was the moment of truth and revelation, from which a new, syncretic form of work of art arose. The Wizard of Friedrichstrasse, who mixed his intellectual food in a retort filled with the medium of audiovisual show, is an important figure in the process of transformation of the way of perceiving the world, which took place in the 20th century. His artistic and research experiments, and his theoretical statements contributed to the rise of new structures of feeling and thinking, which correspond to cyberspace protocols in the contemporary world.
10.2478/v10075-008-0003-y
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Article 04PL: Pojęcie metafory w języku polskiej krytyki artystycznej w drugiej połowie lat pięćdziesiątych XX wieku
EN: The Concept of Metaphor in the Language of Polish Art Critics in the Second Half of the Nineteen-Fifties
73-84

Piotr Majewski


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, Poland

The paper covers the issue, not yet systematically studied, of the functioning of the term "metaphor" in the language of Polish art critics of the period of "thaw". The author presents the views of both the artists and the critics, and presents the specific understanding of this term in the area of discussion on art during that period. While collecting the scattered opinions on the concept of metaphor, he orderly organizes and synthesizes them at the same time, and observes the gradual broadening of the application of the term to art until the culminating exhibition Metafory [metaphors] in 1962. The starting point for analysis is the response of critics to the artistic program of Group 55, which assumed the use of plastic metaphor as one of the ways of building meaning in visual shows. The simplistic and simplified style of Group 55 was partly based on the "poetic use" of artistic forms and relied on the idea of constructing the visual expression based on the untypical arrangement of elements of the real world, partially inspired by surrealist poetics. The author then cites the statements of such critics as Marcin Czerwiński, Urszula Czartoryska, Janusz Bogucki, Aleksander Wojciechowski and others, who applied the term metaphor to various manifestations of experimental art of "those modern" in the second half of the 1950s in Poland. The paper draws attention to the symbolic character of this interpretative category in the discussion in question, which associated metaphor-based art experiments on the one hand with the late reception of some formal assumptions and solutions of surrealism (especially esthetics of surprise, amazement, effect), and on the other hand with the search for a formula of visual expression for the then fascinations with existentialism and the feeling of a post-war crisis of values. A specific conclusion of this discussion and the paper itself is the presentation of the voices of art critics concerning the large and widely commented exhibition Metafory (1962), in which the range of "metaphoric" art was considerably broadened, covering the examples of from the paintings of Polish symbolists to surrealizing tendencies of the interwar period to the works of the artists in postwar "modernity". In this way the discussion going on in the circles of artists and critics culminated in an attempt to define the broadly conceived current of metaphoric art.
10.2478/v10075-008-0004-x
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Article 05PL: Ośrodki metodyczne jako forma doskonalenia pracy zawodowej nauczycieli rysunku i wychowania plastycznego (lata 1945-1989)
EN: In-Service Teacher Training Centers as A Form of Professional Improvement of Drawing and Art Education Teachers (1945-1989)
85-102

Anna Marta Żukowska


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, Poland

The first in-service teacher training centers were established in October 1945. Their purpose was to provide methodological assistance to teachers by organizing meetings, conferences, courses, reference library and art rooms depending on local and financial capabilities. These centers, also called teacher-training institutions or scientific-teaching institutions, did not form a single institutional organization. Therefore, in 1951 the Central Center for the Improvement of Educational Personnel (CODKO) was established with the headquarters in Warsaw. At the lower levels provincial and district centers for the improvement of educational personnel (WODKO and PODKO) were set up, and teaching methodology sections for particular subjects were organized. Their aim was to raise the teaching and ideological-political level of the teachers. The provincial centers were composed of subject sections. Heads of sections organized conferences and courses for teachers, inspected lessons, gave professional advice to instructors, and supervised schools in individual districts. An especially popular form of improvement of professional qualifications of drawing teachers were all kinds of training conferences. Longer, three-day conferences were organized by the CODKO in consultation with the Ministry of Education's Teacher Education Department. Shorter, one or two-day training conferences for drawing teachers were organized by provincial centers (WODKO). In the wake of the October 1956 transformations, the centers for the improvement of educational personnel were disbanded. They were replaced in 1957 by provincial and district in-service teacher training institutions for particular subjects, pre-school education and child care. After the next reorganization of in-service teacher training advisory institutions, the decree of the Minister of Education of 26 February 1960 established the Central In-Service Teacher Training Center (COM) in Warsaw, with subordinate regional and district inservice teacher training centers (OOM and POM). The activities of the OOMs for drawing and subsequently art education teachers consisted in assistance to teachers at school (advice, instructions), organization of teacher training conferences, courses, model lessons, etc., help in organizing art rooms, preparation of teaching materials, work with distinguished teachers; inspection over the accuracy and degree of implementation of theoretical assumptions in school practice, attempts at innovation in education through art; organization of mid-term and holiday courses. Especially conspicuous in their activities were inter alia art education sections in the OOMs in Warsaw, Koszalin, Wrocław, and in Lublin. The exemplary activities for upgrading teacher's professional proficiency were also conducted in the POM in Zawiercie. In the 1970s a structural and curriculum reform of the education system was begun, including changes in the teacher improvement and advisory system. In June 1972 the Institute for Teacher Education was established in Warsaw, with the Central In-Service Teacher Training Center being disbanded. At the lower, local levels the subordinate institutions were set up as Institutes for Teacher Education and Education Studies (IKNiBO). This institution was one of the first which not only conducted teacher improvement training but also prepared theoretical foundations of this activity by conducting its own scientific studies. The research tasks and their coordination was the responsibility of the IKNiBO Public-Scientific Board, which was composed of elected university teachers. Further changes included the appointment of inspectors-methodologists for individual subjects in district departments for education and upbringing on 1 September 1972, and the establishment in 1973 of inspector teams subordinated to education/upbringing offices. The fact that inspectors-methodologists were unable to exhaustively fulfill the tasks in advisory and methodological assistance, which were entrusted to them, was becoming more and more observable. This produced another re-organization. In May 1981 the order of the Minister for Education transformed the institutes for teacher education and educational studies into departments for teacher improvement subordinated to the W. Spasowski Institute for Teacher Education in Warsaw. Inspectors-methodologists were re-appointed as teachers-methodologists and given posts in the teacher improvement departments. The teacher-methodologist was obligated to improve his proficiency by self-education, participation in scientific-teaching seminars, and in the work of problem sections of the Institute. In 1982 there was an unfavorable change in the scope of teacher-methodologists' work, who had to increase visiting inspections and supervision. The next year, the instruction issued by the Supervision Department of the Ministry of Education stipulated that the visits made by teachers-methodologists were to be of instructional character. In 1989 there was one more re-organization of the system of teacher professional improvement, including methodological advisory assistance. The Institute for Teacher Education in Warsaw was renamed the Center for Teacher Improvement and was given a statute. The local teacher improvement divisions were abolished and replaced by divisions of the center for teacher improvement.
10.2478/v10075-008-0005-9
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Article 06PL: n decimis. O specyfice "niemieckiej" polifonii u schyłku piętnastego wieku
EN: In decimis. On the Specificity of "German" Polyphony towards the End of the Fifteenth Century
105-120

