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Volume 69 - 2014

Article 00PL: Spis treści
EN: Table of contents

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Tomasz Pieńkos, Stanisław Hałas

Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, Poland *Corresponding author, e-mail:

In this paper we try to reconstruct the spatial distribution of stars in globular clusters (GCs) from heuristic statistical ideas. Such 3D radial distributions are important for understanding physical conditions across the clusters. Our method is based on converting spherically symmetrical functions such as exp(-r2/s2), exp(-r/s), 1/(1 + r2/s2) 2 and 1/(1 + r2/s2)m, (s and m are parameters) to 2D star distributions in a GCs by the Monte Carlo method. By comparing the obtained 2D profiles with observational ones we demonstrate that Gaussian or exponential distribution functions yield too short extensions of periph-eral parts of the GCs profiles. The best candidate for fitting GCs profiles has been found to be the generalized Schuster density law: C/ (1 + r2/s2)m, where C is the normalization constant and s and m are adjustable parameters. These parameters display a nonlinear correlation with s varying from 0.1 to 10 pc, whilst m is close to 2. Using this law the radiation temperatures across M 13 and 47 Tucane were estimated.
globular clusters, stars, density, radial distribution, 2D and 3D, Monte Carlo, Schuster law, M 13, 47 Tucane
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Artur Wójtowicz 1, Tomasz Pieńkos 1, Stanisław Hałas 1, Danuta Peryt 2, Tomasz Durakiewicz 3, Agnieszka Młynek 4

1 Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Institute of Physics, UMCS, 20-031 Lublin, Poland *Corresponding author. E-mail address:
2 Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland
3 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
4 Chair and Department of Biophysics, Medical University of Lublin 20-074 Lublin, Poland

We have demonstrated that cryogenic separation of glauconite and foraminifera from the host rock allows to preserve the integrity of extracted specimens, assures minimal damage and causes no artificial fractionation. The K/Ar dating of two glauconite samples from Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Nasiłów outcrop yields 62.0 and 66.3 Ma. The discrepancy in these dates, much larger than expected from analytical precision, may result from too low %K, which was 5.91 and 5.73, respectively.
foraminifera, glauconite, cryogenic separation, K-Ar dating
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Mariusz Orion Jędrysek 1 , Stanisław Hałas 2, Tomasz Pieńkos 2

1 Laboratory of Isotope Geology and Biogeochemistry, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Wrocław, 50-205 Wrocław, Poland.
2 Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, M. Curie-Skłodowska University. 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

We demonstrate the annual cycle of methane in fresh sediments of two lakes – Moszne (E Poland) and Skrzynka (W Poland). The vertical gradient in δ13C(CH4) values varied widely from about -4.5‰/(-1 m) in late summer 1993 to about +2.5‰/(-1 m) in late winter, in the uppermost sediment profiles of about 3-meters in length. These vertical variations apparently are not due to oxidation or temperature changes, but rather to the higher gradient of the downward decrease of production rates via the acetic acid fermen-tation pathway rather than via the CO2-H2 pathway. The production of methane and δ13C(CH4) values are the highest during summer while the lowest during winter, reflect-ed especially during surface sampling. The downward gradient of δ13C in winter, late autumn and, at greater depths, in late summer results from isotope enrichment of the residual pool of precursors of methane, predominantly CO2.
carbon, isotope, methane, lake, sediment, diagenesis, greenhouse effect, isotope budget
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Davide Fiscaletti, Amrit Sorli

SpaceLife Institute, Via Roncaglia, 35-61047 San Lorenzo in Campo (PU), Italy; *Corresponding author, e-mail address:

A three-dimensional quantum vacuum condensate is introduced as a funda-mental medium from which gravity emerges in a geometro-hydrodynamic lim-it. In this approach, the curvature of space-time characteristic of general rela-tivity is obtained as a mathematical value of a more fundamental actual varia-ble energy density of quantum vacuum which has a concrete physical meaning. The fluctuations of the quantum vacuum energy density suggest an interesting solution for the dark energy problem.
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Jan Sielewiesiuk

Department of Biophysics, Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, e-mail:

A cycle of four methylation and four demethylation reactions with repression or allosteric inhibition of enzymes is considered. The corresponding dynamical system is characterised by two parameters: the sum of reagent concentrations (C) and the ratio of rate constants of forward and backward reactions (k). In a symmetrical case (k=1) the system has a unique equilibrium. At C>4 the equilibrium is unstable and the system has oscillatory solutions. At k essentially different from 1, the system becomes excitable or behaves as a bistable trigger.
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  13. Romanovsky, Yu.M., Stepanova, N.V. and Chernavsky, D.S. (1975) Mathematical Modelling in Biophysics, Nauka, Moscow.
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Jan Sielewiesiuk, Agata Łopaciuk

Department of Biophysics, Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland, e-mail

Dynamical systems consisting of two interlocked loops with negative and positive feedback have been studied using the linear analysis of stability and numerical solutions. Conditions for saddle-node bifurcation were formulated in a general form. Conditions for Hopf bifurcations were found in a few symmetrical cases. Auto-oscillations, when they exist, are generated by the negative feedback repressive loop. This loop determines the frequency and amplitude of oscillations. The positive feedback loop of activation slightly modifies the oscillations. Oscillations are possible when the difference between Hilll’s coefficients of the repression and activation is sufficiently high. The highly cooperative activation loop with a fast turnover slows down or even makes the oscillations impossible. The system under consideration can constitute a component of epigenetic or enzymatic regulation network.
circadian rhythms, mathematical model, coupled loops, oscillations
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  7. Jolma I.W., Laerum O.D., Lillo C., Ruoff P. (2010) Circadian oscillators in eukaryotes. WIREs Systems Biology and Medicine 2, 533-549
  8. Majercak J., Wen-Feng Chen, Edery I. (2004), Splicing of the period gene 3’- terminal intron is regulated by light, circadian clock factors, and phospholipase C, Mol. Cell Biol. 24, 3359-3372.
  9. Müller S., Hofbauer J., Endler L., F lamm C ., Widder S., S chuster P . (2006) A generalized model of the repressilator. J. Math. Biol. 53, 905–937
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  11. Niehrs Ch., Pollet N. (1999), Synexpression groups in eukaryotes, Nature 402, 483-487.
  12. Oster H. (2010), Circadian clocks and metabolism, chpt. 5, in: Albrecht U. (ed.) The Circadian Clock, Springer, New York.
  13. Ripperger J.A, Brown S.A. (2010) Transcriptional regulation of circadian clocks, chpt. 2, in: Albrecht U. (ed.) The Circadian Clock, Springer, New York.
  14. Saithong T., Painter H.J., Millar A.J. (2010), The contribution of the interlocking loops and extensive nonlinearity to the properties of circadian clock models. PLoS ONE 5 (11) e13867, doi: 101371.
  15. Sielewiesiuk J., Łopaciuk A. (2012) Regulation of gene expression by Goodwin’s loop with many genes. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, sectio AAA Physica 67, 31-45.
  16. Steiger D . K öster T . ( 2011), Spotlight on post-transcriptional control in the circadian system. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 68, 71-83.
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Jan Burchart

