Repozytorim Annales UMCS Sectio AI - Informatica:
Liczba artykułów w bazie: 423 Format SWF: 348 Format DJVU: 0 Format PDF: 421 Razem plików: 769

Volume 14 - 2014

PL: Przedmowa - Kryptografia
EN: Preface - Cryptography
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Article 01EN: On Multivariate Cryptosystems Based on Computable Maps with Invertible Decomposition
7-18

Vasyl Ustimenko


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Let K be a commutative ring and Kn be an ane space over K of dimension n. We introduce the concept of a family of multivariate maps f(n) of Kn into itself with invertible decomposition. If f(n) is computable in polynomial time then it can be used as the public rule and the invertible decomposition provides a private key in f(n) based public key infrastructure. Requirements of polynomial ity of degree and density for f(n) allow to estimate the complexity of encryption procedure for a public user. The concepts of a stable family and a family of increasing order are motivated by the studies of discrete logarithm problem in the Cremona group. The statement on the existence of families of multivariate maps of polynomial degree and polynomial density of increasing order with the invertible decomposition is proved. The proof is supported by explicite construction which can be used as a new cryptosystem. The presented multivariate encryption maps are induced by special walks in the algebraically dened extremal graphs A(n;K) and D(n;K) of increasing girth.
  1. Ding J., Gower J. E., Schmidt D. S., Multivariate Public Key Cryptosystems, Springer, Advances in Information Security 25 (2006): 260.
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  4. Erdös' P., Simonovits M., Compactness results in extremal graph theory, Combinatorica 2(3) (1982): 275-288.
  5. Simonovitz M., Extermal Graph Theory , In -Selected Topics in Graph Theory", 2, edited by Beineke L. W. and Wilson R. J., Academic Press, London (1983): 161-200.
  6. Ustimenko V., Coordinatisation of Trees and their Quotients, In the "Voronoj's Impact on Modern Science", Kiev, Institute of Mathematics 2 (1998): 125-152.
  7. Ustimenko V., CRYPTIM: Graphs as Tools for Symmetric Encryption, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer 2227 (2001): 278-287.
  8. Ustimenko V. Maximality of affine group and hidden graph cryptosystems J. Algebra Discrete Math 1 (2005): 133-150.
  9. Wróblewska A., On some properties of graph based public keys, Albanian Journal of Mathematics, NATO Advanced Studies Institute: "New challenges in digital communications" 2(3) (2008) : 229-234.
  10. Ustimenko V., Wróblewska A., On some algebraic aspects of data security in cloud computing, Proceedings of International conference "Applications of Computer Algebra", Malaga (2013): 144- 147.
  11. Roma«czuk U., Ustimenko V., On regular forests given in terms of algebraic geometry, new families of expanding graphs with large girth and new multivariate cryptographical algorithms, Proceedings of International conference "Applications of Computer Algebra", Malaga (2013): 135- 139.
  12. Margulis G., Explicit group-theoretical constructions of combinatorial schemes and their application to desighn of expanders and concentrators, Probl. Peredachi Informatsii., 24, N1, 51-60. English translation publ. Journal of Problems of Information transmission (1988): 39-46.
  13. Lubotsky A., Philips R., Sarnak P., Ramanujan graphs, J. Comb. Theory 115(2) (1989): 62-89.
  14. Lazebnik F., Ustimenko V., Woldar A. J., A New Series of Dense Graphs of High Girth, Bull (New Series) of AMS, 32 (1995): 73-79.
  15. Ustimenko V., Some optimisation problems for graphs and multivariate cryptography (in Russian), In Topics in Graph Theory: A tribute to A.A. and T. E. Zykova on the ocassion of A. A. Zykov birthday, 2013): 15-25, www:math:uiuc:edu=kostochka.
  16. Ustimenko V., On extremal graph theory and symbolic computations, Dopovidi National Academy of Sci of Ukraine, N2 (in Russian) (2013): 42-49.
  17. Ustimenko V., On the extremal graph theory for directed graphs and its cryptographical applications In: T. Shaska, W.C. Huffman, D. Joener and V. Ustimenko, Advances in Coding Theory and Cryptography, Series on Coding and Cryptology 3 (2007): 181-200.
  18. Kotorowicz J., Ustimenko V., On the implementation of cryptoalgorithms based on algebraic graphs over some commutative rings, Condenced Matters Physics, Special Issue: Proceedings of the international conferences -Infinite particle systems, Complex systems theory and its application", Kazimerz Dolny, Poland 2(54) (2008): 347-360.
  19. Ustimenko V., Roma«czuk U., On Extremal Graph Theory, Explicit Algebraic Constructions of Extremal Graphs and Corresponding Turing Encryption Machines, in "Artificial Intelligence, Evolutionary Computing and Metaheuristics ", In the footsteps of Alan Turing Series: Studies in Computational Intelligence, Springer, 427 (2013): 257-285.
  20. Ustimenko V., Roma«czuk U., On Dynamical Systems of Large Girth or Cycle Indicator and their applications to Multivariate Cryptography, in "Artificial Intelligence, Evolutionary Computing and Metaheuristics ", In the footsteps of Alan Turing Series: Studies in Computational Intelligence 427 (2013): 257-285.
  21. Klisowski M., Ustimenko V., On the Comparison of Cryptographical Properties of Two Different Families of Graphs with Large Cycle Indicator, Mathematics in Computer Science 6(2) (2012): 181-198.
  22. Ustimenko V., On the cryptographical properties of extreme algebraic graphs, in Algebraic Aspects of Digital Communications, IOS Press (Lectures of Advanced NATO Institute, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series - D: Information and Communication Security 24 (2009): 296.
10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0001
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Article 02EN: On New Examples of Families of Multivariate Stable Maps and their Cryptographical Applications
19-36