Ryszard J. Wieczorek


Katedra Muzykologii, Uniwersytetu im, Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań, Poland

Since the days of Hugo Riemann (1907) the technique of conducting extreme parts of a composition in parallel tenths accompanying the long-note cantus firmus, is regarded as a specific feature of polyphony in the German-speaking area towards the end of the fifteenth century. The wide popularity of this technique, both in three- and four-voice pieces, is confirmed by the musical pieces of Adam of Fulda and in the anonymous Saxon and Silesian repertory of that time. The question is whether this technique was actually limited to the repertory composed in this area as a specifically "German" polyphonic tradition, or it was an element of the universal musical language at the close of the fifteenth century. The answer to the question should be sought both in the musical legacy of the composers who were active in various area of Latin Europe and in the then theoretical reflections. As the studies have shown, the technique of conducting extreme parts in the interval of the tenth cannot be regarded as a useful criterion for origin. The reason is that it was one of the common devices in the composer's methods in the last decades of the fifteenth century, which was employed both inn religious and secular music. The sources of its exceptional popularity in the German-speaking area should be sought first of all in its teaching values. It was a useful and easy-to-learn composition formula, which made it possible to quickly expand a two-voice construction into a three- or four-voice piece without difficulty.
10.2478/v10075-008-0006-8
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Article 07PL: Siedem śpiewów historycznych w rękopiśmiennym wirydarzu poetyckim z Lubelszczyzny końca XIX wieku. Do pamiątek polskiej tradycji pieśniowej
EN: Seven Historical Songs in A Manuscript Poetry Collection of the Lublin Region at the Close of the 19th Century. Mementoes of Polish Song Tradition
121-153

Tomasz Jasiński


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, Poland

The paper discusses the song content of a poetic pleasure collection formed at the close of the nineteenth century. The manuscript collection, formed in 1892-1896, owned by Bolesław Telatycki of Czemierniki (Lublin province), contains personal poetic extracts copied by an anonymous writer (probably with the initials S. K.), and among these, at the beginning of the collection, there are texts of seven songs. These are Piosnka z czasów rewolucji roku 1831 ("Bywaj dziewcze zdrowe") [A song of the 1831 Uprising "Farewell, maid"], Pieśń z lutni ("Swawolne oczy co swemi wdzięki") [A Lute song "Playful eyes which charm with their charms"], Pieśń kosynierów przy Kościuszce ("Dalej chłopcy, dalej żywo") [A song of Kościuszko scythe bearers "Come on, lads, forthwith!"], Piosnka oddziału Rożyckiego roku 1863 ("Rozproszone po wszem świecie") [A song of the Rożycki detachment of 1863 "Scattered all over the world"], Piosnka konfederacyi targowickiej ("Na reszerokim polu oreł biły ubity") [A Confederation of Targowica song "Over the vast field a white eagle killed"], Piosnka z czasów Czarneskiego ("Powstań Czarneski, przetrzyj swe powieki") [A song of Czarneski's days "Arise Czarneski, wipe your eyes"] and Pieśń o pomoc od Boga królestwu naszemu ("Boże łaskawy, przyjmij płacz krwawy") [A Song for God's help to our kingdom, "Gracious God, take our bloody weeping"]. This collection of songs is an interesting testimony to the interests of Poles at the end of the nineteenth century in the Lublin region. The choice of titles is extraordinary. Worth noting is the preservation Old Polish songs. They remind us of important historic moments of the Polish nation: seventeenth-century Polish-Swedish wars, the tragedy of the Confederation of Targowica and the Kościuszko Insurrection, November Uprising, and January Uprising. The whole collection, i.e. seven historical songs and several dozen poetic pieces, constitutes a clear document of romantic behavior, marked by historicizing and patriotic feelings. This is an individual testimony but we can assume that it reflects to some extent the esthetic-spiritual attitude and literary interests in the broader circles of the Lublin region community. What is most intriguing is the relation between the song texts of the collection and their versions published by Eustachy Heleniusz (true name Eustachy Antoni Iwanowski) in volume II of the book Wspomnienia lat minionych [Recollections of by-gone years] (Krakow 1878). This book contains all the songs in our collection, and, what is important, recorded in very similar versions, probably not encountered anywhere else. Did the writer copy the texts from Heleniusz's work or from other sources? An extremely close similarity of the extracts from the Czemierniki manuscript and Heleniusz's book would indicate Heleniusz. On the other hand, however, in all the seven texts compared with the book versions there is not a single case of full verbal conformity (or even spelling). There are always some bigger or smaller differences. It is possible therefore that the writer used some other sources as his model, those that preserved the same tradition that influenced Heleniusz's study. But it was also possible that the author of the collection used only the Recollection of By-gone Years, differences in comparison with this sources having been the result of respect for local traditions, whether oral or written, which required the writer to write down his own "corrections". Most probably, that was how these songs were sung in the Lublin region at the close of the nineteenth century.
10.2478/v10075-008-0007-7
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Article 08PL: Muzyka poważna w telewizji. Problemy i nadzieje
EN: Classical Music on Television. Problems and Hopes
155-181