Professor emeritus, Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw; e-mail:

Majority of the papers on isotopic dating of minerals and rocks have been devoted to some new geochronological data important for geology or to developments of apparatus and improvements of laboratory techniques and procedures. However, there are some basic problems concerning credibility of the data published (including the “error brack-ets”), and their geological meaning, which rarely are touched on.
The issues to be raised may be grouped into two categories: (1) distortion in the course of preparatory operations and final measurements, and (2) some doubts concern-ing geological interpretation of the data and the models used. First of all it should be realized that what we really analyse in a spectrometer is not an existing rock or mineral but a powder produced by many steps of consecutive procedures, each of them capable of irreversibly distorting the original composition.
isotope geochronology, models, dating, mass spectrometry, uncertainty
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  2. Zhengh Y.F. (1989) Influences of the nature of the initial Rb-Sr system on isochron validity. Chem. Geol. (Isot. Geosci. Section) 80, 1-16.
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Andrzej Pelc 1, Christophe Lécuyer 2, Anne-Marie Bodergat 2, Stanisław Hałas 1

1 Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Institute of Physics, UMCS, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, UMR CNRS 5276, Université Lyon 1 et Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne, France *Corresponding author, e-mail: also at Institut Universitaire de France

We report the first δ37Cl data for surface waters of the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey, from 12 stations sampled over the period 2005 to 2006. The recorded variation of δ37Cl values is fairly small, from -0.4 to +0.6 ‰ vs. SMOC, though the environmental conditions were highly variable seasonally. The salinity of the studied waters varied from 2.8 to 95 g/L and the δD vs. δ18O plot significantly departures from the World Meteoric Water Line (WMWL) with a slope of 5.43±0.19. Chlorine isotopes indicate a weak positive correlation between δ37Cl and δD of water and its salinity. This may be due to mixing between seawater and distinct sources of freshwater. The small spread of obtained δ37Cl results demands enhanced precision of analysis and careful sample preparation.
Akyatan lagoon, chlorine isotopes, hydrology, climate, δ18O, δD
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  4. Duane M.J., Al-Zamel A., Eastoe C.J. (2004) Stable isotope (chlorine, hydrogen and oxygen), geochemical and field evidence for continental fluid flow vectors in the Al-Khiran Sabkha (Kuwait), Journal of African Earth Sciences 40, 49-60.
  5. Eggenkamp H. (2004) Chapter 28, in: P. de Groot (ed.) Handbook of Stable Isotopes, Elsevier.
  6. Hałas S, Pelc A (2009) New isotope ratio mass spectrometric method of precise δ37Cl determinations. Rapid Comm. in Mass Spectrom. 23, 1061-1064.
  7. Kuleli T (2010) Quantitiative analysis of shoreline changes at the Mediterranean Coast in Turkey. Envir. Monitor. Assess 167, 387-397.
  8. Lécuyer C., Bodergat A.-M., Martineau F., Fourel F., Gürbüz K. and Nazik A. (2012) Water sources, mixing and evaporation in the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 115, 200-209.
  9. Lécuyer, C., Gardien, V., Rigaudier, T., Fourel, F., Martineau, F., Cros, A. (2009) Oxygen isotope fractionation and equilibration kinetics between CO2 and H2O as a function of salinity of aqueous solutions. Chemical Geology 264, 122-126.
  10. MacPherson N, Cittolin G, Cook H, Besiktepe S. (1998) The farming of sea bass, sea bream, and shrimp in Iskenderun Bay, Turkey. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) report. Available as a PDF file at the following URL :
  11. Martineau, F., Fourel, F., Bodergat, A.-M., Lécuyer, C. (2012) D/H equilibrium fractionation between H2O and H2 as a function of the salinity of aqueous solutions. Chemical Geology 291, 236-240.
  12. Meybeck M., Ragu A. (1996) River discharges to the oceans: an assessment of suspended, major ions and nutrients. GEMS/EAP, 245 pp.
  13. Nazik A., Evans G., Gürbüz K. (1999) Sedimentology and palaeontology with special reference to the ostracoda fauna of Akyatan lagoon (Adana – SE Turkey). Geosound 35, 127-147.
  14. Pelc A., Hałas S. (2008) Negative ion source for chlorine isotope ratio measurements. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 22, 3977-3982.
  15. Wu J., Satake H. (2006) Purification of CH3Cl from CH3I using cold trap with sealed 2,2,4-trimethylpentane for δ37Cl measurements, Analytica Chim. Acta 555, 41-46.
  16. Xiao Y.K., Zhang C.G. (1992) High precision of isotopic measurement of chlorine by thermal ionization mass spectrometry of theCs2Cl+ ion. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 116, 183-192.
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Article 99PL: Recenzenci
EN: Reviewers

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Volume 68 - 2013

Article 01EN: Interferometer for receiving and recording of radio emission of the Sun at the frequency of 220 MHz


Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The interference radiotelescope for receiving of the solar radio waves at frequency 220 MHz and continuous data obtained using the radiotelescope from 1 January 1985 to 30 November 2013 are presented.
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Article 02EN: FEM application in studies of mechanical properties of the C-Pd film


Tele & Radio Research Institute, Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warsaw, Poland E-mail address:

Comparison of numerical simulation and experimental data for nanoindentation studies of nanostructural carbonaceous-palladium films (C-Pd) is presented. Finite Element Method (FEM) and ANSYS program (Ansys, Inc) were used. Traditional Oliver–Pharr method for cone and spherical shaped indenter were applied for FEM modelling of nanoindentation experiment. FEM simulations showed that Pd nanograins are moved in carbon matrix toward the film surface due to an external stress. Distribution of palladium grains in the film volume influence on the Young modulus and nanohardness was also found.
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Article 03EN: Strontium isotope composition of sedimentary rocks and its application to chemostratigraphy and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions


Polish Geological Institute – National Research Institute, Rakowiecka 4, PL 00-975 Warszawa, Poland E-mail address:

Strontium isotope composition of seawater is homogenous in all oceans and marginal seas but has varied through time with changing strontium fluxes. Strontium isotope ratio of ancient seawater may be reconstructed from well-preserved authigenic minerals and used for dating marine sediments. Because of a change in the strontium isotope ratio between sea- and freshwaters it can also be employed for the determination of palaeosalinities or the reconstruction of diagenetic processes of marine limestones. A review of methodology and practical hints concerning the utilization of strontium isotopes in geological studies of both marine and brackish sediments are presented in the current article.
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Article 04EN: About a new suggested interpretation of special theory of relativity within a three-dimensional Euclid space