Aneta Wróblewska, Vasyl Ustimenko


Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Let K be a general finite commutative ring. We refer to a family gn, n = 1; 2;... of bijective polynomial multivariate maps of Kn as a family with invertible decomposition gn = g1n g2n...gkn , such that the knowledge of the composition of g2n allows computation of g2n for O(ns) (s > 0) elementary steps. A polynomial map g is stable if all non-identical elements of kind gt, t > 0 are of the same degree. We construct a new family of stable elements with invertible decomposition. This is the first construction of the family of maps based on walks on the bipartite algebraic graphs defined over K, which are not edge transitive. We describe the application of the above mentioned construction for the development of stream ciphers, public key algorithms and key exchange protocols. The absence of edge transitive group essentially complicates cryptanalysis.
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  2. Ding J., Gower J. E., Schmidt D. S., Multivariate Public Key Cryptosystems, Springer, Advances in Information Security, 25 (2006).
  3. Kim Jon-Lark, Peled U. N., Perepelitsa I., Pless V., Friedland S., Explicit construction of families of LDPC codes with no 4-cycles , Information Theory, IEEE Transactions, 50 (10) (2004): 2378- 2388.
  4. Klisowski M., Ustimenko V. A., On the Comparison of Cryptographical Properties of Two Dierent Families of Graphs with Large Cycle Indicator, Mathematics in Computer Science, 6(2) (2012): 181-198.
  5. Koblitz N., Algebraic aspects of cryptography, Algorithms and Computation in Mathematics, 3, Springer (1998).
  6. Kotorowicz J. S., Ustimenko V., On the properties of stream ciphers based on extremal directed graphs, Cryptography Research Perspective (Roland E. Chen, ed.), Nova Science Publishers, April (2009): 125-141.
  7. Kotorowicz, S., Ustimenko V., On the implementation of cryptoalgorithms based on algebraic graphs over some commutative rings, Condens. Matter Phys. 11, 2(54) (2008): 347360.
  8. Kotorowicz J. S., Ustimenko V., Romaúczk U., On the implementation of stream ciphers based on a new family of algebraic graphs, IEEE Computer Society Press, Proceedings of the Conference CANA, FedSCIS (2011): 485-490.
  9. Lubotsky A., Philips R., Sarnak P., Ramanujan graphs, J. Comb. Theory., 115(2) (1989): 62-89.
  10. Lazebnik F., Ustimenko V., Explicit construction of graphs with an arbitrary large girth and of large size, Discrete Appl. Math., 60 (1995): 275-284.
  11. Lazebnik F., Ustimenko V. A., Woldar A. J., New Series of Dense Graphs of High Girth, Bull (New Series) of AMS, 32(1) (1995): 73-79.
  12. Lazebnik F., Ustimenko V. A., Woldar A. J., A Characterization of the Components of the graphs D(k; q), Discrete Mathematics, 157 (1996): 271-283.
  13. Lazebnik F., Ustimenko V. A., Woldar A. J., Polarities of 2k-cycle-free graphs, Discrete Mathematics, 197/198 (1999): 503-513.
  14. Margulis G. A., Explicit construction of graphs without short cycles and low density codes, Combinatorica, 2 (1982): 71-78.
  15. Moore E. H., Tactical Memoranda, Amer. J. Math., 18 (1886): 264303.
  16. Roma«czuk U., Ustimenko V.: On the key exchange with matrices of large order and graph based nonlinear maps, Proceedings of the conference "Applications of Computer Algebra", Vlora, Special Issue, 4(4) (2010): 203-211.
  17. Roma«czuk U., Ustimenko V., On the family of cubical multivariate cryptosystems based on the algebraic graph over finite commutative rings of characteristic 2, Annales UMCS Informatica AI XII, 3 (2012): 89-106.
  18. Roma«czuk U., Ustimenko V., On the key exchange with new cubical maps based on graphs, Annales UMCS Informatica, 4(11) (2011): 11-19.
  19. Roma«czuk U., Ustimenko V., On regular forests given in terms of algebraic geometry, new families of expanding graphs with large girth and Multivariate cryptographical algorithms, Proceedings of International conference "Applications of Computer Algebra", Malaga (2013): 144-147.
  20. Roma«czuk U., Ustimenko V., 0n the family of cubical multivariate cryptosystems based on exceptional extremal graphs, Third International Conference on Symbolic Computations and Cryptography, Castro Urdiales, Extended Abstracts, (2012): 169-175.
  21. Ustimenko V., Coordinatisation of Trees and their Quotients, In the "Voronoj's Impact on Modern Science", Kiev, Institute of Mathematics, 2 (1998): 125152.
  22. Ustimenko V., CRYPTIM: Graphs as Tools for Symmetric Encryption, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 2227 (2001): 278-287.
  23. Ustimenko V., Graphs with Special Arcs and Cryptography, Acta Applicandae Mathematicae, 74(2) (2001): 117-153.
  24. Ustimenko V., Maximality of affine group and hidden graph cryptosystems, J. Algebra Discrete Math., 1 (2005): 133-150.
  25. Ustimenko V., On the cryptographical properties of extreme algebraic graphs, in Algebraic Aspects of Digital Communications, IOS Press, Lectures of Advanced NATO Institute, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series - D: Information and Communication Security, 24 (2009): 296.
  26. Ustimenko V., Schubert cells in Lie geometries and key exchange via symbolic computations, Proceedings of the International Conference "Applications of Computer Algebra", Vlora, Albanian Journal of Mathematics, Special Issue, 4(4) (2010): 135-145.
  27. Ustimenko V., On the extremal graph theory for directed graphs and its cryptographical applications, In: T. Shaska, W.C. Huffman, D. Joener and V.Ustimenko, Advances in Coding Theory and Cryptography, Series on Coding and Cryptology, 3 (2007): 181200.
  28. Ustimenko V., Linguistic Dynamical Systems, Graphs of Large Girth and Cryptography, Journal of Mathematical Sciences, Springer, 140(3) (2007): 412-434.
  29. Ustimenko V., On the graph based cryptography and symbolic computations, Serdica Journal of Computing, Proceedings of International Conference on Application of Computer Algebra, ACA- 2006, Varna (2007).
  30. Ustimenko V., Algebraic groups and small world graphs of high girth, Albanian J. Math. 3(1) (2009): 25-33.
  31. Ustimenko V., On extremal graph theory and symbolic computations Dopovidi National Academy of Sci of Ukraine, (in Russian), 2 (2013): 42-49.
  32. Ustimenko V., In the K - theory of graph based dynamical systems and its applications, Dopovidi National Academy of Sci of Ukraine, 8 (2013): 44-51.
  33. Ustimenko V., Roma«czuk U., On Dynamical Systems of Large Girth or Cycle Indicator and their applications to Multivariate Cryptography, Artifficial Intelligence, Evolutionary Computing and Metaheuristics, In the footsteps of Alan Turing Series: Studies in Computational Intelligence, Springer, 427 (2013): 257-285.
  34. Ustimenko V., Roma«czuk U., On Extremal Graph Theory, Explicit Algebraic Constructions of Extremal Graphs and Corresponding Turing Encryption Machines, Articial Intelligence, Evolutionary Computing and Metaheuristics, In the footsteps of Alan Turing Series: Studies in Computational Intelligence, Springer, 427 (2013): 231-256.
  35. Ustimenko V., Wróblewska A., On the key exchange with nonlinear polynomial maps of stable degree, Annalles UMCS Informatica AI XI, 2 (2011): 81-93.
  36. Ustimenko V., Wroblewska A., Dynamical systems as the main instrument for the constructions of new quadratic families and their usage in cryptography, Annales UMCS Informatica AI, ISSN 1732-1360.
  37. Wróblewska A., On some properties of graph based public keys, Albanian Journal of Mathematics, NATO Advanced Studies Institute: "New challenges in digital communications", 2(3) (2008): 229- 234.
  38. Ustimenko V., Wróblewska A., On some algebraic aspects of data security in cloud computing, Proceedings of International conference "Applications of Computer Algebra", Malaga (2013): 144- 147.
  39. Ustimenko V., Wróblewska A., On the key exchange and multivariate encryption with nonlinear polynomial maps of stable degree, Annales UMCS Informatica AI XIII, 1 (2013): 63-80.
10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0004
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Article 03EN: Cryptographic Applications of the Duplex Construction
37-48

Mariusz Borowski


Cryptology Division, Military Communication Institute

Assured security is the desirable feature of modern cryptography. Most of modern cryptography primitives have no provably secure constructions. Their safety is defined on the basis of well-known in the given time cryptanalytic attacks. The duplex construction equipped with one ideal permutation and appropriate security parameters is suitable for building provably secure cryptographic primitives. The constructions can be used for unclassified information of different sensitivity levels protection. Some of them can secure classified information up to the TOP SECRET level. The applications based on the duplex construction can be used for key wrapping, authenticated encryption and can work as a pseudo-random bit sequence generator. They are not covered by any known intellectual property.
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0002
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Article 04EN: Dining Cryptographers with 0.924 Verifiable Collision Resolution
49-60

Christian Franck

The dining cryptographers protocol implements a multiple access channel in which senders and recipients are anonymous. A problem is that a malicious participant can disrupt commu- nication by deliberately creating collisions. We propose a computationally secure dining cryptogra- phers protocol with collision resolution that achieves a maximum stable throughput of 0.924 messages per round and which allows to easily detect disruptors.
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0007
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Article 05EN: Modified Alternating Step Generators with Non-Linear Scrambler
61-74

Robert Wicik, Tomasz Rachwalik, Rafał Gliwa


Military Communication Institute, Cryptology Department, Zegrze, Poland

Pseudorandom generators, which produce keystreams for stream ciphers by the exclusiveor sum of outputs of alternately clocked linear feedback shift registers, are vulnerable to cryptanalysis. In order to increase their resistance to attacks, we introduce a non-linear scrambler at the output of these generators. Non-linear feedback shift register plays the role of the scrambler. In addition, we propose Modified Alternating Step Generator with a non-linear scrambler (MASG1S) built with non-linear feedback shift register and regularly or irregularly clocked linear feedback shift registers with non-linear filtering functions.
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0003
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Article 06EN: Cheap and Easy PIN Entering Using Eye Gaze
75-84

Paweł Kasprowski, Katarzyna Harężlak


Institute of Computer Science, Silesian University of Technology Gliwice, Poland

PINs are one of the most popular methods to perform simple and fast user authentication. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which may have any number of digits or even letters. Nevertheless, 4-digit PIN is the most common and is used for instance in ATMs or cellular phones. The main advantage of the PIN is that it is easy to remember and fast to enter. There are, however, some drawbacks. One of them - addressed in this paper - is a possibility to steal PIN by a technique called `shoulder surfing'. To avoid such problems a novel method of the PIN entering was proposed. Instead of using a numerical keyboard, the PIN may be entered by eye gazes, which is a hands-free, easy and robust technique.
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0009
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Article 07EN: A Fingerprint-Based Digital Images Watermarking for Identity Authentication
85-96

Wioletta Wójtowicz


Cracow University of Technology, al. Jana Pawła II 37, 31-864 Cracow, Poland

In this paper the combination of fingerprint verification methods with watermarking technology to provide copyright protection and authentication of digital images is proposed. The goal of this study is to investigate how watermarking processing affects the quality of biometric watermarks. Performed experiments showed that extracted fingerprint images have roughly equal verification performance even if some watermarked images undergo additional degradation. Proposed methodology will be improved using more sophisticated fingerprint verification methods and subsequently incorporated into multimodal watermarking schemes.
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0008
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PL: Przedmowa - Systemy zabezpieczeń
EN: Preface - Security Systems
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Article 01EN: Adaptable Context Management Framework for Secure Network Services
7-30

Zbigniew Kotulski, Mariusz Sepczuk, Albert Sitek, Marcin Alan Tunia


Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Last decades the contextual approach became an important methodology of analysing information processes in the dynamic environment. In this paper we propose a context management framework suitable for secure network services. The framework allows tracking the contextual information from its origin, through all stages of its processing up to application in security services protecting the secure network application. Besides the framework’s description, an example of its application in constructing secure voice call network service is given.
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0013
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Article 02EN: Authentication Mechanism Based on Adaptable Context Management Framework for Secure Network Services
31-45

Mariusz Sepczuk


Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

A system, which uses context information is a new trend in IT. A lot of researchers create frameworks, which collect some data and perform actions based on them. Recently, there have been observed more and more different security solutions, in which we can use context. But not each works dynamically and ensures a high level of user's quality of experience (QoE). This paper outlines what the context information is and shows a secure and user-friendly authentication mechanism for a mail box in cloud computing, based on using contextual data.
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0010
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Article 03EN: One-Time Code Cardholder Verification Method in Electronic Funds Transfer Transactions
46-59

Albert Sitek


Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

Card payments are getting more and more popular across the world. The dominant standard used for Electronic Funds Transfer transaction is EMV. It is widely used across Europe and Canada, and currently it is being introduced in the USA. The most frequently used Cardholder Verification Method in EMV transaction is PIN, which requires from the payment terminal to be equipped with pinpad - which increases the cost of the whole payment device. In this article I present an alternative Cardholder Verification Method (CVM) that can be used instead of traditional PIN. The key advantage of the presented mechanism is that it can be easily implemented in currently utilized authorization protocols, it does not affect rules of EMV specification and may decrease time of transaction processing.
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  21. Hayashi E., Das S., Shahriyar A., Owusu E., Han J., Hong J., Oakley I., Perrig A., Zhang J., CASA: A Framework for Context-Aware Scalable Authentication, SOUPS'13: Ninth Symposium on Usable Privacy and Secrecy (2013).
  22. Wrona K., Gomez L., Context-aware security and secure context-awareness in ubiquitous computing environments, Annales UMCS Informatica AI 4 (2006): 332-348.
  23. Siljee B., Bosloper I., Nijhuis J., A Classification Framework for Storage and Retrieval of Context, KI-04 Workshop on Modelling and Retrieval of Context, CEUR 114 (2004).
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0006
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Article 04EN: Vector Approach to Context Data Reliability
60-75