Maciej Białas


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, Poland

In view of the fact that classical music has been present on television almost from its inception, it seems surprising that very few studies have been devoted to this problem, the more so that it is difficult to accuse it of the poverty of substance. Showing classical music on television seems to bring the audience closer to the natural conditions of reception; on the other hand, television audiovisuality clashes somehow with musical audiality, which produces numerous controversies. On top of that is everything that, in the context of classical music on television - a prominent example of ambitious art, fascinates and sets sociologists, economists and media experts against one another rather than estheticians, music theorists and television directors. Aware of these contentious issues the author distinguishes two kinds of problems associated with the presentation of classical music on television, i.e. technical-esthetic and socio-economic ones. The technical-esthetic problems include the issues connected first of all with the position of classical music in the homogenized television world, with the defects and virtues of musical shows on television, with their technical aspect, their impact on the audience, and with esthetically dubious classical music television formats. When discussing socio-economic problems, he tackles the issues of the special character of reception of televised classical music, the presence of classical music in the programs of TV stations, the funding of musical television shows, developing a passion for classical music by television, commenting on classical music on television, competition between classical music on TV and classical music "live", the use of television by musical organizations and performers of classical music as a marketing weapon. The author concludes his discussion with analyses of the content (analysis of the TV recording of classical music concerts, or analysis of discussion devoted to music.) Despite the above-mentioned problems the author sees a considerable potential in television with regard to the presentation of classical music and believes that if the problems are finally overcome, television can render a service to great music.
10.2478/v10075-008-0008-6
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Article 09PL: Pokój jako przedmiot międzykulturowej edukacji artystycznej. Frieden als Gegenstand einer interkulturellen, künstlerischen Pädagogik, Jarosław Chaciński, red. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pomorskiej w Słupsku, Słupsk 2007
185-196

Renata Gozdecka


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, Poland

10.2478/v10075-008-0009-5
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Article 10PL: Anna i Zygmunt M. Szweykowscy, Dramma per musica, cz. 1, [w serii:] Historia muzyki XVII wieku, t. 5, Muzyka we Włoszech, red. Zygmunt M. Szweykowski, Musica Iagellonica, Kraków 2008
196-207

Tomasz Jasiński


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, Poland

10.2478/v10075-008-0010-z
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Article 11PL: Sławomir Marzec, Sztuka, czyli wszystko. Krajobraz po postmodernizmie, Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, Lublin 2008
207-214

Agnieszka Skrobas


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, Poland

10.2478/v10075-008-0011-y
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Volume 02 - 2004

Article 01PL: Lubelskie życie artystyczne podczas Wielkiego Kryzysu odświętne i codzienne
EN: Festive and Everyday Artistic Life in Lublin during the Great Depression
9-47

Ireneusz J. Kamiński


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Despite various difficulties brought about mainly by the economic crisis in the 1930s, Lublin’s artistic circles at the time continued to develop in numbers and in organizational terms; they often made public appearances and grew consolidated, aware of their professional identity. The character and dynamics of this milieu was determined especially by three formations: Union of Artist Painters “Kra˛g” [Circle], Society for Propagation of Art, and Union of Artist Designers. The “Kra˛g” assembled mainly teachers and graduates of the local Free School of Painting and Drawing, the members of Society for Propagation of Art included art lovers and individual artists, while the members of Union of Artist Designers were, apart from few exceptions, fine arts practitioners that lived in Lublin or in the Lublin province. In some period, a special role was played by the Society for Propagation of Art, which, thanks to cooperation with the renowned Institute for Propagation of Art in Warsaw, brought in to Lublin the exhibitions of well-known or eminent Polish artists, and even a part of the international exhibition of woodcuts. It should be also emphasized that members of these societies worked on an honorary, volunteer basis. However, the provincial authorities and the city’s self-government were not indifferent to this spontaneous movement for culture, the main evidence of which was the establishment, on the initiative of one of the provincial governors, of the Lublin Union for Cultural Work [LUCW] and building of the grand LUCW House, which housed a museum, a library and functional rooms for fine arts exhibitions. This facility was opened in June 1939, several month before the outbreak of the World War II. In short, the institutional foundations of artistic movement were built in Lublin in the 1930s.
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Article 02PL: Nike i Tanatos. Metafora zwycięstwa nad śmiercią w rzeźbach Gustawa Zemły
EN: The Metaphor of Victory over Death in the Sculptures by Gustaw Zemła
49-60

Ryszard Knapiński


Instytut Historii Sztuki KUL

The theme of victory and death is seen in the works of present-day sculptor Gustaw Zemła. The artist has created his own language of plastic forms with metaphorical significance, such as: wet folds, fluent, wavy lines, ruptured breasts of the human body that resemble the furrows of ploughed soil or the texture of scorched earth, or charred bodies of victims. This is revealed by his monumental works, e.g. in Katowice: the Silesian Insurgents Monument, in Warsaw — The Fallen Unvanquished 1939–1944 and the Monte Cassino Heroes Monument. Inspired by Greek Hellenistic sculpture and novel forms of Henry Moore, the artist has crated a different language of expression, which communicates universal content in a symbolic form. These messages are, however, deeply rooted in important national events, which was the Polish struggle for independence.
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Article 03PL: Badania paleograficzne nad pismem hebrajskim średniowiecznym i nowożytnym
EN: Palaeographic Studies on Medieval and Modern Hebrew Writing
61-82

Andrzej Trzciński


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

In the paper’s introduction the author points out that the previous presentations of the state of palaeographic studies on Hebrew writing in the period in question are merely short and general surveys, and that in Polish literature this subject matter is entirely absent. This state of things determines the principal goals of this paper.
The second part contains a short outline of the origin and history of Hebrew writing (including its later version called Jewish writing) from the eleventh century BC until the mid-twentieth century. The third part is the discussion proper of the state of research from the latter half of the 19th century until 2004. It covers the following issues: 1) methods and objectives of investigation (from the early methods based on subjective impressions to modern multi-aspect approaches that combine objective measurements with a thorough analysis of structural and morphological features of letters and are based on extended questionnaires of the writing features under examination); 2) classification and typology of writing: in the regional aspect (types of writing in individual geocultural areas), functional (kinds of writing — square, semi-cursive, cursive and intermediate, including the emphasis on other terms used) and final identification (writing style); 3) terminology of description of letters (names of components and component sets, names of writing line). The problems discussed here covers manuscript, printed and partially epigraphic writing.
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Article 04PL: Dwie historie. Przyczynek do dziejów rzymskokatolickiego budownictwa sakralnego na Lubelszczyźnie w początkach XX wieku
EN: Two Histories. A Contribution to the History of Roman Catholic Church Buildings in the Lublin Region in the Early 20th Century
83-95