SpaceLife Institute, Via Roncaglia, 35 – 61047 San Lorenzo in Campo (PU), Italy * Corresponding author. E-mail address:

An interpretation of special theory of relativity is proposed, in which the fundamental arena of physical processes is an Euclid three-dimensional space where time exists only as a numerical order of material changes and the duration of material changes is a proper, physical scaling function of the numerical order. This model introduces interesting perspectives in the study of several phenomena inside special relativity, such as aberration of light, Doppler effect, Jupiter’s satellites occultation and radar ranging of the planets.
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Article 05EN: Controversies about the value of the third cosmic velocity


Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Plac M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland Corresponding author. E-mail address:

The purpose of writing this article was to derivate the formula for the third cosmic velocity using only the laws of conservation in the heliocentric reference system. It turns out that it can be done by using elementary mathematics, thanks to which the reasoning and calculations are affordable for one interested in this subject. By the way, we wanted to discuss the errors that appear even in well-known textbooks and professional articles, whose commitment leads to incorrect results. The magnitudes of the third cosmic velocity obtained by us are: v3average = 16.68 km/s, v3perihelion = 16.57 km/s and v3aphelion = 16.79 km/s.
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Article 06EN: Comment on ‘Bulk-plasmon contribution to the work function of metals’


1 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group, Mailstop K764, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA, 2Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Institute of Physics,
2 Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Plac M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Simple derivation of work function of metals based on the bulk-plasmon contribution is discussed here in a form of a comment to previously published work. We show that such a derivation is neither the fi fi rst of its kind, nor it is in agreement with experimental data. Incidentally, the physical foundations of the proposed derivation appear to be flawed.
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Volume 67 - 2012

Article 01PL: Prof. dr hab. Bogdan Adamczyk (1930–2011) – wspomnienie pośmiertne
EN: Professor Bogdan Adamczyk (1930–2011) – posthumous recollections

Leszek Wójcik

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Article 02PL: Dorobek naukowy prof. dr. hab. Bogdana Adamczyka
EN: List of scientific papers contributed by Professor Bogdan Adamczyk

Leszek Wójcik, Artur Markowski

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Article 03PL: Regulacja ekspresji genów w pętli Goodwina z wieloma genami
EN: Regulation of gene expression by Goodwin’s loop with many genes

Jan Sielewiesiuk, Agata Łopaciuk

Biophysics Department, Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, e-mail:

The paper presents a simple analysis of a long Goodwin’s loop containing many genes. The genes form a closed series. The rate of transcription of any gene is up or down regulated by the protein product of the preceding gene. We describe the loop with a system of ordinary differential equations of order s. Oscillatory solutions of the system are possible at the odd number of repressions and any number of inductions if the product of all Hill’s coef_ cients, related to both repressions and inductions, is larger than:
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Article 04PL: Trójwymiarowa przestrzeń jako ośrodek splątania kwantowego
EN: Three-dimensional space as a medium of quantum entanglement

Davide Fiscaletti, Amrit S. Sorli

SpaceLife Institute, via Roncaglia 35, 61047 San Lorenzo in Campo (PU), Italy e-mails:,

Most physicists today still conceptualize time as a part of the physical space in which material objects move, although time has never been observed and measured as a part of the space. The concept of time here presented is that time measured with clocks is merely the numerical order of material change, i.e. motion in a three-dimensional space. In special relativity the Minkowskian four-dimensional space-time can be replaced with a three-dimensional space where time does not represent a fourth coordinate of space but must be considered merely as a mathematical quantity measuring the numerical order of material changes. By quantum entanglement the three-dimensional space is a medium of a direct information transfer between quantum particles. Numerical order of non-local correlations between subatomic particles in EPR-type experiments and other immediate quantum processes is zero in the sense that the three-dimensional space acts as an immediate information medium between them.
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Volume 66 - 2011

Article 01EN: Discoveries and names of heavy chemical elements: from curium to copernicium and beyond

Adam Sobiczewski

The Andrzej Sołtan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoża 69, Warsaw, Poland

The present state of the synthesis and studies of the properties of heavy nuclei is shortly presented. Main attention is given to superheavy nuclei, in particular to isotopes of copernicium, the heaviest element the discovery and name of which have been approved by IUPAC, and to isotopes of the recently observed element 117. The rules used in naming newly discovered elements and recent changes in these names or these elements are discussed.
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Article 02EN: Problems in contemporary nuclear physics

A. Góźdź, W. A. Kamiński, Bożena Nerlo-Pomorska, K. Pomorski

Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Sciences, Maria Curie Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland

Last decade research topics of the Nuclear Theory Group of the M.C.S. University in Lublin are presented in this article. The achivements of the group and its further plans are confronted with current problems of modern nuclear physics.
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Article 03EN: Radioactive nuclei for medical applications

Jerzy Jastrzębski

Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warszawa, ul. Pasteura 5a, Poland

The radioisotopes used for labeling the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are contemporaneously produced using neutrons in reactors and light charged particles from accelerators (cyclotrons). After the presentation of both methods the commercially available cyclotrons are reviewed. Some examples of the most popular medical radioisotopes are given. The new Radiopharmaceuticals Production and Research Centre at the University of Warsaw is presented.
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Article 04EN: Nuclear physics in medicine, minefield and kitchen

Paweł Moskal

Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow, Poland

Plethora of phenomena discovered and investigated in the Maria Curie laboratories constitute nowadays basis of functioning of various advanced devices used in modern science, industry and medicine. In this article we briefly describe few examples of nuclear physics applications, such as: non-invasive imaging of living organisms by means of Positron Emission Tomography, remote identification of explosives and other dangerous substances, using the technique of atometry, and preservation of food by its exposure to nuclear radiation.
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Article 05EN: The absolute age of events in Earth and human history on the basis of radiocarbon dating

Anna Pazdur

GADAM Centre of Excellence (Department of Radioisotopes), Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

Radiocarbon chronometry holds a special place among the many discoveries made in the field of applied nuclear research. Few discoveries in fact, even among those being honored with the Nobel Prize, have had such a powerful and lasting impact on the further development of science. This method, as well as many other complex research methods, which appear to constitute an independent scientific discipline, arose as a result of many years of work by a team of several scientists. However, the actual founder of radiocarbon chronometry was one man, Willard Frank Libby, honored for his contribution with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960. In Poland, the creative activity in this area was begun in the late 1940s by Włodzimierz Mościcki, who continued it in the last 10 years of his life in the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, where he founded the Gliwice Radiocarbon Laboratory.
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Article 06EN: The legacy of Maria Curie Skłodowska