Marcin Alan Tunia


Institute of Telecommunications of WUT, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

Context-aware processing is a part of intensively developed ubiquitous computing and mobile systems. Surrounding awareness is used to introduce new functions and solutions. Some categories of the context data are taken for security purposes in the context-aware security implementations. This kind of data has to meet some conditions since it is used for decision making about security mechanisms adaptation and configuration. One of these conditions is reliability. The paper presents vector approach to context data reliability assessment introducing mechanism which allows to assess reliability parameters for further usage in context aware security processing. The following aspects of the context data are taken into account: interface reliability, data quality, data source reliability and security level. Introducing reliability metric for context data may be beneficial to other mechanisms which utilize context data. The vector form of reliability may be even more flexible than the scalar value. 1 Introduction
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0011
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Article 05EN: The Concept and Security Analysis of Wireless Sensor Network for Gas Lift in Oilwells
76-85

Bartlomiej Bielecki 1, Bogdan Ksiezopolski 1,2, Andrzej Krajka 1, Adam Wierzbicki 1,2


1 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Koszykowa 86, 02-008 Warsaw, Poland

Pipelines, wellbores and ground installations are permanently controlled by sensors spread across the crucial points in the whole area. One of the most popular techniques to support proper oil drive in a wellbore is a Gas Lift. In this paper we present the concept of using wireless sensor network (WSN) in the oil and gas industry installations. Assuming that Gas Lift Valves (GLVs) in a wellbore annulus are sensor controlled, the proper amount of injected gas should be provided. In a ground installation, the optimized amount of loaded gas is a key factor in the effcient oil production. This paper considers the basic foundations and security requirements of WSN dedicated to Gas Lift Installations. Possible attack scenarios and their influence on the production results are shown as well.
  1. Baronti P., Pillai P., Chook V.W., Chessa S., Gotta A., Fu Y.F., Wireless sensor networks: a survey on the state of the art and the 802.15.4 and ZigBee standards, Computer Communication, 30 (2007): 1655-1695.
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0005
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Article 06EN: The Oracle - a New Intelligent Cooperative Strategy of Attacks on Trust and Reputation Systems
86-102

Marek Janiszewski


1Institute of Telecommunication, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

The paper presents a new concept of attack on trust and reputation systems. The oracle attack could violate the security provided by some of the existing reputation systems. The formal model of the attack is presented in the article on the base of the reference trust model, provided by the author. The author has proved that this type of attack could be eficient. On the other hand, a sort of measures is provided in the paper which could be implemented in the reputation systems to overcome identified vulnerabilities, unfortunately at the cost of increase of system complication. The paper also provides a definition of intelligent strategies of attacks on trust and reputation systems based on cooperation of many malicious nodes and justifies why this type of attacks is a serious threat.
  1. Sun Y. L., Han Z., Yu W., Ray Liu K. J., Attacks on Trust Evaluation in Distributed Networks , Proc. Inf. Sci. Syst. Conf., 2 (2006): 1461-1466.
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  5. Kavitha T., Sridharan , D., Security Vulnerabilities In Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey, J. Inform. Assur. Secur. (2010): 31-044.
  6. Padmavathi G., Shanmugapriya D., A Survey of Attacks, Security Mechanisms and Challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security 4(2) (2009).
  7. Sun Y., Han Z., Ray Liu K. J., Defense of Trust Management Vulnerabilities in Distributed Net- works, IEEE Communications Magazine 46 (2008): 112-119.
  8. Sabater J., Sierra C., Computational trust and reputation models for open multi-agent systems - a review (2013).
  9. Sabater J., Sierra C., Review on Computational Trust and Reputation Models. Artificial Intelli- gence, Artificial Intelligence Review, 24(1) (2005): 33-60.
  10. Velloso P. B., Laufer R. P., Duarte O. C. M. B., Pujolle G., A Trust Model Robust to Slander Attacks in Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE International Conf. Comput. Commun. Netw. ANC workshop (2008).
  11. Sun Y. L., Han Z., Yu W., Ray Liu K. J., A Trust Evaluation Framework in Distributed Networks: Vulnerability Analysis and Defense Against Attacks, Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2006).
  12. Sun Y., Han Z., Ray Liu K. J., Defense of Trust Management Vulnerabilities in Distributed Networks, Communications Magazine, IEEE, 46(2) (2008): 112-119.
  13. Gomez Marmol F., Martinez Perez G., Security threats scenarios in trust and reputation models for distributed systems, Computers &, Security, 28(7) (2009): 545-556.
  14. Zhang L., Jiang S., Zhang J., Keong Ng W., Robustness of Trust Models and Combinations for Handling Unfair Ratings, In Proceedings of the 6th IFIP International Conference on Trust Management (IFIPTM) (2012): 36-51.
  15. Sun Y. L., Liu Y., Security of Online Reputation Systems The evolution of attacks and defenses, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 29(2) (2012): 87-97.
  16. Srivatsa M., Xiong L., Liu L., Trustguard: Countering vulnerabilities in reputation management for decentralized overlay networks, in Proc. 14th Int. Conf. World Wide Web (2005): 422-431.
  17. Yang Y., Feng Q., Sun Y., Dai Y., Reputation trap: A powerful attack on repu-tation system of file sharing P2P environment, in Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Security and Privacy in Communication Networks (2008): 1766-1780.
  18. Yu Y., Li K., Zhou W., Li P., Trust mechanisms in wireless sensor networks: Attack analysis and countermeasures, Journal of Network and Computer Applications (2011).
  19. Srinivasany A., Teitelbaumy J., Liangz H., Wuy J., Cardei M., Reputation and Trust-based Systems for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, In: A. Boukerche, Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (2009): 375-404.
10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0012
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Article 01EN: Queuing in terms of complex systems
7-14

Franciszek Grabowski, Andrzej Paszkiewicz, Marek Bolanowski


Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems,al. Powstanców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

Limited resources are a natural feature of most real systems, both artificial and natural ones. This causes the need for effective management of access to existing resources. In this area, queuing systems are of special application. However, they are treated as simple systems for which two states are characteristic: work underload and work on the border of thermodynamic equilibrium. This approach is reflected in existing queue management mechanisms, that need to keep them in one of two mentioned states. On the other hand, they should be considered from the point of complex systems view, for which the third operation states: overload state is natural as well. In order to be closer to this issue, in this paper the authors consider queues performance from the perspective of complex systems.
  1. Grabowski F., Nonextensive model of self-organizing systems, Complexity, Wiley 8(5) (2013): 28.
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  8. Nicolis G., Nicolis C., Foundations of Complex Systems: Emergence, Information and Predicition, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapure (2012).
  9. Barabási A. L., Scale-Free Networks: A Decade and Beyond, Science Magazine 325 (2009): 412.
  10. Gershenson C., Design and Control of Self-organizing Systems, PhD Dissertation, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (2007).
  11. Grabowski F., Logistic equation of arbitrary order, Physica A, Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 389 (2010): 30810.
10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0016
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Article 02EN: Synchronous SSVEP Data Acquisition System
15-20

Sławomir Kotyra, Grzegorz M. Wójcik, Marcin Smolira


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 9, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials have been known for several decades and they appear in the primary visual cortex of brain as a result of light stimulation of the sense of sight. In this article a simple method for electroencephalographic data acquisition is presented. The system is based on the DSM-51 unit connected to goggles with blinking diodes and Mindset-1000 EEG amplifier with 16 channels. We present self-developed hardware and method of effective synchronization for the light stimulation and brain activity recording.
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  12. Kotyra S., Method and research equipment for synchronous SSVEP signal recording, In Acta Neurobiol Exp, Lublin: Poland, June 2014, IX Konferencja "Techniki elektrofizjologiczne" 74 (3) (2014).
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0018
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Article 03EN: On the capacity of survival analysis with the R language
21-31

Andrzej Krajka 1, Paweł Krawczak 2, Radosław Mlak 3


1 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University Akademicka 9, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
2 Department of Pneumology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
3Department of Human Physiology, Medical University of Lublin, Radziwiłłowska 11, 20-080 Lublin, Poland

In order to make the big data mining analysis we meet the limit of computer capacity. We concentrate here on such a situation. We describe the problem, test the key fragment of the algorithm and conclude on the possibilities of similar computations.
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  3. Simon G.R., Ismail-Khan R., Bepler G., Nuclear excision repair-based personalized therapy for non-small cell lung cancer: from hypothesis to reality, Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol. 39 (2007): 1318.
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  5. Stewart D.J., Tumor and host factors that may limit efficacy of chemotherapy in non-small cell and small cell lung cancer, Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol, 75 (2010): 173.
  6. Vilmar A., Sorensen J.B., Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in platinumbased treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with special emphasis on carboplatin: a review of current literature, Lung Cancer. 64 (2009): 131.
  7. Biecek P., Przewodnik po pakiecie R, Oficyna Wydaw. GIS, Wrocław (2008).
  8. The home page of language R; http://cran.r-project.org/
  9. Statistics in R; http://zoonek2.free.fr/UNIX/48_R/all.html
  10. Walesiak M., Gatnar E., Statystyczna analiza danych z wykorzystaniem programu R, Wydaw. Nauk. PWN SA., Warszawa (2009).
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  12. The RMySQL manual; http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RMySQL/RMySQL.pdf
10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0019
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Article 04EN: Liquid computing and analysis of sound signals
33-42

Rafał Cebryk, Grzegorz M. Wójcik


1Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademick 9, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