Jerzy Żywicki


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

In 1905 a tsar’s toleration ukase was proclaimed, which lifted earlier restrictions on the development of Roman Catholic church building in the territory of the Russian partition. Architecture historians often express a view that upon the passing of this decree the administrative law constraints on the development of church building disappeared. This view is also reinforced by the statistical figures recording a great number of churches built after 1905 in the territory of the Kingdom of Poland. However, fairly numerous episodes show that despite freedoms stipulated by the toleration ukase, the situation was far from idyllic. These cases include the histories of the churches in two villages in the Lublin region: in G˛e´s and in Opole-Podedworze. They illustrate tensions between the provisions of legal regulations, habits of tsarist officials and the needs and aspirations of the faithful. Moreover, the history of the struggle to have these churches built distinctly reflects the regional consequences of the more general situation in Russia at the end of the 20th century’s first decade.
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Article 05PL: Parę uwag o cerkwi pw. Przemienienia Pańskiego w Terebuniu koło Brześcia nad Bugiem, na Białorusi (w świetle wizytacji z lat 1725 i 1757)
EN: Some Remarks on the Transfiguration Orthodox Church in Terebuń near Brest on the Bug in Belarus (In Light of Visitation of 1725)
97-110

Paweł Sygowski

One of the more interesting structures built under the Eastern Church in the territory of the Polish Commonwealth (First Republic) is the orthodox church now located in the Belarussian territory, not far from Brest on the Bug, in the village, which is called Terebu´n in the archival records, and Shumaki in the present-day Belarussian studies. This brick temple was founded by the Shuiski, a ducal family escaped to Poland from Russia in the 16th century. The period the church was built — 1609–1612 — was over a dozen years after the signing in nearby Brest of the union, as a result of which some of the Orthodox bishops in the then State united with the Latin Church. The church in Terebu´n combines the Gothic and Renaissance elements. It has not been settled whether these elements were the forerunners of assimilation of Western forms by the architecture of Uniate churches or whether the church was still an Orthodox one, yet nevertheless the interior was decorated with elements of the then binding architectural styles.
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Article 06PL: O niektórych klejnotach z monogramem IHS
EN: On Some Jewels with the Monogram IHS
111-116

Ewa Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

From the days of early Christianity, the name Jesus was attributed with extraordinary power. It was believed that it had the power to protect against fire, water, weapons, and poison. These extraordinary properties of the divine name were used for personal protection by carrying them on oneself, written on a piece of parchment.
The period of growing interest in Jesus’ name turned out to be the late Middle Ages. The cult of the name of Jesus was popularized among others by widely-known speeches of Franciscan-Observant preacher, St. Bernardine of Sienna (d. 1444), who made the name of Jesus the main subject of his teachings. He tried, inter alia, to persuade godfathers to give newly baptized infants gilt pendants with letters IHS instead of hardly valuable (in the spiritual sense) presents.
From the other half of the 15th century there were numerous jewels with the Jesus monogram — IHS, inlaid with diamonds. Nowadays we know a long list of them. The IHS-monogrammed jewels have also been preserved in Poland. The collection of the Jasna Góra sanctuary includes several of them. One of the oldest is a unique jewel dated for the turn of the 15th century with the monogram IHS and MARIA.
A diamond pendant with Jesus’ name was in possession of Queen Catherine of Poland, the third wife of Sigismund Augustus. This jewel was an item in the inventory of valuables brought to Poland in 1553 by Queen Catherine, listed as Pendens cum effigie Iesu facta de diamante cum tribus magnis perlis.
A diamond pendant IHS, now kept at the National Museum in Szczecin, was discovered in the grave of the Szczecin prince Francis I (d. 1620).
Expensive gold pendants with Jesus’ name, inlaid with diamonds or rubies, were worn, just like the name IHS written on parchment, in the 16th and 17th centuries as apotropaia with protective and security properties. The same function was performed by monograms IHS placed on belt buckles, bracelet clasps or, which was especially frequently recorded in written sources, on rings. T
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Article 07PL: Odkrywanie Mielczewskiego. Nowe spojrzenie na repertuar rękopisu 10002 Biblioteki Jagiellońskiej w Krakowie
EN: Discovering Mielczewski. A New View of the Repertory of Manuscript 10002 of the Jagiellonian Library in Krakow
119-162

Tomasz Jasiński


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

The repertory of the 17th-century manuscript with catalogue number 10002 (formerly 127/56) of the Jagiellonian Library in Krakow was published in its entirety almost thirty years ago and also aroused interest of some researchers (inter alia Jan St˛eszewski, Zofia St˛eszewska, Jerzy Gołos). The new analysis in the present study, this time with a narrow scope, of the repertory preserved in this invaluable historic manuscript permits us to enrich the composing achievements of the eminent representative of Polish Baroque, Marcin Mielczewski (d. 1651). The results of the comparative analyses, which cover — on the one hand — the long established pieces by this composer (inter alia Canzona prima a 2, concerto Benedictio et claritas, Canzona prima a 3) and on the other, anonymous compositions and those signed with the monogram “M.M.”, recorded in the manuscript no. 10002, show that as many as eight items in the aforesaid manuscript can be safely regarded as pieces composed by Marcin Mielczewski: three Ta´nce [Dances] (two of them signed with the M.M. monogram), Intrada, Ach, meczek, a song Serce mi ubiegła [She stole my heart] and two untitled compositions. They represent the instrumental, dancing and song tendency, some of them may have even been associated with some kind of stage music.
Some of the newly identified works by Mielczewski required the performing of all manner of restoration procedures. They are not, however, the kind of complements that would be debatable or arbitrary. Only one piece, i.e. Intrada shows greater losses in the musical structure and currently has to remain an incomplete piece.
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Article 08PL: Polichóralne msze G. F. Aneria. Technika parodii
EN: Polychoral Masses of G. F. Anerio. Parodying Techniques
163-187

Aleksandra Patalas


Instytut Muzykologii Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego

The Mass pieces of G. F. Anerio, capellmeister at King Sigismund III’s court, constitute the part of his musical achievements, most closely connected with the stylistics of Palestrina present in his renditions of ordinarium missae. Amongst the Masses by Anerio one can find the pieces using pre-composition material and thus belonging to the type of missae ad limitationem and the Mass with cantus firmus. a set of three missae breves is formally and structurally distinctive. The whole of achievements in the area of Masses is divided into unichoral and polychoral pieces. The essential elements of the music techniques of the composer of Missa Constantia did not change during the whole period of his artistic activity. Predominant in his achievements was the type of ad imitationem Masses (they also included Missa Constantia, based on an unknown model, composed to honour Sigismund III’s wife) where the method of the use of pre-composition material is in conformity with the practice of parodying, developed in the sixteenth century. The Masses by the royal capellmeister composed during the period of his activities in Poland are a specific continuation of the trend started on the Vasa court by Asprilio Pacelli, although they reveal a tendency to increase the number of choruses, that is a turn towards the so-called monumental style. At the same time one can observe a tendency towards an ever-increasing formal diversity, in particular to introduce shorter choral phrases employing homorhythmic texture, conducive to a rapid dialogue of the choruses, emphasis on the effect of their spatial arrangement, and to dynamizing the musical course. As regards the tone of the sound of the choir, the tendency was retained for using choruses not differentiated in respect of their composition, devoid of instrumental melodic voices, whereas far more varied and tonally more interesting were —especially in Missa Constantia— low-voice passages.
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Article 09PL: Moje lwowskie lata
EN: My Lvov Years
189-198