Ryszard Sosnowski

Andrzej Sołtan Institute for Nuclear Studies Świerk-Otwock

Maria Skłodowska Curie left us a great legacy. Her discovery of polonium and radium was incomparably greater than the mere discovery of new elements. Its significance lay in the discovery of a new form of matter, namely radioactive one, but also in her unveiling of the internal property of its atoms. Subsequently emitted radiation went on to play the role of a "natural accelerator" for both scientific research and in medical radiotherapy. It was thanks to these discoveries that the field of nuclear physics arose just a few decades later. As importantly the work of Maria Curie Skłodowska during the Great War demonstrated how important pure scientific discovery can be for society and its welfare.
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Article 07EN: Ionizing radiation as a tool to protect environment

Andrzej G. Chmielewski

Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw, Poland & Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

The paper overviews possible ionizing radiation application for environmental pollution control. The laboratory, pilot plant tests and industrial applications have illustrated possibility of this technology application for gaseous, liquid and solid wastes purification and treatment. Especially electricity driven radiation sources like electron accelerators have a broad prospectus of their applications. The examples of ionizing radiation application to protect the environment and human health are discussed in the paper.
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Article 08EN: Mössbauer spectroscopy of iron-based superconductors

A. Błachowski 1, K. Ruebenbauer 1, J. Żukrowski 2

1 Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, PL-30-084 Cracow, ul. Podchorążych 2, Poland
2 Solid State Physics Department, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, PL-30-059 Cracow, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Poland

A brief review concerned with the application of the Mössbauer spectroscopy to the investigations of iron-based superconductors is given. An introduction is devoted to the description of the most important features of the Mössbauer spectroscopy followed by the discussion of the basic properties of iron-based superconductors. Our results obtained for FeSe, LiFeP and parent compounds of the ‘122’ family, i.e., for AFe2As2 (A=Ca, Ba, Eu) are discussed later on with particular attention paid to the spin density wave (SDW) magnetism exhibited by the parents of the ‘122’ family. It is found that incommensurate SDW contain many harmonics in these layered structures and evolve from almost separated magnetic sheets through quasi-triangular forms to almost rectangular shape with the lowered temperature.
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Article 09EN: Symmetries in Physics: Guidelines for Theories and for Experiments

Jerzy Dudek, Andrzej Góźdź

Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France

The works of Maria Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie, of their few predecessors and of their many followers addressed over the years the studies of the atomic nuclei - the smallest objects in the Universe which are unique in that they are governed simultaneously by the strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. In this article we focus on the concept and nature of symmetries, their omni-presence in physics and their impact on the behaviour of the physical systems. Beginning with a short historical overview covering quickly the birth of certain concepts in the ancient times and their evolution until the most modern ones we cover, on an introductory level, the question of space-time symmetries, the connection between the intrinsic degrees of freedom and the spatial behaviour of quantum particles as well as the question of symmetry-induced conservation-laws. We discuss shortly examples of continuous and discrete symmetry groups, the constraints imposed on the energy spectra (degeneracy of levels) by the symmetries of the underlying Hamiltonians, to end with the question of transitions and symmetry imposed selection rules. The article terminates with a short discussion of the symmetry breaking phenomena, spontaneous symmetry breaking and phase-transition induced symmetry-changes.
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Article 10EN: French-Polish Co-operation in Nuclear and Particle Physics

Jan Styczeń

Institute of Nuclear Physic Polish Academy of Science, Cracow

Co-operation in nuclear and particle physics between Poland and France has been lasting as an officially signed agreement for 37 years. It continuously grows and involves more and more scientific exchange. The article gives an overview, with historical aspects, of main achievements and the future. The documents and publications are in the web page
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Volume 57 - 2002

Article 01EN: Why high Tc is exciting

Jan Zaanen

Inst it uut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands

It is a common wisdom that the metallic state of solids has to do with a quantum-gas of particles which behave like non-interacting electrons. It has become clear during the last decade that systems of strongly interacting electrons are able to exhibit far more interesting quantum-mechanical behaviors. The best evidence has been found in transition metal oxides, especially so in the copper-oxide (high Tc) superconductors. Here I will present a sketch of the main developments. The plot is as follows: I am going to start off by shedding doubts on the established wisdom in metal physics (section 1). In section 2 I will introduce the 'dynamical stripes', referring to an unprecedented form of quantum fluctuating order occurring on nanometer length- and picosecond time scales in the high Tc superconductors. These dynamical stripes disappear at longer times where the physics of the superconductivity emerges. This physics is highly anomalous and I will discuss the popular notion that it is not about quasiparticles but instead about the critical fluctuations associated with a quantum phase transition (section 3). Such a phase transition should have to do with the disappearance of order but apparently this order cannot be detected by conventional experiments (section 4). In the final section I will further illustrate this notion of 'hidden order' with ideas of our group in Leiden. This centers around the notion that a stripe phase carries a very unusual form of order ('geometric order'), which can persist while the charge and spin degrees of freedom of the stripe phase are quantum disordered, disappearing only at the high dopings associated with the best superconductors.
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Article 02EN: xtended Thomas-Fermi estimates of single particle potentials for doubly magic and superheavy nuclei

A. Baran 1, K. Pomorski 1, J. Bartel 2

1 Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pi. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 IReS, Strasbourg, France

We present self-consistent semiclassical calculations using Skyrme type effective interactions to determine local quantities such as nuclear densities and single particle potentials. These local quantities are given in an analytical form depending only on a few parameters characterizing the neutron and proton densities of nuclei from 16O to the region of superheavy nuclei. These parameters are given as a function of the mass number A and the isospin parameter I = (N — Z)/A.
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Article 03EN: Quantum backreaction of massless scalar field on the Schwarzschild black hole

Joanna M. Matyjasek 1, Jerzy Matyjasek 2

1 Chemical School, Al. Racławickie 7, 20-059 Lublin, Poland,
2 Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The approximate regularized stress-energy tensor of the quantized conformally coupled scalar field in Hartle-Hawking state in Schwarzschild spacetime is constructed. It is shown that outside the event horizon its maximal deviation from the exact value is less than 0.7%. The linearized semiclassical Einstein field equations are solved and quantum-corrected geometry of the black hole exterior and anisotropic interior is studied.
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Article 04EN: Systematic review of the generalized Bell inequalities

Stanisław Szpikowski

Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, ul. Hery 23, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pi. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1,20-031 Lublin, Poland

In the systematic review of the Bell inequalities, the system of inequalities (34) was given in a more precise way and the new inequality of the Bell type was also constructed. The suggestion of an experimental test of this new inequality is proposed.
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Article 05EN: Fragmentation of insulin in the MALDI method

Anna Bajuk, Krzysztof Głuch, Leszek Michalak

Department of Applied Physics, M. Curie-Skłodowska University, 20-031 Lublin

Results of observations of fragmentation processes of insulin ions by using the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) method and the reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer are described. On the basis of the mass spectra the fragmentation channels of insulin are proposed. For higher used accelerating voltages fragmentation processes are lower and the detection of insulin is more precise. These results can be very useful for the detection of insulin in biomedical samples.
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Article 06EN: The effect of carrier gas on formation of ammonia clusters