Liquid Computing Theory is a proposal of modelling the behaviour of neural microcircuits. It focuses on creating a group of neurons, known as a liquid layer, responsible for preprocessing of the signal that is being analysed. Specific information is achieved by the readout layers, task oriented groups of neurons, taught to extract particular information from the state of liquid layer. The LSMs have been used to analyse sound signals. The liquid layer was implemented in the PCSIM Simulator, and the readout layer has been prepared in the JNNS simulator. It could successfully recognise certain sounds despite noises. Those results encourage further research of the computational potential of Liquid State Machines including working in parallel with many readout layers.
  1. R. Tadeusiewicz, “Modelowanie elementów systemu nerwowego z wykorzystaniem technik informatycznych, a zwłaszcza sztucznych sieci neuronowych” in “Na sciezkach neuronauk pod redakcja naukowa Piotra Fracuza”, pages 13-34, Wydawnictwo KUL, 2010.
  2. R. Tadeusiewicz, “Modele elementów układu nerwowego w postaci sztucznych sieci neuronowych” in “Neurocybernetyka Teoretyczna”, pages 109-127, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 2009.
  3. R. Tadeusiewicz, “Using Neural Networks for Simplified Discovery of Some Psychological Phenomena” in “Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing”, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, L. Rutkowski et al., eds., editor, pages 104-123, vol. 6114, Springer-Verlag, Berlin – Heidelberg – New York, 2010.
  4. D. Verstraeten, B. Schrauwen and D. Stroobandt, "Isolated word recognition using a Liquid State Machine" in ESSANN’2005 proceedings - European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Bruges (Belgium).
  5. W. Maass, T. Natschlaeger, and H. Markram. Computational models for generic cortical microcircuits. In Computational Neuroscience: A Comprehensive Approach, J. Feng, editor, chapter 18, pages 575-605, Boca Raton, 2004.
  6. W. Maass, “Computation with spiking neurons,” in The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks (M. A. Arbib, ed.), pp. 1080–1083, 2 ed., 2003.
  7. W. Maass and H. Markram, “On the computational power of recurrent circuits of spiking neurons,” Journal of Computer and System Sciences, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 593–616, 2004.
  8. W. Maass, “Liquid computing,” in Computability in Europe 2007 - CiE’07, Springer (Berlin), 2007.
  9. “PCSIM: A Parallel neural Circuit SIMulator.” http://www.lsm.tugraz.at/pcsim/.
  10. “What is SNNS?” http://www.ra.cs.uni-tuebingen.de/SNNS/announce.html.
  11. “Python Programming Language – Official Website.” http://www.python.org/.
  12. W. Maass, T. Natschlaeger, and H. Markram, “Real-time Computing without stable states: A New Framework for Neural Computation Based on Perturbations,” Neural Computation, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 2531–2560, 2002.
  13. G. M. Wojcik and J. A. Garcia-Lazaro, "Analysis of the neural hypercolumn in parallel pcsim simulations," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 845-854, 2010.
  14. G. M.Wojcik, "Self-organising criticality in the simulated models of the rat cortical microcircuits," Neurocomputing, no. 79, pp. 61-67, 2012.
  15. G. M. Wojcik, "Electrical parameters influence on the dynamics of the hodgkin-huxley liquid state machine," Neurocomputing, no. 79, pp. 68-78, 2012.
10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0023
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Article 05EN: Electroencephalographic detection of synesthesia
43-52

Anna Gajos, Grzegorz M. Wójcik


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 9, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

In this paper the research on a person declaring synesthetic abilities will be presented. According to the current state of knowledge synesthesia activates additional cortical fields in the brain which can be found in the EEG. The research was conducted using an EGI-EEG system (Electrical Geodesic Inc., Eugene, Oregon, USA) with the GeoSource software. GeoSource is a tool that implements the algorithms LAURA, LORETA and sLORETA. Using these algorithms for EEG analysis we can determine where in the brain the source of activity is. The authors will try to answer the question whether the use of these tools can prove the occurrence of synesthesia.
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  3. Tadeusiewicz, R., Using Neural Networks for Simplified Discovery of Some Psychological Phenomena. Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing 6114, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Springer-Verlag, Berlin – Heidelberg – New York (2010): 104.
  4. Tadeusiewicz, R., Computers in Psychology and Psychology in Computer Science, Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications (CISIM) With Applications to Ambient Intelligence and Ubiquitous Systems. IEEE (2010): 34.
  5. Tadeusiewicz, R., Obciazenie psychiczne praca – nowe wyzwania dla ergonomii pod redakcja Tadeusza Juliszewskiego, Halszki Oginskiej i Macieja Złowodzki. Symulacyjne modele mózgu jako droga do poznania tajników umysłu, Komitet Ergonomii PAN (2011): 23.
  6. Tadeusiewicz, R., Informatyka i psychologia w społeczenstwie informacyjnym. Sieci neuronowe i inne systemy neurocybernetyczne jako narzedzia informatyczne o ciekawych zastosowaniach na gruncie psychologii, Wydawnictwa AGH Kraków (2011): 49.
  7. Mikołajewska, E., Mikołajewski, D., The prospects of brain - computer interface applications in children, Central European Journal of Medicine 9(1) (2014): 74.
  8. Mikołajewska, E., Mikołajewski, D., Integrated IT environment for people with disabilities: a new concept, Central European Journal of Medicine 9(1) (2014): 177.
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  10. Beauchamp, M. S., & Ro, T., Neural substrates of sound-touch synesthesia after a thalamic lesion, The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28(50) (2008): 13696. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3872-08.2008
  11. Gertner, L., Henik, A., Reznik, D., & Cohen Kadosh, R., Implications of number-space synesthesia on the automaticity of numerical processing, Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior (2012): 1. DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.03.019
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  13. Sinke, C., Neufeld, J., Emrich, H. M., Dillo, W., Bleich, S., Zedler, M., & Szycik, G. R., Inside a synesthete’s head: A functional connectivity analysis with grapheme-color synesthetes, 25. Neuropsychologia 50(14) (2012): 3363. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.09.015
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  17. Mylopoulos, M. I., Ro, T., Synesthesia: a colorful word with a touching sound? Frontiers in psychology (2013). DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00763
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  19. Brang, D., Hubbard, E. M., Coulson, S., Huang, M., Ramachandran, V.S., Magnetoencephalography reveals early activation of V4 in grapheme-color synesthesia. NeuroImage 53 (2010): 268 (Contents).
  20. Neufeld, J., Sinke, C., Zedler, M., Dillo, W., Emrich, H. M., Bleich, S., Szycik, G. R., Disinhibited feedback as a cause of synesthesia: evidence from a functional connectivity study on auditory-visual synesthetes, Neuropsychologia 50(7) (2012): 1471.
  21. Zamm, A., Schlaug, G., Eagleman, D. M., Loui, P., Pathways to seeing music: enhanced structural connectivity in colored-music synesthesia, NeuroImage 74 (2013): 359.
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  23. Wójcik, G. M., Mikołajewska, E., Mikołajewski, D., Wierzgała, P., Gajos, A., Smolira, M., Usefulness of EGI EEG system in brain computer interface research, Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems 06/2013 9(2) (2013): 72.
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0017
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Article 06EN: Performance Analysis of VPN Remote Access Tunnels
53-64

Paweł Dymora, Mirosław Mazurek, Tomasz Pilecki


Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems, ul. Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

The purpose of the study is to analyze the efficiency of communication with the server using the methods of secure remote access, as well as checking and comparing the quality of services provided by the server depending on the method of secure remote connection. The article focuses on VPN technology implemented in the latest Windows Server 2012 R2 operating system.
  1. Snader J. C., VPNs Illustrated: Tunnels, VPNs, and IPSec, publisher AddisonWesley Professional (2005).
  2. Lewis M., Comparing, Designing, and Deploying VPNs, publisher Cisco Press (2006).
  3. Kivinen T., Swander B., Huttunen A., Volpe V., Negotiation of NAT-Traversal in the IKE, RFC 3947 (2005).
  4. Kaufman C., Hoffman P., Nir Y., Eronen P., Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2), RFC 5996 (2010).
  5. http://www.windowsecurity.com/articles-tutorials/firewalls_and_VPN/Secure-Socket- Tunneling-Protocol.html
  6. Mazurek M., Dymora P., Network anomaly detection based on the statistical self-similarity factor for HTTP protocol, Przeglad elektrotechniczny, ISSN 0033-2097, R. 90 NR 1/2014 (2014): 127.
  7. Stanek W. R., Windows Server 2012 Inside Out, publisher Microsoft Press (2013).
  8. Ben-Ari E., Natarajan B., Windows Server 2012 Unified Remote Access Planning and Deployment, publisher Packet Publishing (2012).
  9. http://www.raccoonworks.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=50&Itemid=58 – SpeedTest
  10. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Delay analysis in wireless sensor network protocols, PAK 2013 nr 10 (2013): 1054.
  11. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Gawron R., Cluster computing performance in the context of nonextensive statistics, JIMER International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), 3(6) (2013): 3872; ISSN: 2249-6645.
  12. Strzałka B., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Queue Performance in Presence of Long-Range Dependencies – an Empirical Study, International Journal of Information Science 2(4) (2012): 47.
10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0014
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Article 07EN: Operating system efficiency evaluation on the base of measurements analysis with the use of non-extensive statistics elements
65-75

Paweł Dymora, Mirosław Mazurek, Kamil Zelazny


Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems, ul. Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