Andrzej Nikodemowicz


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

Andrzej Nikodemowicz, born in Lvov in 1925, eminent Polish composer of our times, reminisces about the period of his life spent in Lvov. This retrospection covers almost half a century, starting from his childhood years before the World War II to his emigration to Poland in 1980. In the autobiographical themes, the composer goes back to his familial sources of love of music, he remembers his educational paths and musical activities: as a pianist, composer, and teacher; he recalls the names of his masters, highly regarded artists, great and famous composers and also of concerts particularly engraved in his memory as well as the events of Lvov’s musical life. At the same time — in a parallel line of retrospection — the composer describes a number of extremely difficult and often painful personal experiences related to the events of the World War II and occupation, and then very hard life, demanding courage, great fortitude and indomitability, under the Soviet rule. The personal memories and confessions are accompanied with descriptions of the life in the then Lvov — its political and war-time fortunes, tragedies suffered by the city, and the cultural and artistic atmosphere of the time. The revealing of less known and forgotten episodes brings closer to today’s generation of Poles the dramatic and important biography of Andrzej Nikodemowicz, at the same time contributing a valuable historical record relating to the history of Polishness in the territories that once belonged to the Polish Commonwealth.
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Article 10PL: Wpływ ideologii marksistowskiej na edukację plastyczną w polskim szkolnictwie ogólnokształcącym w latach 1948–1959
EN: The Impact of Marxist Ideology on Fine Arts Education in Polish Secondary School System in 1948–1959
201-225

Anna Marta Żukowska


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

In post-WW II Poland the ideological offensive encompassed all areas of social life. Culture was to contribute to building a new socio-political system, it was to be socialist and mass-oriented. The independence of science was almost completely abolished, the researchers and lecturers being compelled to use “Marxist approaches” in their work. The education system of the time had to be politically involved. The implementation of Soviet pedagogical theory and practice caused the teachers to have to learn new methods and contents of teaching in their teaching and upbringing work. The problems whose solution was sought in Soviet models included the forming of a scientific worldview and socialist morality, education in a collective team, popular patriotism, internationalism and applied technical education.
These problems occurred in school in respect of all subjects taught, including teaching of drawing. The drawing classes curricula were based on Marxist-Leninist assumptions. It was also recommended that instruction should include issues connected with the front of struggle for socialism, which was of paramount importance. Also methodological literature for teachers was imbued with propagandistic content. The methods of teaching drawing were highly influenced by the then preferred socialist realism in art, which presupposed the unity of form and content. There were also recommendations relating to the use of examples of socialist-realism art as teaching aids.
Along with the transformation of the previous school into a socialist one, the postulate was put forward for polytechnical education. The school authorities started to view polytechnical education as “the indispensable part of the teaching and upbringing process in a society that is building socialism.” The objective of technical education was to prepare young people to understand technical and technological developments, and principles of production and power generation. The fundamental path of realizing these tasks was to be, among others, the teaching of drawing and applied handicrafts classes. a major role in the dissemination of the polytechnization idea was played by the Provincial Teaching and Research Workshops for Drawing and Handicrafts Classes.
A valuable form of improving the professional skills of teachers for the needs of socialist pedagogical theory and practice were pedagogical lectures organized by the State Centre for Educational Programme Studies and Pedagogical Research, and by the Ministry of Education.
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Article 11PL: Zamierzenia wychowania estetycznego w zakresie plastyki wobec dziecka w Polsce lat dwudziestych XX wieku
EN: The Aims of Aesthetic Education in Fine Arts towards the Child in Poland of the 1920s
227-240

Anna Boguszewska


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Aesthetic education in fine arts appeared as a pedagogical problem on the turn of the nineteenth century. Started by the “pedagogical and aesthetic reform” in the interwar period, it was expressed in various aims. One direction of action focused on school activities: programme-based teaching of the subject named drawing, dissemination of fine arts, the influence of the coursebooks and illustrated school reading texts. The other direction covered extracurricular activities outside school: encouraging the activities of artistic and teacher’s circles, holding exhibitions in order to emphasize the role of aesthetic education oriented towards the child. The objectives realized during the period in question must be assessed very highly—they were a precedent in Polish pedagogy that laid solid foundations for post-war activities.
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Article 12PL: Testy zdolności muzycznych Edwina E. Gordona stosowane w polskich badaniach
EN: The Edwin E. Gordon Musical Aptitude Tests Used In Polish Studies
242-252

Ewa A. Zwolińska


Instytut Pedagogiki Akademii Bydgoskiej

The E. E. Gordon musical aptitude tests are some of the world’s best-known and valued instruments for diagnosing musical abilities in children. Recent years have witnessed a clearly increased interest in this problem. The present paper brings closer to the readership four popular Gordon tests: AUDIE, Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA), Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (IMMA), and Musical Aptitude Profile (MAP). One can find here the description of the structure and purpose of particular tests and technical data relating to conducting studies and ways of interpreting results. The presented materials come both from original test books and from the author’s own experience gathered as a result of many-year-long studies on musical abilities.
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Volume 01 - 2003

Article 01PL: Wstęp
EN: Preface
9-12

Maria Przychodzińska

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Article 02PL: W stronę alternatywnej historii Muzeum Lubelskiego. Ksawery Piwocki
EN: Towards An Alternative History of the Lublin Museum: Ksawery Piwocki
15-45