Józef Dąbek, Sylwia Ptasińska, Leszek Michalak

Department of Applied Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pi. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Expanding nozzle beams have been used for many years both as a source to obtain clusters and as a method to study nucleation and growth of clusters. In many cases the addition of the inert carrier gas to the condensing species is essential for the clustering processes. In this paper, the formation of ammonia clusters is investigated experimentally with a supersonic free molecular jet of NH3-X binary mixtures (X = Ar, He), especially noticing the effect of second species X on the cluster formation. The ion currents of proto-nated ammonia clusters (NHs)nH+ (n = 2-4) were measured with a combined cluster source system and a double focusing sector field mass spectrometer. Experiments were made both by changing the species concentration at constant total pressure and by changing total pressure at constant composition of each mixture. It is observed that, the formation process of ammonia clusters strongly depends on the nature of the carrier gas. The most likely explanation seems to lie in a local thermodynamic equilibrium between the excited clusters and its surroundings.
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Article 07EN: Cryptoxanthin, echinenone and hydroxyechinenone films at air-water interface

Jan Sielewiesiuk 1, Konka Veeranjaneyulu 2, Roger M. Leblanc 2

1 Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pi. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
1 Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124, USA

The surface pressure-area (71-A) isotherms, as well as cycles of compression and recompression experiments with cryptoxanthin, echinenone and hydroxyechinenone at the air-water interface were presented. Molecular areas of these one-head carotenoids differ from those of their two-head analogs zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin. Essential differences were observed at surface pressures (lower than 20 mN m1) in the pairs cryptoxanthin-zeaxantin and echinenone-canthaxanthin. In contrast, molecular areas of hydroxyechinenone and astaxanthin are essentially different at surface pressures (higher than 10 mN m1). Data were interpreted in terms of carotenoid crystallization at the air-water interface.
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Article 08EN: Recombination of non-equilibrium charge carriers in silicon irradiated with high energy ions

V. Yu. Yavid, S. N. Jakubenja, A. R. Chelyadinskii

Byelorussian State University, Department of Semiconductors Physics, pr. F. Skarina 4, 220050 Minsk, Belarus

Temperature dependencies of nonequilibrium charge carriers lifetime in n-type silicon layers implanted with 92 MeV boron ions have been investigated. It was established that T is determined by recombination centres localized in strongly compensated defect clusters produced during the implantation process and subsequent annealing. It was shown that dominant recombination centres are concerned with multivacancy complexes and produce in silicon band gap energy levels Ec - (0.12 - 0.18) eV.
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Volume 55-56 - 2000-2001

Article 01EN: Shell corrections and radii of spherical nuclei calculated by the Hartree-Fock-Bogolubov procedure with the Gogny force

Małgorzata Kleban, Bożena Nerlo-Pomorska 1

1 Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Katedra Fizyki Teoretycznej, ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.
** The work was partially sponsored by the Polish Committee of Scientific Research: KBN No. 2P 03B 115 19.

The self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogolubov (HBF) calculation with the Gogny effective interaction D1S was performed for the spherical nuclei Ca, Sr, Sn, Sm, Pb. The shell effects were extracted by Strutinsky procedure and then the Hartree-Fock (HF) macroscopic energy was approximated by the liquid drop formula. The isospin dependent formulae for proton, neutron and charge radii were found on the basis of the theoretical density distributions.
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Article 02EN: A new neural network optimization technique with application to nuclear data basis

Marek Jaszuk, Wiesław A. Kamiński

Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Katedra Fizyki Teoretycznej, ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

The dependence between the neural network structure and predictive abilities of the network is studied. To optimize the network structure we introduce a method based on the weight scaled backpropagation with a weight decay. We analyze performance of this method using the experimental nuclear data. Neural networks have been trained on a defined set consisting of nuclear mass excesses. We check the predictive power of such learned networks on another set of nuclei not involved in the training procedure. We show that starting with networks consisting of a relatively large number of nodes one can increase their predictive power with considerably reduced complexity of the network topology.
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Article 03EN: Statistical Studies of the Solar Radio Emission in the Years 1985-2000 at 220 MHz

Longin Gładyszewski, Ewa Krukar, Artur Kuć, Tomasz Pieńkos

Zakład Fizyki Ogólnej i Dydaktyki Fizyki UMCS, PI. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

Investigations of solar radio emission with frequency 220 MHz during last 16 years are presented. Basic Statistical parameters of data of solar radio emission are calculated.
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Article 04EN: Avalanche breakdown in electron irradiated silicon p-n-junctions at low temperatures

F. P. Korshunov 1, S. B. Lastovski 2, N. E. Zhdanovich 1, V. K. Shesholko 1, V. A. Gurinovich 1

1 Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, P.Brovki str. 17, 220072 Minsk,BELARUS.
2 Tel.: +375-0172-841-289; fax: +375-0172-840-888. E-mail address:

The influence of electron (E = 4 MeV) irradiation on the temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown voltage Ub of silicon diffused-alloyed gradual p-n-junctions manufactured on the basis of floating-zone growth Si (n-region - p = 0.2 Qcm, p-region - p = 0.015 Q cm) in temperature range 4.2-80 K has been investigated. The greatest Ub increase of the initial and irradiated p-n-junctions occurred in temperature range 17-30 K. The introduction of radiation defects results in sharper temperature dependence of the avalanche breakdown voltage in the given area. Capacity and conductivity temperature dependencies analysis of the initial and irradiated samples has shown that such Ub behavior is caused by the charge carriers freezing-out on the shallow doping centers in the quasi-neutral region of the structure. The introduction of radiation defects results in n-region material compensation degree and an ionization thermal energy of donor centers increase, which increases the temperature dependence of the breakdown voltage at 17-30 K.
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Article 05EN: Forward voltage drop of the electron irradiated silicon p-n-junctions at low temperatures

F. P. Korshunov 1, S. B. Lastovski 2, N. E. Zhdanovich 3, N. A. Poklonski 3

1 Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, P. Brovki str. 17, 220072 Minsk, BELARUS.
2 Corresponding author. Tel.: +375-0172-841-289; fax: +375-0172-840-888. Institute of Solid State and Semicondictor Physics. E-mail address:
3 Faculty of Physics, Belarussian State University. Skaryna Pr. 4,220050 Minsk, Belarus.