The major goal of this article was to evaluate the efficiency of Linux operating system using statistical self-similarity and multifractal analysis. In order to collect the necessary data, the tools available in Linux such as vmstat, top and iostat were used. The measurement data collected with those tools had to be converted into a format acceptable by applications which analyze statistical selfsimilarity and multifractal spectra. Measurements collected while using the MySQL database system in a host operating system were therefore analyzed with the use of statistical self-similarity and allowed to determine the occurrence of long-range dependencies. Those dependencies were analyzed with the use of adequately graduated diagrams. Multifractal analysis was conducted with the help of FracLab application. Two methods were applied to determine the multifractal spectra. The obtained spectra were analyzed in order to establish the multifractal dependencies.
  1. Strzałka B., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Queue Performance in Presence of Long-Range Dependencies – an Empirical Study, International Journal of Information Science 2(4) (2012): 47.
  2. Grabowski F., Strzałka D., Simple, complicated and complex systems – the brief introduction. in: 2008 Confer-ence On Human System Interactions, Vol. 1 and 2 (2008): 576.
  3. Field A. J., Harder U., Harrison P. G., Measurement and modeling of self-similar traffic in computer network, IEE Proc. Commun. 151(4) (2004).
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  5. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Statistical mechanics of memory pages reads during man–computer system interaction, Metody Informatyki Stosowanej 1(26) (2011).
  6. Strzałka D., Non-extensive statistical mechanics – a possible basis for modeling processes in computer memory system, Acta Physica Polonica A 117(4) (2010): 652.
  7. Mazurek M., Dymora P., Network anomaly detection based on the statistical self-similarity factor for HTTP protocol, Przeglad elektrotechniczny, ISSN 0033-2097, R. 90 NR 1/2014 (2014): 127.
  8. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Piekos M., Influence of batch structure on cluster computing perfor-mance - complex systems approach, Annales UMCS Informatica XII (1) (2012).
  9. Jedrus S., Modelowanie multifraktalne natezenia ruchu sieciowego z uwzglednieniem samopodobienstwa statystycznego, Telekomunikacja cyfrowa – Technologie i Usługi 4 (2001).
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  11. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Long-range dependencies in memory pages reads during man-compute system interaction, Annales UMCS Informatica XII (2) (2012).
10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0015
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Article 08EN: Load balancing of communication channels with the use of routing protocols
77-85

Franciszek Grabowski, Marek Bolanowski, Andrzej Paszkiewicz


Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems, al. Powstanców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

In the article the authors propose a method for load-balancing of network resources for the case which uses a routing protocols. In the first part of the article the authors present currently used algorithms for load balancing and possibilities of their modification. Through the introduction of additional hardware components for each node: the agent and the probe; it is possible to monitor and control the current system performance. The whole analyzed network is treated as a complex system. This allows to eliminate overloading of route nodes (through ongoing analysis of the optimal operating point for a given node). Load balancing can be achieved using a modified mechanism of ECMP. The proposed approach allows for dynamic adjustment of load to network resources and thus effectively to balance network traffic.
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  3. Fenglin L., Jianxun C, MPLS Traffic Engineering Load Balance Algorithm Using Deviation Path, Computer Science & Service System (CSSS), 2012 International Conference, IEEE (2012): 601.
  4. Duangkreu W., Kerddit S., Noppanakeepong S., Frame relay to ATM PVC network interworking management, TENCON 2000, Proceedings IEEE, 1 (2000): 522.
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  6. Rivera R., Crichigno J., Ghani N., A Comparative Study of Routing Metrics for Reliable Multi- Path Provisioni, 2014 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications, Network Algorithm & Performance Evaluation Symposium, IEEE (2014): 450.
  7. Gouda, M. G., Schneider, M., Maximizable routing metrics, Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions, IEEE 11(4) (2003): 663.
  8. Xu W., Yan P., Xia D., Wu M., Load Balancing Based on Similarity Multi-paths Routing, Parallel and Distributed Processing and Applications 3758 (2005): 345.
  9. Grabowski F., Nonextensive model of self-organizing systems, Complexity, Wiley 8(5) (2013): 28.
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10.2478/umcsinfo-2014-0024
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Volume 13 - 2013

Article 01EN: A self-stabilizing algorithm for detecting fundamental cycles in a graph with DFS spanning tree given
7-10

Halina Bielak 1, Michał Pańczyk 2


1 Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This paper presents a linear time self-stabilizing algorithm for detecting the set of fundamental cycles on an undirected connected graph modelling asynchronous distributed system. The previous known algorithm has O(n2) time complexity, whereas we prove that this one stabilizes after O(n) moves. The distributed adversarial scheduler is considered. Both algorithms assume that the depth-search spanning tree of the graph is given. The output is given in a distributed manner as a state of variables in the nodes.
  1. Dijkstra E. W., Self-stabilizing in spite of distributed control, Communications of the ACM 17 (1974): 643.
  2. Dolev S., Self-stabilization, The MIT Press, 2000.
  3. Harary F., Graph Theory, Addison-Wesley, 1972.
  4. Chaudhuri P., A Self-Stabilizing Algorithm for Detecting Fundamental Cycles in a Graph, Journal of Computer and System Sciences 59 (1999): 84.
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  6. Arora A., Gouda M. G., Closure and convergence: A foundation for fault-tolerant computing, Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Fault-Tolerant Computing Systems (1992).
10.2478/v10065-012-0038-7
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Article 02EN: A set of connection network synthesis based on the linear Diophantine constraints solution in area {0,1}
11-21

Marek Bolanowski, Andrzej Paszkiewicz


Departament of Distributed Systems, Rzeszow University of technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland

In the paper we present a method for synthesis of a set of connection networks, which fulfill the designer’s assumption. In order to do that, the designed network is presented as a system of Diophantine constraints in a special form. A method to resolve those systems is proposed, which is characterized by lower computational complexity, especially in the case of rare topologies design.
  1. Red. Stroinski M., Studium rozwoju sieci szerokopasmowej dla wojewodztwa podkarpackiego na lata 2007-2013, Osrodek Wydawnictw Naukowych Instytut Chemii Bioorganicznej Polska Akademia Nauk, Oddzial w Poznaniu; ISBN 978-83-7314-128-5.
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  5. Hajder M., Bolanowski M., Connectivity analysis in the computational systems with distributed Communications in the multichannel environment, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 17 (2A) (2008): 14.
  6. Byczkowska-Lipinska L., Filipiak-Karasinska A., Dymora P., Method of Coverage Improvement in Wireless Regional Networks, Proccedings of the Third European Conference on the Use of Modern Information and Communication Technologies, ECUMICT, Gent, 13-14 March (2008): 57.
  7. Krivoi S., A Criteria of compatibility systems of linear diophantine constraints, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Spring. Verlag N 2328 (2002): 264.
  8. Krivoi S., Hajder M., Bagryi R., Application of algorithms for solving linear constrain systems, Algebra, Logic and Cibernetics. Proceedings. Irkutsk (2004): 165.
  9. Krivoi S., Grzywacz W., Hajder M., Algorithm for constructing the solutions basis in the set {0,1}, Conf. "Algebra, Logic, Cybernetics", Irkutsk (2004): 167.
  10. Hajder M., Byczkowska-Lipinska L., Bolanowski M., Analysis and synthesis of a computational system with reconfigurable multichannel connections, X International PhD Workshop OWD’2008, 18–21 October (2008).
10.2478/v10065-012-0043-x
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Article 03EN: How validation can help in testing business processes orchestrating web services
23-35

Damian Grela, Krzysztof Sapiecha, Joanna Strug


Department of Computer Science, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland

Validation and testing are important in developing correct and fault free SOA-based systems. BPEL is a high level language that makes it possible to implement business processes as an orchestration of web services. In general, the testing requires much more test scenarios than the validation. However, in the case of BPEL processes, which have very simple and well structured implementation, test scenarios limited to the validation may also be efficient. The paper describes an experiment that aims at answering a question whether or not the validation test scenarios are also adequate for testing an implementation of BPEL processes. The experiment employs a Software Fault Injector for BPEL Processes that is able to inject faults when the test scenarios are running. The results of the experiment seem very promising. Hence, it seems that validation tests might give a strong support for testing.
  1. Weerawarana S., Curbera F., Leymann F., Storey T., Ferguson D. F., Web Services Platform Architecture: SOAP, WSDL, WS-Policy, WS-Addressing, WS-BPEL, WS-Reliable Messaging, and More, Prentice Hall (2005).
  2. Erl T., Service-Oriented Architecture: Concepts, Technology, and Design, Prentice Hall PTR (2005).
  3. Sapiecha K., Grela D., Test scenarios generation for certain class of processes defined in BPEL language, International Conference On Computer Science - Research and Applications, Annales UMCS - Informatica 8(2) (2008): 75.
  4. Sapiecha K., Grela D., Automating test case generation for requirements specification for processes orchestrating web services, 10th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS), Information Systems Analysis and Specification 1 (2008): 381.
  5. Beizer B., Software testing techniques (2nd ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY, USA (1990).
  6. Yuan Y., Li Z., Sun W., A Graph-Search Based Approach to BPEL4WS Test Generation, International Conference on Software Engineering Advances (2006).
  7. Yan J., Li Z., Yuan Y., Sun W., Zhang J., BPEL4WS Unit Testing: Test Case Generation Using a Concurrent Path Analysis Approach, 17th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, ISSRE ’06 (2006).
  8. Li Z. J., Tan H. F., Liu H. H., Zhu J., Mitsumori N. M., Business-process-driven gray-box SOA testing, IBM Systems Journal 47 (2008): 457.
  9. Liu C.-H., Chen S.-L., Li X.-Y., A WS-BPEL Based Structural Testing Approach for Web Service Compositions, presented at the IEEE International Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE ’08) (2008).
  10. Palomo-Duarte M., Garcia-Dominguez A., Medina-Bulo I., Takuan: A Dynamic Invariant Generation System for WS-BPEL Compositions, presented at the IEEE Sixth European Conference on Web Services (ECOWS ’08) (2008).
  11. Palomo-Duarte M., Garcia-Dominguez A., Medina-Bulo I., Improving Takuan to Analyze a Meta- Search Engine WS-BPEL Composition, presented at the IEEE International Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE ’08) (2008).
  12. Palomo-Duarte M., Garcia-Dominguez A., Medina-Bulo I., An architecture for dynamic invariant generation in WS-BPEL web service compositions, presented at Proceedings of the International Conference on e-Business (2008).
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  14. Li Z. J., Sun W., BPEL-Unit: JUnit for BPEL Processes, Service-Oriented Computing (ICSOC ’06), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4294 (2006): 415.
  15. Sosnowski J., Testing and reliability in computer systems, EXIT, Warsaw (2005).
  16. Reinecke P., Wolter K., Towards a Multi-Level Fault-Injection Test-bed for Service-Oriented, 27th International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, Napoli, Italy (2008).
  17. Bertolino A., Angelis G.D., Polini A., A QoS Test-Bed Generator for Web Services, ICWE, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4607 (2007): 17.
  18. Juszczyk L., Truong H.L., Dustdar S., Genesis - a framework for automatic generation and steering of testbeds of complex web services, Proc. 13th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems ICECCS 2008, March 31 – April 3 (2008): 131.
  19. Bessayah F., Cavalli A., Maja W., Martins E., Valenti A. W., A Fault Injection Tool for Testing Web Services Composition, TAIC PART 2010, Windsor, UK, September (2010).
  20. Tran E., Verification/Validation/Certification, Dependable
  21. Heitmeyer C., Kirby J., Labaw B., The SCR Method for Formally Specifying, Verifying and Validating Requirements: Tool Support , Pro c. of the International Conference on Software Engineering (1997).
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  23. Chan K. S. M., Bishop J., Steyn J., Baresi L., Guinea S., A Fault Taxonomy for Web Service Composition, ICSOC Workshops (2007): 363.
10.2478/v10065-012-0036-9
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Article 04EN: Exact difference schemes and schemes of higher order of approximation for convection-diffusion equation. I
37-51