Ireneusz J. Kamiński


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

In 1930, after winning the appropriate selection procedure, Franciszek Ksawery Piwocki, a young (b. 1901) art historian, graduated from King John Casimir University in Lvov, was appointed the curator (head) of the Lublin Museum. Employed by the Society called Lublin Museum, Piwocki's chief responsibility was to catalogue, systematize and exhibit the collections divided into speci c departments. The curator's major responsibility was also to hold all kinds of exhibitions. These were dicult tasks, even beyond the possibilities of one man. Such work was certainly carried out in the Museum earlier, but it was only fragmentary, super cial and as a rule amateurish (except for a short period prior to Piwocki's arrival in Lublin). One of the main reasons for this state of a airs was that the Museum, established in 1905, was from the very beginning a public, community- -based venture, and hence it permanently lacked funds, whereas its collections numbered over a dozen thousand exhibits in the elds of numismatics, folk culture, history, nature, ne arts etc. It should be also remembered that Piwocki's principal employer was the Lublin Provincial Governor's Oce, where he served in the responsible and time-consuming capacity of the district conservator. Moreover, he was an active member of several scienti c and cultural societies in Lublin. Ksawery Piwocki's involvement in the matters concerning the Museum was therefore determined by objective and subjective factors. The situation was further complicated by the con ict between the curator and the Lublin Museum Society's Administration, whose sluggish actions and conservative ideas about museums were sharply criticized by Piwocki. Finally, we come to the conclusion that although limited in its scope, Piwocki's work for the Museum was very useful. It is another matter that Piwocki's merits for Lublin's culture of the 1930s lie rst of all in his work as the conservator and propagator of scholarly life, a Polish Cultural Society activist, and co-founder of the Lublin Union of Cultural Work. After he had left Lublin (1935), Piwocki worked in Vilna and then in Lvov. After the World War II he came to live in Warsaw where, until he died in 1974, he was ardently active in various elds, whose common denominator was the theory and history of art in the broad sense, including amateur, folk and naive art genres, which he valued especially highly since his youth.
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Article 03PL: Gdańsk w litografi ach Jana Gumowskiego
EN: Gdańsk as Depicted in Jan Gumowski's Lithographs
47-68

Jerzy Żywicki


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Jan Kanty Gumowski (1883{1943) is now a somewhat forgotten painter, graphic artists and draughtsman. He studied at the Kraków Academy of Fine Arts and in Florence, Munich and Paris. He then served many years in Jozef Piªsudski's First Legionary Brigade. After he nished military service he lived with his family in Kraków, where he continued his artistic work until he died in 1943. In his creative work one can distinguish two general thematic areas. The rst is made up of portraits of the First Brigade legionaries as well as genre scenes and battle eld landscapes produced in the war trenches; the second covers the pictures of monuments of Polish architecture. Gumowski created many drawings and water colours reproducing the views of towns and castles destroyed by the 17th-century Swedish invasion, and several lithographic cycles published in the portfolios called Motifs of Polish Architecture. In his lithographs he rst of all preserved the beauty of Polish architecture of wooden constructions and that of old-town crescents. Realism characteristic of Gumowski's creative work, combined with the individual, rigidity-free perception of old architecture, determines the high artistic values of his works. The portfolio `Gda«sk', published as Fascicle 5 of the Motifs of Polish Architecture, presents Jan Gumowski's work of 1927{1928. It contains 20 charts made with a lithographic technique. He showed in them Gda«sk's numerous historical monuments, rst of all those that showed centuries-old links of this sea coast city with Poland. For an ardent patriot, which the artist was, this was especially important because during the interwar period the traces of Polish character in the Free City of Gda«sk were often erased by its German community. While treating Gumowski's portfolio as a speci c historical source enriching the Gda«sk iconography, we should also observe its considerable ne-arts values.
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Article 04PL: Wiara w magiczną moc klejnotów w Polsce w czasach renesansu i baroku
EN: Faith in the Magical Powers of Jewels in Poland in the Ages of Renaissance and Baroque
6-82

Ewa Letkiewicz


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

The term `magical powers of jewels' has been used conventionally to de ne protective and healing functions that were attributed to jewels from the ancient times until the industrial epoch. To the users of jewels this actually meant the use of allegedly natural properties of precious stones and metals or \secret (magical) powers" concealed before the human eye, which, however, man could discover with his reason and employ to his bene fit. In Poland, like in other European countries, the knowledge of the properties of stones and metals, based primarily on the experience of the ancients, could be acquired through medical studies in Salerno, Padua, and in Kraków. This knowledge entered wide circulation owing to popular herb books.
The purpose of this paper is to show how the `magical powers' of stones and metals were used in Poland. One of the earliest, spectacular examples of the application of jewels as an apotropaic piece was the use at King Ladislaus Jagiello's court of the so-called \dragon's tongues" as protection against poison. Records of \dragon's tongues" are still found in the sources relating to Kings Sigismund I and Sigismund Augustus.
The number of source records show that some of the most popular, generally available apotropaic pieces were medallions with the image of Agnus Dei (the Lamb), animal teeth, claws and hooves set in silver, as well as mountain crystal, coral and malachite. Expensive and rare apotropaic pieces, also used for healing purposes, were jewels with holy relics, jewels with holy monograms and symbolic shapes.
Healing properties were an attribute of miracle rings. One of such rings believed as early as the 13th century to miraculously cure epilepsy was sought after by King Sigismund Augustus from Henry VIII of England. Curative properties were also part of the expensive, dicult to obtain substances like bezoar, which was used to treat King Stephen Bathory, or a unicorn's horn, one of the most expensive, hoarded in the royal or state treasuries of Kings Casimir the Jagellonian, Sigismund I (the Old), Sigismund Augustus, and Sigismund III Vasa. Extraordinary curative properties were part of stones, popularly termed precious, whose powers were strengthened by setting them in gold or silver.
Although as early as the latter half of the 16th century rst opinions appeared doubting the \powers" of stones, 19th-century pharmacies still kept \stones for health": pearls, emeralds, rubies, which is con rmed by the inventory of the pharmacy of Pauline Friars in the Jasna Góra shrine.
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Article 05PL: Struktura tonalna Delli madrigali a cinque voci del Prencipe di Venosa libro sesto (1611). Wybrane aspekty
EN: The Tonal Structure of Delli madrigali a cinque voci del Prencipe di Venosa libro sesto
85-107