Electron (E = 4 MeV) irradiation influence on the temperature dependence of forward voltage drop UF of silicon gradual p-n-junctions manufactured on the basis of floating-zone growth n-Si with p = 0.06-0.5 Q cm in temperature range 4.2-80 K have been investigated. UF value abruptly increases more than 6 times at the unirradiated samples cooling below 40-30 K. UF increase occurs at two temperature regions 20-30 and 4.2-20 K that is associated with charge carriers freezing-out on doping (Al, P) impurities levels in p and n regions respectively. The p-n-junction electron irradiation results in monotone increase of the UF value in all investigated temperature ranges. These changes at 4.2-40 K are 5-6 times bigger
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Article 06EN: Static and dynamic parameters trade-off of Si p-n-junctions irradiated by fast electron under reverse bias at low temperature (77 K)

F. P. Korshunov 1, N. E. Zhdanovich 2, I. G. Marchenko 1

1 Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, P. Brovki str. 17, 220072 Minsk, BELARUS.
2 Corresponding author. Institute of Solid State and Semicondictor Physics. Tel.: +375-0172-841-289; fax: +375-0172-840-888. E-mail address:

Low temperature electron (E =4 MeV) irradiation influence on the static (forward voltage drop UF) and dynamic (minority charge carriers lifetime TP) characteristics trade-off of diffused p-n-junctions manufactured on the basis of cz-growth P-doped Si (p = 32 Q cm) has been investigated. The investigated samples were irradiated in passive and active modes of operation. Irradiation was performed at temperatures Ti = 77 K and 300 K.
It was established that passive mode irradiation at 77 and 300 K do not make differences in Ufijf) dependencies. In the active mode irradiation there was the significant shift of the UF(JF) dependency as compared with passive mode irradiation both at 300 K and 77 K. At 300 K irradiation this results in static and dynamic parameters trade-off deterioration (1.5 times) and at 77 K irradiation it results in trade-off improvement (1.5 times) as compared with passive mode irradiation.
The peculiarities of the UF(jF) dependencies behavior during active mode irradiation are caused by primary defects charge state change into the spatial charge region (SCR) and by their drift in SCR electric field.
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Article 07EN: Laser-stimulated oxidation of Cr films

A. M. Chaplanov, M. I. Markevich, F. A. Piskunov

Institute of Electronics BAS, 22 Logoiskii tract, 220-841 Minsk, Belarus.

Further oxidation is controlled by diffusion, which requires thermal activation. The overall oxidation rate depends on the interplay of particular oxidation steps. At pulse duration's between 10"5 and 10"3 s, oxide growth continues for 8-10"6 to 2-10"5 s after the maximum temperature was reached; this process is favored by high concentrations of nonequilibrium vacancies.
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Article 08EN: DarkI-Vcharacteristics of CdSxSej.x microcrystalline films

A. Fedotov 1, A. Mazanik, S. Manego, M. Tarasik, Yu. Trofimov, A. Ulyashin, A. Yanchenko

1 Corresponding author. Tel. 375-17-2265212, 375-17-2277495; fax: 375-17-2016001 E-mail address: (A. Fedotov). Belarusian State University, F. Skaryna Pr. 4, 220050 Minsk, Belarus.

The electrical properties of microcrystalline CdSxSei_x films (0.5 < x < 1.0) manufactured by the improved RF sputtering technology under influence of hydrogen plasma treatment and following annealing in different regimes are described. It was exhibited that incorporation of hydrogen from plasma produced drastic changes which occurred in the dark I-V characteristics and resistivity of the films. Dark conductance revealed increasing under hydrogenation and a long-time relaxation (decrease) with time for low temperature hydrogenation. The nonmonotonic influence of the film dimensions on dark conductance and I-V characteristics is shown, which is differentiated for as-received and hydrogenated films and depends on regimes of hydrogen plasma treatment. Such behaviour is associated with transformation of potential relief of hydrogenated films. * Corresponding author. Tel. 375-17-2265212, 375-17-2277495; fax: 375-17-2016001 E-m
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Article 09EN: Application of the spinning disk system for measurement of electrostatic charge tendency of selected liquids

Zbigniew Gacek, Krzysztof Maźniewski

Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Power System and Control, Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.

Preliminary measuring results relating to electrification current obtained for octane and benzene (as liquids represented hydrocarbons), methanol and propanol (as liquids represented alcohols), and for mixture of hexane with ethanol (as a reference liquid) are presented. Basing on statistical parameters, they have been compared to each other.
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Article 10EN: W-ions implantation and deposition of carbon film on the Fe54-Cr20-Nii6-Mn10 (100) single crystals surfaces

A. D. Pogrebnjak 1, M. V. Ilyashenko 2

1 Sumy Institute for Surface Modification, Shevchenko Wul. 17, 40011 Sumy, Ukraine, apogrebnj ak@ SIMP. sumy .ua
2 Sumy State University, Rymskii-Korsakov Str. 2, 40007 Sumy, Ukraine,

After W ion implantation with 5-1016 cm"2 dose the surface alloy of the Fe54-Cr2o-Nii6-Mn10 single crystal was studied using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), (elastic resonance reactions 4He(016, 016), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The surface alloy layer is composed of a number of structures: amorphous carbon film with diamond-like regions, layer with a small number of defects, FCC structure with large angle disorientation of subgrains and dislocation density up to ~ 7-8-109 cm"2, layer with net sub-grains structure and dislocation density up to 5-1010 cm"2. The maximum of W concentration is observed at the depth of 32 nm, and penetration depth reaches 130 nm. Carbon film on the surface protects against ion sputtering.
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Volume 54 - 1999

Article 01PL: Symetrie punktowe a hamiltoniany w układzie wewnętrznym
EN: Point symmetries and intrinsic hamiltonians

Andrzej Góźdź, Daniel Rosły

Instytut Fizyki UMCS, 20-031 Lublin, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, Poland

W niniejszej pracy użyto formalizmu algebraicznego - będącego uogólnieniem metody współrzędnej generującej (AGCM) - do wyprowadzenia związków między liczbami kwantowymi znakującymi nieprzywiedlne reprezentacje grup punktowych a fizycznymi liczbami kwantowymi, związanymi z nieprzywiedlnymi reprezentacjami ortogonalnej grupy O(3). Umożliwia to konstrukcję hamiltonianów nie tylko z generatorów grupy ciągłej, ale także z elementów grup dyskretnych, co umożliwia opisanie szerokiej klasy symetrii. We wstępie przedstawiono nowe wyniki eksperymentalne, przy uzyskaniu których formalizm algebraiczny może być użyteczny. Rozdział drugi zawiera przegląd głównych założeń metody AGCM oraz przyk(...)grupy (9(3). W rozdziale trzecim opisano metodę budów) (...) y dyskretnej na podstawie rozszerzonej metody AGCM. Kolejny rozdział zawiera przykład użycia formalizmu w przypadku grupy dyskretnej C4.
In the paper the group algebra formalism, a generalization of the Algebraic Generator Coordinate Method, has been used to relate the ąuantum numbers labelling the irreducible representations of point groups and the physieal ąuantum numbers reąuired for the irreducible representations of the orthogonal group O (3). Within the formalism, the method of con-struetion of the point-group determined Hamiltonian has been proposed as a generał way to analyze the symmetry properties of the molecular, atomie and nuclear energy spectra. An example of C4 point symmetry actually widely discussed in nuclear physics of exotic states has been shortly analyzed.
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Article 02PL: Fizyczne podstawy termochronologii argonowej
EN: Physical foundations of argon thermochronology