Magdalena Lapinska-Chrzczonowicz 1, Piotr Matus 1;2


1 Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Mathematics NAS of Belarus, 11 Surganov Str., 220072 Minsk, Belarus

he initial-boundary value problem for a convection-diffusion equation

is considered. The difference scheme, approximating this problem, is constructed. It is shown that for traveling wave solutions the scheme is exact (EDS). The monotonicity of the scheme is also taken into consideration. Presented numerical experiments illustrate the theoretical results investigated in the paper.
  1. Samarskii A. A., Matus P. P., Vabishchevich P. N., Difference Schemes with Operator Factors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (2002).
  2. Gavrilyuk I., Hermann M., Makarov V., Kutniv M. V., Exact and Truncated Difference Schemes for Boundary Value ODEs, Springer, Berlin (2011).
  3. Micken R. E., Applications of Nonstandard Finite Difference Schemes,World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (2000).
  4. Mickens R. E., Exact finite difference schemes for two-dimensional advection equations, Journal of Sound and Vibration 207(3) (1997): 426.
  5. Paradzinska A., Matus P., High Accuracy Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Transfer Equation @u @t + u@u @x = f(u), Mathematical Modelling and Analysis 12(4) (2007): 469.
  6. Rucker S., Exact Finite Difference Scheme for an Advection–Reaction Equation, Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 9(11) (2003): 1007.
  7. Matus P., Irkhin U., Lapinska-Chrzczonowicz M., Exact difference schemes for time-dependent problems, Computational Methods In Applied Mathematics 5(4) (2005): 422.
  8. Matus P., Irkhin U., Lapinska-Chrzczonowicz M., Lemeshevsky S. V., On exact finite-difference schemes for hyperbolic and elliptic equations. Differentsial’nye, Uravneniya 43(7) (2007): 978.
  9. Gilding B. H., Kersner R., Travelling Waves in Nonlinear Diffusion-Convection Reaction, Birkhauser Verlag, Berlin (2004).
  10. Volpert A. I., Volpert V. A., Volpert V. A., Traveling Wave Solutions of Parabolic Systems, American Mathematical Society, Rhode Island (2000).
  11. Samarskii A. A., The theory of difference schemes, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York - Basel (2001).
  12. Smarskii A. A., Gulin A. W., Numerical methods, Nauka, Moscow (1989); (in Russian).
  13. Matus P. P., Kirshtein A. A., Irkhin U. A., Exact difference schemes for the system of acoustic equations and analysis of Riemann problem, J. Numer. Appl. Math. 105(2) (2011): 83.
  14. Lapinska-Chrzczonowicz M., Difference schemes of arbitrary order of accuracy for semilinear parabolic equations, Annales UMCS, Informatica 10(2) (2010): 93.
  15. Hundsdorfer W., Verwer J. G., Numerical Solution of Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion- Reaction Equations, Springer, Berlin (2003).
  16. Lemeshevsky S. V., Matus P. P., Yakubuk R. M., Two-layered higher-order difference schemes for the convection-diffusion equation, Doklady of The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus 56(2) 2012: 15.
10.2478/v10065-012-0045-8
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Article 05EN: The N queens problem - new variants of the Wirth algorithm
53-61

Marcin Łajtar


Institute of Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 36b, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

The paper presents new ways of n-queens problem solving . Briefly, this is a problem on a nxn chessboard of a set n-queens, so that any two of them are not in check. At the beginning, currently used algorithm to find solutions is discussed. Then sequentially 4 new algorithms, along with the interpretation of changes are given. The research results, including comparison, of calculation times of all algorithms together with their interpretation are discussed. Finally, conclusions are given. The results were obtained thanks to the pre-created application. Chapters except for "By filtering ver. 2" were based on the previous studies carried out during the Bachelor course [1].
  1. Łajtar M., Implementacja i porównanie wybranych metod w problemie N-królowych, BSc Thesis supervision Grzegórski S., Lublin University of Technology (2011).
  2. http://www.etsi.org/plugtests/grid/Document/N-QUEENS-CHALLENGE-2007-v4.pdf (01.10.2012).
  3. Wirth N., Program Development by Refinement, Communication of the ACM (1971).
  4. Letavec C. Ruggiero J., The n-Queens Problem, INFORMS Transcations on Education (2002).
  5. Tesler G., n-Queens, Math 188 (2001).
  6. http://jsomers.com/nqueen_demo/nqueens.html (01.10.2012).
  7. Hac M., Brzuszek M, Równoległe rozwiazanie problemu N-królowych z wykorzystaniem standardu OPENMP, Scientific Bulletin of Chełm 1 (2008).
  8. Rok S., Jun G., Polynomial Time Algorithms for the N-Queen Problem, ACM SIGART (1990).
  9. Alfeld P., The N by N Queens Problem, Univerity of Utah (1997).
  10. Chatham R. D., Reflections on the N + k Queens Problem, Integre Technical Publishing (2009).
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  12. http://proactive.inria.fr/index.php?page=nqueens25 (01.10.2012).
10.2478/v10065-012-0013-3
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Article 06EN: On the key exchange and multivariate encryption with nonlinear polynomial maps of stable degree
63-80

Vasyl Ustimenko 2, Aneta Wroblewska 1;2


1 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Pawinskiego 5B; 02-106 Warszawa, Poland
2 Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

We say that the sequence gn, n  3, n ! 1 of polynomial transformation bijective maps of free module Kn over commutative ring K is a sequence of stable degree if the order of gn is growing with n and the degree of each nonidentical polynomial map of kind gn k is an independent constant c. Transformation b = tgn k
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  2. Ustimenko V. A., On the cryptographical properties of extremal algebraic graphs, in Algebraic Aspects of Digital Communications, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series - D: Information and Communication Security 24 (2009): 296.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0047-6
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Article 07EN: Stereoscopic video chroma key processing using NVIDIA CUDA
81-87

Jarosław Sagan


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

In this paper, I use the NVIDIA CUDA technology to perform the chroma key algorithm on stereoscopic images. NVIDIA CUDA allows to process parallel algorithms on GPU. Input data are stereoscopic images with the monochromatic background and the destination background image. Output data is the combination of inputs by using the chroma key. I compare the algorithm efficiency between the GPU and CPU execution.
10.2478/v10065-012-0039-6
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Article 08EN: Semi-automatic watershed merging method
89-97

Jakub Smołka, Maria Skublewska-Paszkowska


Institute of Computer Science, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,Lublin University of Technology,ul. Nadbystrzycka 36b, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

Watershed transformation frequently produces over-segmented images. The authors propose a solution to this problem. It utilizes hierarchical cluster analysis for grouping watersheds which are treated as objects characterized by a number of attributes. Initially the watershed merging method was meant only for gray-scale images, but later it was adapted for colour images. This paper presents further extension of the method that allows it to either automatically select the number of classes or to provide a hint as to which numbers in a specified range should be considered first. Segmentation quality assessment functions for colour images are presented. The results obtained using an extended watershed merging method are discussed. The examples of segmentations selected by the method, along with the graphs of assessment functions, are shown.
  1. Smołka J., Hierarchical cluster analysis methods applied to image segmentation by watershed merging, Annales UMCS Informatica AI 6 (2007): 73.
  2. Smołka J., Skublewska-Paszkowska M., Watershed merging method for color images, Annales UMCS Informatica AI 8 (1) (2008): 111.
  3. Romesburg H. C., Cluster Analysis for Researchers, Lulu Press (2004).
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  5. Liu J., Yang Y.-H., Multiresolution Color Image Segmentation, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 16 (7) (1994): 689.
  6. Zhang H., Fritts J. E., Goldman S. A., Image segmentation evaluation: A survey of unsupervised methods, Computer Vision and Image Understanding 110 (2) (2008): 260.
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  8. Whitaker R. S., Xue X., Variable-conductance, level-set curvature for image denoising, Proceedings of 3’rd International Conference on Image Processing (2001): 142.
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  12. Scheunders P., Sijbers J., Multiscale watershed segmentation of multivalued images, 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition 3 (855) (2002).
10.2478/v10065-012-0048-5
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Article 01EN: Prediction of mortality rates in heart failure patients with data mining methods
7-16

Jan Bohacik 1;2, C. Kambhampati 1, Darryl N. Davis 1, John G. F. Cleland 3


1 Department of Computer Science, University of Hull, Hull, UK
2 Department of Computer Science, University of Zilina Zilina, Slovakia
3 Department of Cardiology, University of Hull, Hull, UK