Zofia Dobrzańska-Fabiańska


Instytut Muzykologii Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego

The paper is a contribution to the interpretation of the tone language of Delli madrigali a cinque voci del Prencipe di Venosa libro sesto (Gesualdo 1611), essentially from the perspective of the 16th-century conventions of musical notations and modal assumptions. The features of the compositions investigated reveal the phenomenon of the expanding of the sound material and the \harmonic space", which, however, is related to the diversity and non-schematic nature of consonant connections. At the same time, the investigated repertoire reflects the e ect of the modal theory principles upon the general features of sound structuring of the composition, guaranteed by the selection of \tonal type" expressed in distinctly visible modal frameworks of the musical piece and in the thoroughly thought-through modal plane of the whole set. The particular properties of the melodic ductus, especially of the cadence plane, frequently going beyond the modally neutral system of diatonic cadence degrees, show, however, a tendency to blur the features derivative of the modal sound order. As a result, the borderline is blurred between the sounds determined by modal repercussae and the sounds modally alien, which de ne the melodic pro le and cadence points.
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Article 06PL: Ave florum flos Hyacinthe Marcina Mielczewskiego. Problemy z rekonstrukcją oryginalnego kształtu kompozycji zachowanej z tekstem niemieckojęzycznej kontrafaktury
EN: Marcin Mielczewski's Ave florum flos Hyacinthe. Problems with Reconstruction of the Original Form of the Composition Preserved with the Text of Contrafacture in German
109-127

Barbara Przybyszewska-Jarmińska


Instytut Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Nauk

Marcin Mielczewski (died in September 1651), one of the best-known and most highly regarded composers active in the courts of the Polish Vasa Kings, was to be buried, according to his last will, in the Warsaw Dominican church of St. Hyacinth. In the church, repeatedly ruined and pillaged over the centuries there are no records of the burial of the musician. The author seeks evidence of the relationships with this milieu of Mielczewski, who lived for several years in the street adjacent to the Warsaw Dominican monastery. She indicates sources con rming the appearance of King Ladislaus IV Vasa's band in St. Hyacinth church, when Mielczewski was a band member; she also adduces a hitherto omitted source informing about Mielczewski's membership of the local rosary fraternity, and nally she also nds among his productions a piece that must have been composed with the Polish Dominican friars in mind. In the so-called Emil Bohn collection (housed in the Stadtbibliothek inWrocªaw until theWorldWar II, now in Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin) there is a notation record of a vocal-instrumental polychoral church concerto, signed with the M.M. monogram, which the author deciphers as Marcin Mielczewski (manuscript le no. Bohn Mus. Ms. 170, 15). The work is titled with the rst words of the antiphony about St. Hyacinth: Ave florum flos Hyacinthe, which is still played in Polish Dominican cloisters, but it was recorded, most certainly on account of being intended for Silesian Lutheran churches, exclusively with the text of a contrafacture in German with di erent contents. The papers presents the ways of reconstructing of the original form of the work (by substituting the Latin text) and related problems.
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Article 07PL: Muzyczne alegorie w twórczości kompozytorów epoki baroku
EN: Musical Allegories in the Productions of Baroque Composers
129-155

Tomasz Jasiński


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

Among the Baroque sound interpretations of verbal compositions we nd phenomena that deserve to be named musical allegories. They occur when the composer develops a complex structure, which | as a kind of musical parallel of the text worked on | interprets in di erent ways the words underlying a musical piece. The constituents of this type of allegorical representations are musical-rhetorical gures, counterpoint technique devices, numerical symbols, musical quotations, intellectual constructions, devices resulting from interdisciplinary connotations, etc., which join together successively and simultaneously in their diverse con gurations, forming a semantically marked verbal and sonic \image". This phenomenon is exempli ed by excerpts from the works by Heinrich Sch¨utz, Claudio Monteverdi, Bartªomiej P¦kiel, Jo~ao Lourenco Rebelo, Johann Kuhnau and Johann Sebastian Bach. An analytical insight into the shape and composing rules of the aforementioned musical allegories allows us to reach deeper into the core of the speci c traits of music in the Baroque period, revealing its semantic, symbolic, theological and aesthetic dimensions and bringing closer the axiological sphere as well.
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Article 08PL: Symboliczne treści muzyki współczesnej
EN: Symbolic Content of Contemporary Music
157-171

Barbara Smoleńska-Zielińska


Instytut Muzyki Akademii Ś‘więtokrzyskiej

The problems of symbolic content of contemporary music has been presented from various standpoints | orientations with diverse philosophical foundations. Phenomenological orientation: a musical piece is treated as a fully autonomous entity, distinct from the surrounding reality as an intentional aesthetic object, where the factor of symbolic meanings, expression and transmission is barely not excluded. Semiological orientation: music is treated as a link in the communicative process, transmission of the content important to man, in relation to culture understood as a complex interconnection of communicative systems (music is one of them). Sociological-cultural orientation: a musical piece is interpreted in the context of socio-cultural reality, against the background of its historical time. The opinions and standpoints of eminent composers of contemporary music were also referred to.
The presented analysis is not only concerned with giving prominence to di erences in interpreting the symbolic content and senses of music but also with indicating common areas such as constancy of certain fundamental ideas and questions: association of music with the sphere of emotions (catharsis), the function of sign (mimesis), with the sphere of ethical values, but also distinction between \functions" performed by music and the beauty of the strictly tonal order.
The purpose was also to justify the adopted theoretical assumptions that music is an autonomous work but also an intentional communication (a composer's message), and that it is subject at the same time to the processes of transformation in individual perception and in reception processes, blending into culture. The musical content and meanings are formed as a result of these processes. At the same time these processes (of gaining content and meanings) are not complete; in this sense a musical piece remains open.
To a teacher it is especially important to notice the role of the subject in creating the sense, content and meaning of a musical piece: lling the \points of indeterminacy" (Ingarden), activating one's own imaginative power (Kneif), creative attitude (Dewey, Gadamer), animating the tonal structure, and reading the message of the musical piece.
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Article 09PL: Wychowanie muzyczne w szkołach polskich z perspektywy stulecia 1900{2000
EN: Musical Education in Polish Schools from the Perspective of the Century of 1900{2000
175-195

Maria Przychodzińska


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

The subject of this study are Polish conceptions of widespread musical education that were developed in the years 1918{2000. The paper is divided into three periods: 1918{1939, 1945{1989, and 1989{2000. Several problems were examined:
1. The origins and mechanisms of development of musical education conceptions in Poland.
2. The connection of these conceptions with the culture in which they were formed. Analysis covered the following questions: to what extent they were in uenced by tradition (which was a special authority in this eld), to what extent they were adequate in respect of topically recognized cultural values and the desirable model of participation in musical culture; to what extent they were prospective, stemming from the understanding of future needs, thus becoming the source of changes.
3. The native character of conceptions developed in Poland: to determine to what extent they were more or less creative adaptations of foreign conceptions and to what degree they were their own products of Polish musicians-educators.
4. The development of theoretical foundations of musical education, which provided the basis for conceptions arising in Poland.
Part One of the study (1918{1939) analyzes historical materials. On their basis the author tries to outline the objective picture of this area of culture. Part Two (1945{1989) describes the conceptions of musical education, in the working out and implementation of which the author took active part. While examining them, however, the author tried to be objective and avoided evaluation. Part Three is a brief outline that shows the current situation of aesthetic and musical education, its collapse, the reasons for this condition and its prospects.
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Article 10PL: Nauczanie przedmiotu "rysunek" w pedagogiach w okresie międzywojennym
EN: Teaching the Subject `Drawing' in Pedagogia schools during the Interwar Period
197-225