Stanisław Hałas

Pracownia Spektrometrii Mas, Instytut Fizyki UMCS, 20-031 Lublin, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1

W tym artykule rozważono przebieg dyfuzji argonu w ziarnach mineralnych. Został wyprowadzony wzór Dodsona, określający temperaturę zamknięcia minerału. Zostały krótko opisane metody odtwarzania historii termicznej skał, na podstawie prawa dyfuzji i stygnięcia.
In this paper the effects of argon diffusion in minerał grains are considered. The Dodson's formuła for closure temperaturę was derived. The methods of estimation of thermal history of rocks are outlined.
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Article 03PL: Improvements in IRMS by ion current stabilization
EN: Metody poprawiania stabilności prądów jonowych w spektrometrach mas do pomiaru stosunków izotopowych

Stanisław Hałas, Tomasz Durakiewicz

Pracownia Spektromertii Mas, Instytut Fizyki UMCS, 20-031 Lublin, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, Poland

W niniejszym artykule opisano praktyczne metody poprawiania stabilności prądów jonowych w spektrometrach mas, stosowanych do pomiaru stosunków izotopowych. Przedyskutowano kwestię niestabilności generowanych przez układ kolektora i źródło napięcia antydynatronowego. Wykrywanie niestabilności pola magnetycznego następuje przy użyciu prostej konstrukcji wskaźnika m/e. Opisano również sprawdzone w praktyce metody czyszczenia źródła jonów. Ukazano rolę stabilizacji prądu emisji elektronowej w źródle jonów i przedstawiono autorskie rozwiązanie układu stabilizatora. Na koniec wykazano wyższość pomiarów prądów jonowych dokonanych przy użyciu integratora nad pomiarami uzyskanymi za pomocą wzmacniacza z oporem wysokoomowym.
Practical methods of improving the ion current stability in Isotope Ratio Mass Spec-trometry (IRMS) are presented. Instabilities generated by the collector assembly and antidy-natron voltage are discussed briefly. A simple method of indicating the magnetic field instabilities and measurement of m/e ratio directly is given. Also the well tested practical methods of cleaning of the ion source are described. Problems of stabilization of electron emission current and stabilization of fllament temperaturę are discussed in relevance to ion current stability. Finally, the integration of ion currents is proposed as a replacement for the widely used high-ohm resistor amplifiers. Presented methods, designed and tested by the authors, are of importance for high-quality isotope ratio measurements.
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Article 04PL: Wahania czynnika To we wzorze Frenkla
EN: Yariation ofthe To terms in the Frenkel 's formula

Tomasz Durakiewicz, Stanisław Hałas 1, Jarosław Sikora 2

1 Instytut Fizyki UMCS, 20-031 Lublin, Poland, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, Poland, e-mail:
2 Katedra Automatyki i Metrologii, Politechnika Lubelska, 20-618 Lublin, ul. Nadbystrzycka 38A, Poland, e-mail:

W artykule zanalizowano rolę drgań zaadsorbowanych cząsteczek na powierzchni metalu w polu sił wzajemnego przyciągania powierzchnia-cząsteczka. Wzór określający średni czas adsorbcji i stałą Frenkla został wyprowadzony na podstawie metod fizyki statystycznej. Wyprowadzono następujący wzór przybliżony: t0 = nr^ilm/of'2, gdzie ro jest średnią odległością adsorbent-adsorbat; m - masą cząsteczkową; Q - energią adsorbcji. Obliczenia H2, N2, O2, CO i Ar wykazały, że T0 waha się w przedziale 410"14-10"12 s.
Vibrations of an adsorbed molecule are briefly discussed. The mean time of adsorption as well as the so-called "FrenkePs constant", To, are derived from statistical physics. For To the following approximate formuła was derived: t0 = nro(2m/Qp2, where r0 is mean ad- sorbent-adsorbate distance, m is the molal mass of adsorbed molecule, and Q is adsorption energy. Calculations for H2, N2, O2, CO and Ar show that x0 varies from 4 10"14 to 10~12 s.
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Article 05PL: Nowe ujęcie pracy wyjścia w fizyce powierzchni i nauce o klasterach
EN: A novel approach to the work function in surface and cluster science

Stanisław Hałas, Tomasz Durakiewicz

Pracownia Spektrometrii Mas, Instytut Fizyki UMCS, 20-031 Lublin, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, Poland

W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono całkowicie nowy punkt widzenia na pracę wyjścia z zakrzywionej powierzchni metalicznej. Pracę wyjścia obliczamy jako całkę sił obrazowych, korzystając ze wzorów elektrodynamiki klasycznej, przy czym całkowanie odbywa się w granicach od wartości d = j^e /47i8QCpoo (gdzie e - ładunek elementarny; eo - przenikalność elektryczna próżni; (poo - praca wyjścia z powierzchni płaskiej) do nieskończoności. Taki sposób obliczeń dał wartości zgodne z eksperymentem w następujących sytuacjach: 1. zmiany pracy wyjścia na jednoatomowych schodkach; 2. w zależności od stopnia pokrycia powierzchni w przypadkach małych pokryć; 3. małych rozmiarów kropli metalicznej.
In this paper we describe the entirely different point of view on the work function of curved metallic surfaces. We pointed out that in the formulae based on the classical electro-dynamics which exploits the idea of the image potential a characteristic smali distance d = ^-^2/47i80(poo, where e is elementary charge e0 is vacuum permeability and ^ is work function of an infinite flat surface, should be considered. In the framework of this approach we obtained excellent agreement with the experimental data in estimation of work function dependence on: (1) the size of monoatomic steps, (2) surface coverage at 0 close to zero, (3) size of smali metallic droplets.
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Article 06PL: Reakcje jonowo-molekularne w czystej metyloaminie
EN: Ion/molecule reaction in pure methylamine

Leszek Wójcik

Instytut Fizyki UMCS, 20-031 Lublin, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1

Przeprowadzono badania nad reakcjami jonowo-molekularnymi w czystej metyloami-nie, zapoczątkowanymi jonizacją pierwotną elektronami o energii 300 eV. Wyznaczono stałe szybkości reakcji w przypadku jonów pierwotnych i porównano z rezultatami pochodzącymi z innych publikacji.
The results of nwestigation of ion molecule reaction in pure methylamine are presented. Relative values of ion currents were determined as a function of gas pressure in the ion source collision chamber. Ali the observed primary ions vanish ąuickly to form CH3NH3 ions which at pressure > 20 mTr is practically sole species left in the mass spectrum. The disappearance ratę constants for main primary ions were determined. Measurements were performed using the mass spectrometer with high pressure ion source constructed by author.
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Article 07PL: Rozkład jonów wytwarzanych wzdłuż zogniskowanej wiązki fotonów przecinanej efuzyjną wiązką molekularną
EN: Distribution ofions generated along the focused photon beam intersected by the effusion molecular beam