Heart failure is one of the severe diseases which menace the human health and affect millions of people. Half of all patients diagnosed with heart failure die within four years. For the purpose of avoiding life-threatening situations and minimizing the costs, it is important to predict mortality rates of heart failure patients. As part of a HEIF-5 project, a data mining study was conducted aiming specifically at extracting new knowledge from a group of patients suffering from heart failure and using it for prediction of mortality rates. The methodology of knowledge discovery in databases is analyzed within the framework of home telemonitoring. Several data mining methods such as a Bayesian network method, a decision tree method, a neural network method and a nearest neighbour method are employed. The accuracy for the data mining methods from the point of view of avoiding life-threatening situations and minimizing the costs is discussed. It seems that the decision tree method achieves the best accuracy results and is also interpretable for the clinicians.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0046-7
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Article 02EN: Content Repository in Object Oriented data model
17-27

Dariusz Dobrowolski, Michał Chromiak


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 9, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

The need for creating content repository stores for e-learning systems grows as the number of available materials increases. Moreover, along with the number of courses, the problem of describing them in a unified form appears. While there are standards used for strict classification of elearning content, the store model still seems to be based on preservative relational databases approach. In this paper we introduce an idea to represent the e-learning content management information in the well organized object-oriented form based on a prospective object-oriented database.
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  3. Lentner M., Subieta K., ODRA: A Next Generation Object-Oriented Environment for Rapid Database Application Development Advances in Databases and Information Systems, 11th East European Conference, ADBIS 2007, September 29-October 3, 2007, Proceedings., LNCS 4690, Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-75184-7 (2007): 130.
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  5. Subieta K., Theory and Construction of Object-Oriented Query Languages. PJIIT - Publishing House, ISBN 83-89244-28-4 (2004), 522 pages (in Polish).
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  7. Jodlowski A., Habela P., Plodzien J., Subieta K., Objects and Roles in the Stack-Based Approach. Proc. DEXA Conf., Springer LNCS 2453 (2002).
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10.2478/v10065-012-0037-8
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Article 03EN: Performance test of network devices
29-36

Marek Bolanowski, Andrzej Paszkiewicz


Department of Distributed Systems, Rzeszów University of Technology, al. Powstanców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

Selection of components in contemporary computer networks is extremely important, not only because of the project budget but also because of the network performance. Therefore, it is necessary to perform tests before deploying devices. In this paper the authors show that the performance of test network devices is dependent on the nature of network traffic including its statistical properties. Also a new hybrid model of the system for testing the network device based on the q-additivity of traffic flows was proposed.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0044-9
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Article 04EN: Protocols for The Meeting Businessmen Problem
37-47

Khalil Challita1


Notre Dame University, Louaize Computer Science Department

Assume that some businessmen wish to have a meeting. For this to occur, they usually have to meet somewhere. If they cannot meet physically, then they can take part in a video (or audio) conference to discuss whatever needs to be discussed. But what if their meeting is meant to be private? In this case they need a cryptographic protocol that allows them to exchange their ideas remotely, while keeping them secure from any potential eavesdropper. In this paper we list all the necessary requirements that a cryptographic protocol must have in order to allow several businessmen to exchange their ideas securely over the Internet. Moreover, and based on the standard taxonomy of cryptographic protocols, we suggest several approaches on how to design cryptographic protocols that enable us to achieve our aim. Finally, we propose the design of a protocol that solves the meeting businessmen problem.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0049-4
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Article 05EN: Simulation of reconfiguration problems in sensor networks using OMNeT++ software
49-67

Paweł Dymora, Mirosław Mazurek, Piotr Płonka


Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems,ul. Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

The paper presents a comparative analysis of reallocation algorithms in a structure of wireless sensor network in the event of a failure of network nodes. The article contains detailed research results of wireless sensor networks technology, with particular emphasis on thte network-layer protocols - routing protocols. In the research the simulation environment OMNeT++ was used to study the properties of reconfiguration and reallocation problems in the wireless sensor networks.
  1. Sohraby K., Minoli D., Znati T., Wireless Sensor Networks: Technology, protocols, and applications, Wiley & Sons (2007).
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  3. Weingärtner E., vom Lehn H., Wehrle K., A performance comparison of recent network Simulator, IEEE International Conference on Communications (2009).
  4. Peters B., Sensing Without wires: Wireless Sensing Solves Many Problems, But Introduces a Few of Its Own, Machine Design, Penton Media (2005).
  5. Raghavendra C., Sivalingam K., Znati Eds T., Wireless Sensor Networks, Kluwer Academic (2004).
  6. Hajder M., Dymora P., A novel approach to fault tolerant multichannel networks designing problems, Annales UMCS Informatica XI (2011).
  7. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Long-range dependencies in memory pages reads during man-compute system interaction, Annales UMCS Informatica XII (2012).
  8. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Statistical mechanics of memory pages reads during man–computer system interaction, Metody Informatyki Stosowanej 1(26) (2011).
  9. Varga A., Using the OMNeT++ discrete event simulation system in education, IEEE Transactions on Education (1999).
10.2478/v10065-012-0041-z
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Article 06EN: Computer network traffic analysis with the use of statistical self-similarity factor
69-87

Paweł Dymora, Mirosław Mazurek, Dominik Strzałka


Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems, ul. Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

The optimal computer network performance models require accurate traffic models, which can capture the statistical characteristic of actual traffic. If the traffic models do not represent traffic accurately, one may overestimate or underestimate the network performance. The paper presents confirmation of the self-similar nature of the selected protocols in the computer network communication layer. It shows that the good measure of self-similarity is a Hurst factor.
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  5. Grabowski F., Strzałka D., Simple, complicated and complex systems – the brief introduction. in: 2008 Conference On Human System Interactions 1, 2 (2008): 576.
  6. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Statistical mechanics of memory pages reads during man–computer system interaction, Metody Informatyki Stosowanej 1 (26) (2011): 15.
  7. Strzałka D., Szurlej P., Power-law distributions in hard drive behavior, Journal of Software Engineering and Applications 04(12) (2011): 710.
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  10. Strzałka B., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Queue Performance in Presence of Long-Range Dependencies – an Empirical Study, International Journal of Information Science 2(4) (2012): 47.
  11. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Long-range dependencies in memory pages reads during man-compute system interaction, Annales UMCS Informatica XII (2) (2012): 49.
  12. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Piekos M., Influence of batch structure on cluster computing performance - complex systems approach, Annales UMCS Informatica XII (1) (2012): 57.
  13. Eberbach E., Wegner P. Beyond Turing machines, Bulletin of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science 81 (2003): 279.
10.2478/v10065-012-0040-0
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Article 07EN: Convergent traffic in the environment of wireless MESH technology
83-95

Andrzej Paszkiewicz, Marek Bolanowski, Przemysław Zapała


Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems, al. Powstanców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

The paper presents a performance study of wireless MESH networks in the context of the convergent transmission. Nowadays, the integration of voice, video and data is becoming the norm. However, the wireless LAN environment, and especially MESH technology is an unfriendly environment due to its characteristics. Therefore, the impact of the size of transmitted frames to delays in the network based on mesh technology was analyzed. The sizes of transmitted frames corresponded to standards for Voice over IP, Video over IP that are commonly used. Additionally, a model of effective load balancing in mesh networks was presented. Then, the reliability and flexibility of these networks will be increased.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0042-y
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Article 08EN: Integration of multiagent crossing controllers for measure-oriented traffic control
97-105

Wiesław Trochonowicz 1;2


1 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Pawinskiego 5B; 02-106 Warszawa, Poland
2 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

In this paper we will present an integration of multiagent crossing controllers for measureoriented traffic control. It is the basis for the future multiagent traffic control system which uses measure oriented approach to control traffic. This integrated architecture gives us the possibility to react to the dynamic changes of traffic thanks to the data it can gather with its sensors.
  1. MATSIM www page. MultiAgent Transport SIMulation. http://matsim.org/, accessed 2011. URL www.matsim.org.
10.2478/v10065-012-0050-y
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Volume 12 - 2012

Article 01EN: Analysis of lung auscultatory phenomena using the Wigner-Ville Distribution
7-16

Mariusz Maciuk 1;5, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak 1;2, Anna Doboszyńska 3, Marta Maciuk 4


1 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-036 Lublin, Poland
2 Department of Biomechanics and Computer Science, External Faculty of Physical Education in Biała Podlaska, Akademicka 2, 21-500 Biała Podlaska, Poland
3 Clinical Nursing Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Ciołka 27, 01-445 Warsaw, Poland
4 Institute of Precision and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Św. Andrzeja Boboli 8, 02-525 Warsaw, Poland
5 The State School of Higher Education in Chełm, Pocztowa 54, 22-100 Chełm, Poland

In this paper the authors will try to discuss the applicability of Wigner-Ville Distribution for the digital analysis of auscultatory sounds. First of all, thte issues related to computer aided diagnosis are presented. Next, the methodology of research is shown and subsequently, the types of sounds are described. Another element of this work is the presentation of issues related to the digital signal processing including the Short-Time Fourier Transform(STFT), Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD), and its variation- Smoothed Wigner-Ville Distribution (SWVD). This paper summarizes the results obtained using STFT and SWVD, showing SWVD more useful to detect the type of auscultatory sounds.
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  6. Maciuk M., Kuniszyk–Józkowiak W., Kuc K., Analysis of respiratory sounds, in Polish: Analiza Fenomenów Osłuchowych, Scientific Bulletin of Chełm, Section of Techical Sciences, PWSZ Chełm 1 (2008).
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10.2478/v10065-012-0016-0
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Article 02EN: Resource Allocation Optimization in Critical Chain Method
17-29