Anna Boguszewska


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

Pedagogia [schools] were schools training elementary school teachers at a higher level, which operated in Poland from 1928 (Lublin, Kraków, Warsaw). For the sake of clarity of problems of teaching drawing in pedagogia, the paper outlines the organizational and curricular structure of the pedagogia. The objectives and curricula in the pedagogia were intended to as fully as possible train the teachers to learn the child's needs, his/her psychic, intellectual and physical development. To this overall end were dedicated the authorial programmes of teaching drawing in the pedagogia. The author of the best-preserved curricular plan implemented in Kraków was Henryk Policht. The use of the extant documents concerning the work of other pedagogia enabled the presentation of elements of the teaching process related to teaching drawing in Lublin, ŠŁódź, Pozna« and Toruń. The analysis covered the condition of school premises having a signi cant impact on the results of teachers' work, especially in respect of available teaching aids. The manner of conducting classes, the use of methods and forms of work and methodological literature on the subject were the object of a separate analysis. It was broadened with the insight into teaching results expressed by students' grades based on archival records. The studies conducted show the complexity of the problem, indicating new research areas.
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Article 11PL: O kształceniu, dokształcaniu i doskonaleniu zawodowym nauczycieli rysunku szkół ogólnokształcących w II Rzeczypospolitej
EN: On Educating, Additional Training and Enhancement of Professional Quali cations of Drawing Teachers in General-Education Secondary Schools in the Second Republic
227-250

Anna Marta Żukowska


Instytut Sztuk Pięknych UMCS

In the history of arts education at school, the 1918{1939 decades is the period when the subject `drawing' | equivalent to present-day `plastic arts' | played a signi cant role as an unquestionable component of general education. At the time when the Polish school was being restored, when the best models for the secondary school of general education were sought, none of the schemes of its organization omitted drawing. Most probably, in uenced by the school of work pedagogics and culture pedagogics created in Europe by Georg Kerschensteiner, the issue of teaching drawing started to play a special role. Also in the later period, after the whole school system was reformed according to Janusz Jędrzejewicz's plan, the position of drawing was retained in the new curricula of 1936.
The purpose of the present study is to show the system of training teachers of the subject `drawing', functioning in Polish general-education secondary schools in the interwar decades. The intention of the author, who does her teaching and research work at the UMCS Institute of Fine Arts in Lublin, the institution that largely trains future art. educators, is to show structural-organizational and curricular-methodological transformations in schools of di erent types and levels in the period in question.
The author's special interest focused on examining in detail the working of the institutions training drawing teachers for elementary schools and general-education secondary schools. These training institutions were discussed successively, with regard to the level of professional training, starting from teachers' seminaries, then State Teacher-Training Courses, teacher-training secondary schools, pedagogia schools, Higher Teacher Education Courses, the State Institute for Handiwork, Teacher Education Courses in Warsaw, academies of ne arts, and the Stephen Bathory University in Vilna, which provided universitylevel teacher education. The paper discussed examination requirements for those schools, their teaching curricula, diploma quali cations and quali ed teacher examination procedures. The forms of additional training of drawing teachers were also described. Much attention was devoted to teachers' professional quali cation enhancement and their selfeducation.
The interwar achievements and experience in training ne arts teachers, now a part of tradition, can be a source of inspiration for training new students for creative, cultural or ne arts education. It can also be a contribution to searching for a model of educating ne arts teachers.
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Article 12PL: Edukacja muzyczna w poszukiwaniu nowych zde finiowań
EN: Musical Education in Search of New De nitions
251-264

Andrzej BiaŠŁkowski


Instytut Muzyki UMCS

One of the characteristic features of the present-day debate on musical education is a gradual departure from the views identifying musical education with aesthetic education and a tendency to see its problems in the interdisciplinary perspective. The most signi cant areas of dispute certainly include multiculturalism, interculturalism, cross-cultural concepts and the so-called postmodernist debate, which arouses most controversies. Regardless of individual articulations of each of these elds, there seem to be clear-cut connections of these domains with the traditional views on musical education that have, over the last several decades, focused on three principal trends. These are the \progressive" and \traditional" trends and the intermediate eclectic trend that has been followed over the last several decades by most established conceptions of musical education. It is this trend that today produces most attempts to devise new strategies and conceptions of practical action corresponding to the character of presentday musical needs. Among the particularly cognitively attractive proposals we must name E. R. Jorgensen's dialectical concept of musical education. Its author proposes to view musical education in a broad scope, going beyond the traditional conceptions, and to treat it as an all-life process; she also justi es the need to analyze its problems in the context of changes that we are dealing with today in the whole sphere of socioculture. The development of the conception of musical education or a vision of its curriculum can be understood, in her view, as a kind of dialectical game, with free entities participating (teachers or those studying educational process), which leads to the emergence of an educational solution appropriate to a speci c situation. Jorgensen o ers a series of concepts where one is always dialectically linked with the other. Each pair, relating to musical or educational issues, is a dilemma to be decided by the teacher. The alternatives suggested by Jorgensen pertain to relations between: form and context, great and small musical traditions, transmission and transformation, continuation and interaction, creation and reproduction, understanding and pleasure, and theory and practice. The whole that emerges from this game does not, obviously, constitute a sum total of its elements but a new quality.
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Article 13PL: Recenzje. Polemiki
267-297

Joanna Jemielnik, Maria Przychodzińska, Renata Gozdecka, Agnieszka Weiner,

Stanisław Będkowski, Agnieszka Chwiłek, Iwona Lindstedt, Analiza schenkerowska, Musica Iagellonica, Kraków 1997

Irena Zielińska, Młodzież wobec wartości muzyki współczesnej, Wydawnictwo Akademii Muzycznej im. F. Chopina, Warszawa 2002

Nicolas Cook, Muzyka, tłum. M. ŠŁuczak, Pruszyński i S-ka, Warszawa 2000

Lech Z. Niekrasz, Chopin gra w duszy japońskiej, Impuls, Kraków 2000

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