Leszek Michalak, Halina Felinska, Artur Markowski

Instytut Fizyki UMCS, 20-031 Lublin, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, Poland

Przedstawiono wyniki komputerowych obliczeń rozkładu jonów generowanych wzdłuż zogniskowanej wiązki fotonów przecinanej efuzyjną wiązką molekularną w otwartym źródle jonów spektrometru mas. Rozkład ten rozpatrzono w zależności od geometrycznych parametrów kapilary efuzyjnej, parametrów wiązki fotonów oraz jej położenia względem wylotu kapilary.
In this work results of calculations of the number of photo-ions generated along a focused photon beam intersected with an effusion molecular beam as a function of the geometrical parameters of the effusion capillary, the parameters of the photon beam and the mutual position of both beams are presented. In the described case the axes of both beams are parallel to each other.
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Article 08PL: Modelowanie preferencyjnego przepływu wody w glebie
EN: Modelling of preferential water flow in soil

Cezary Sławiński, Henryk Sobczuk, Ryszard T. Walczak

Instytut Agrofizyki im. Bohdana Dobrzańskiego PAN w Lublinie, 20-290 Lublin, ul. Doświadczalna 4

W artykule przedstawiono fizyczno-matematyczny model preferencyjnego przepływu wody w profilu glebowym oraz jego weryfikację w warunkach polowych. W opracowanym modelu dokonano opisu parametrów makroporów różnego typu, zarówno pochodzenia biologicznego, jak też powstających w wyniku pęcznienia i kurczenia gleby. Do określenia poziomej infiltracji wody z makroporu do profilu glebowego wykorzystano model Greena-- Amptajako człon źródłowy w równaniu Richardsa. Zaproponowany model preferencyjnego przepływu wody w glebie może być opcjonalnie dołączony - wówczas, gdy w profilu glebowym występują makr opory - do jednowymiarowego modelu, w którym pionowy przepływ wody opisany jest równaniem Richardsa.
In this work the model of preferential water flow in soil profile and its verification in field conditions are presented. The elaborated model includes the description of macropore parameters of different types both of biological origin and created as a result of swellingshrinking process. For the description of horizontal infiltration from a macropore to soil matrix, the Green-Ampt approach is utilised as a sink term in Richards equation. Proposed model of preferential water flow in soil profile can be optionally included, if in the soil profile macropores occur, in one-dimensional model, in which vertical water flow is described by Richards equation.
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Article 09PL: Wstępne wyniki badania wpływu temperatury 200°C na ziarna pszenicy jarej oraz modyfikacji światłem lasera He-Ne skażenia ziaren grzybami pleśniowymi
EN: Preliminary study of the influence of 200°C temperaturę on summer wheat grains and modiflcation by laser He-Ne light of the summer wheat infected with pathogenic fungi

Mariusz Gagoś 1, Lucjan E. Misiak, Edyta Kowalczuk 2, Roman Koper 1

1 Katedra Fizyki Akademii Rolniczej w Lublinie, ul. Akademicka 13, 20-031 Lublin.
2 Instytut Mikrobiologii Ogólnej, Instytut Mikrobiologii i Biotechnologii UMCS, ul. Akademicka 13, 20-031 Lublin.

W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań EPR przeprowadzonych na ziarnach pszenicy jarej odmian Jasna i Banti, zakażonej grzybami patogennymi (takimi jak: Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp., i Mucor), a następnie wygrzanej w piecu w temperaturze 200°C. Podczas procesu obróbki termicznej badanych próbek pszenicy zaobserwowano powstawanie wolnych rodników, które nawet po 5 dniach od chwili wygrzania obecne były w próbkach w ilościach niewiele mniejszych niż bezpośrednio po wygrzaniu. Liczba niesparowanych elektronów w jednym gramie badanego ziarna po wygrzaniu wynosiła 1015 spin/g, co dziesięciokrotnie przewyższa liczbę rodników obecnych in vivo w 1 g tkanki organizmu żywego. Niewielka zmiana czynnika rozszczepienia spektroskopowego g - po wygrzaniu w 200°C - sugeruje powstanie zmodyfikowanych stabilnych wolnych rodników. Znaczny wzrost liczby wolnych rodników w badanych próbkach może sugerować, że termiczna obróbka ziarna zbóż jest procesem negatywnie wpływającym na podatność do spożycia wszelkiego rodzaju prażonych i pieczonych ziaren.
Grains of Jasna wheat, infected with pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus ni-ger, Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp. and Mucor, were subseąuently exposed to heating at 200°C for 1 h. The heating resulted in the formation of stable free radicals, detected with electron spin resonance. Interestingly, the concentration of free radicals after flve days was comparable to that seen 1 h after the heating. The number of unpaired electrons per one gram of a grain sample reached 1015 spin which exceeded by 10-fold the number of free radicals encountered in in vivo conditions. A moderate change of the g-factor following the heating at 200°C may suggest the formation of modifled stable free radicals. The considerable increase in the number of free radicals may lead to a conclusion that thermal treatment negatively affects the usefulness for con-sumption of a variety of roasted grains.
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Article 10PL: Dydaktyczne aspekty stosowania analogu w nauczaniu fizyki
EN: The didactic aspects of analogy in physics education

Małgorzata Klisowska 1,regina Zawisza 2

1 Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna w Rzeszowie, Wydział Matematyczno-Fizyczny, Instytut Fizyki, 35-959 Rzeszów, ul. T. Rejtana 16a
2 Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie, 20-031 Lublin, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1.

Nowe wymagania edukacyjne, wynikające z reformy polskiego szkolnictwa, implikują poszukiwania aktywizujących i integracyjnych metod nauczania-uczenia się przyrodoznaw-stwa. Jedną z propozycji jest zmiana w podejściu do metody wnioskowania przez analogię. W niniejszej publikacji przedstawiono metodyczne uzasadnienie koncepcji szerszego wprowadzenia analogii - jako metody heurystycznej - do procesu nauczania fizyki w polskich szkołach (w przyszłości również przedmiotów zintegrowanych, np. przyrody).
Modern cognitive psychology treats analogy inference as a fundamental components of human thinking and a basis for other cognitive methods. In agreement with that using analogy is teaching physics up to new standards of Reform of Educational System in Polish School. But using analogy in teaching physics is rare. Most teachers use this method occa-sionally because they do not appreciate the educative function of analogy or are not prepared to use it.
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