Grzegorz Pawiński, Krzysztof Sapiecha


Department of Computer Science, Kielce University of Technology al.1000-lecia P.P. 7, Kielce, Poland

The paper presents resource allocation optimization in Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM). The cheapest project schedule is searched with respect to time constraints. The algorithm originally developed for the hardware-software co-design of heterogeneous distributed systems is adapted to work with human resources and CCPM method. The results of the optimization showed significant efficiency of the algorithm in comparison with a greedy algorithm. On average, the optimization gives 14.10% of cost reduction using the same number of resources. The gain varies depending on the number of resources and the time constraints. Advantages and disadvantages of such an approach are also discussed.
  1. Wei C., Liu P., Tsai Y., Resource-constrained project management using enhanced theory of constraint, International Journal of Project Management 20 (2002): 561.
  2. Rand G.K., Critical chain: the Theory of Constraints applied to project management, International Journal of Project Management 18 (3) (2000): 173.
  3. Tormos P., Lova A., Competitive Heuristic Solution Technique for Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling, Annals of Operations Research 102 (2001): 65.
  4. Deniziak S., Cost-efficient synthesis of multiprocessor heterogeneous systems, Control and Cybernetics 33 (2004): 341. [5] Goldratt E.M., Critical Chain, The North River Press Publishing Corporation, Great Barrington (1997).
  5. Steyn H., An investigation into the fundamentals of critical chain project management, International Journal of Project Management 19 (2000): 363.
  6. Herroelen W., Leus R., On the merits and pitfalls of critical chain scheduling, Journal of Operations Management 19 (2001): 559.
  7. Deniziak S., Sapiecha K., Kosynteza rozproszonych systemów heterogenicznych (“Hardwaresoftware co-design of heterogenous distributed systems”), III Krajowa Konferencja: Metody I systemy komputerowe w badaniach naukowych i projektowaniu inzynierskim, Kraków (2001): 437 (in Polish).
  8. Tukel O. I., Rom W. O., Eksioglu S. D., An investigation of buffer sizing techniques in critical chain schedulin, European Journal of Operational Research 172 (2006): 401.
10.2478/v10065-012-0006-2
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Article 03EN: Analysis of signals from inductive sensors by means of the DasyLab software
31-37

Tadeusz Zloto 1, Paweł Ptak 2, Tomasz Prauzner 3


1 Institute of Machine Technology and Automation of Production, Czestochowa University of Technology , Armii Krajowej 21, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
2 Institute of Telecommunications and Electromagnetic Compatibility, Technical University of Czestochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-218 Czestochowa, Poland
3 Institute of Technical Education and SafetyJan Długosz University Armii Krajowej 17, 42-218 Czestochowa, Poland

The paper deals with the acquisition of measuring signals from inductive sensors and their treatment in the programming environment National Instruments DasyLab. Its potential is presented with respect to analyzing and processing the data and the methods of constructing algorithms for performing complex tasks are discussed. Signals coming from inductive sensors are typically sinusoidal or deformed, of irregular shapes. They carry various types of information: on the thickness of the outer coating, on the flaws in the coating, or on the linear or angular displacement. In order to obtain such information from the measuring sensor it is necessary to examine the amplitude, frequency, or shape of the measuring signal analysed. Such signals can be examined as individual impulses of various shapes or as sets of periods extending over longer time spans. The paper also describes the examples of the systems in the DasyLab software package to be used in measurements and other forms of applied research.
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  4. Ptak P., Metodyka analizy sygnałów w pomiarach grubosci warstw wierzchnich, Slaskie Wiadomosci Elektryczne R.18 4(97) (2011): 44.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0005-3
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Article 04EN: Automatic reasoning in the Planet Wars game
39-45

Bartosz Ziółko 1, Maciej Kruk 2


1 Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Kraków, Poland.
2 Department of Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Kraków, Poland

An artificial intelligence algorithm for a computer game competition organised by Google and University ofWaterloo is presented. It competes with others by reasoning, evaluating of a situation and taking decisions in a war simulation.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0009-z
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Article 05EN: A method for QoS differentiation in DiffServ networks based on the long-term properties of a video stream
47-56

Zbigniew Omiotek


Department of Computer Science and Knowledge Engineering, Zamość University of Management and Administration, Akademicka 4, 22-400 Zamość, Poland

This paper presents a method for adjusting the level of services offered by the network with quality of service differentiation for the long-term characteristics of a transmitted video stream. The Drop Precedence (DP) field located in the header of IP packet for this purpose was used.The DP field is set dynamically, based on the measurement of the long-term properties of a source video stream entering the network. The level of traffic perturbations present in a stream is expressed by the Hurst parameter, and then mapped to the size of a priority encoded in the DP field. By that means, an adaptive differentiation of the preferences of individual streams within the same AF PHB class of service is implemented, depending on the size of perturbations existing in the flow. The use of the long-term Hurst parameter, as a criterion of classification, makes the treatment of packets marked with a given priority value does the job well on a larger time scale.
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  6. Chen L., Liu G., Zhao F., An Improved Marking Mechanism for Real-Time Video over DiffServ Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4810 (2007): 510.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0007-1
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Article 06EN: Influence of batch structure on cluster computing performance – complex systems approach
57-66

Paweł Dymora, Mirosław Mazurek, Dominik Strzałka, Marcin Piękoś


Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems, ul. Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

This work presents the problem of clusters computing performance optimization. An assessment of the impact of computing architecture, applications, and communications equipment on the system performance was done. Processing bottlenecks were identified, showing that in order to obtain an optimum usage of computational structure the system should be treated as a complex one in which it is impossible to isolate and optimize each element independently.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0012-4
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Article 07EN: The Meeting Businessmen Problem: Requirements and Limitations
67-77

Khalil Challita


Notre Dame University, Louaize, Computer Science Department

Let us assume that some businessmen wish to have a meeting. For this to happen, they usually have to meet somewhere. If they cannot meet physically, then they can take part in a video (or audio) conference to discuss whatever needs to be discussed. But what if their meeting is meant to be private? In this case they need a cryptographic protocol that allows them to exchange their ideas remotely, while keeping them secure from any potential eavesdropper. In this paper we list all the necessary requirements that a cryptographic protocol must have in order to allow several businessmen to exchange their ideas securely over the Internet. Moreover, and based on the standard taxonomy of cryptographic pro- tocols, we suggest several approaches on how to design cryptographic protocols that enable us to achieve our aim. Finally, we propose the design of a protocol that solves the meeting businessmen problem.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0003-5
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Article 08EN: Generating of Business Database Application Elements
79-87

Artur Kornatka 1,2


1 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.
2 Department of Computer Science, Nowy Sacz School of Business - National-Louis, University, Zielona 27, 33-300 Nowy Sacz, Poland

The paper presents the outline of an innovative conception of the functioning of generator for business database applications elements and shows also the working principles of the author’s prototype system named BACG (Business Application Code Generator) which implements the aforementioned conception.
  1. Pressman R. S., Software engineering: a practitioner’s approach, McGraw-Hill, 2005.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0008-0
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Article 01EN: Fast multidimensional Bernstein-Lagrange algorithms
7-18

Joanna Kapusta, Ryszard Smarzewski


Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, ul. Konstantynow 1H, 20-708 Lublin, Poland

In this paper we present two fast algorithms for the Bézier curves and surfaces of an arbitrary dimension. The first algorithm evaluates the Bernstein-Bézier curves and surfaces at a set of specific points by using the fast Bernstein-Lagrange transformation. The second algorithm is an inversion of the first one. Both algorithms reduce the initial problem to computation of some discrete Fourier transformations in the case of geometrical subdivisions of the d-dimensional cube. Their orders of computational complexity are proportional to those of corresponding d-dimensional FFT-algorithm, i.e. to O (N logN) + O (dN), where N denotes the order of the Bernstein-Bézier curves.
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  2. Kapusta J., Smarzewski R., Fast algorithms for multivariate interpolation and evaluation at special points, Journal of Complexity 25 (2009): 332.
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  4. Mainara E., Pe¨na J. M., Evaluation algorithms for multivariate polynomials in Bernstein-Bézier form, Journal of Approximation Theory 143 (1) (2006): 44.
  5. Peters J., Evaluation and approximate evaluation of the multivariate Bernstein-Bézier form on a regularly partitioned simplex, ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software 20(4) (1994): 460.
  6. Phien H. N., Dejdumrong N., Efficient algorithms for Bé zier curves, Computer Aided Geometric Design 17 (2000): 247.
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  8. Smarzewski R., Kapusta J., Fast Lagrange-Newton transformations, Journal of Complexity 23 (2007): 336.
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  12. Kapusta J., An efficient algorithm for multivariate Maclaurin-Newton transformation, Annales UMCS Informatica AI VIII (2) (2008): 5.
  13. Andrews G. E., The theory of partitions (Encyclopedia of mathematics and its applications), Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1976.
10.2478/v10065-012-0002-6
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Article 02EN: Time–frequency Analysis of the EMG Digital Signals
19-25

Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak 1,2, Janusz Jaszczuk 2, Tomasz Sacewicz 2, Ireneusz Codello 1


1 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-036 Lublin, Poland
2 Department of Biomechanics and Computer Science, External Faculty of Physical Education in Biała Podlaska, Academy of Physical Education in Warsaw

In the article comparison of time-frequency spectra of EMG signals obtained by the following methods: Fast Fourier Transform, predictive analysis and wavelet analysis is presented. The EMG spectra of biceps and triceps while an adult man was flexing his arm were analysed. The advantages of the predictive analysis were shown as far as averaging of the spectra and determining the main maxima are concerned. The Continuous Wavelet Transform method was applied, which allows for the proper distribution of the scales, aiming at an accurate analysis and localisation of frequency maxima as well as the identification of impulses which are characteristic of such signals (bursts) in the scale of time. The modified Morlet wavelet was suggested as the mother wavelet. The wavelet analysis allows for the examination of the changes in the frequency spectrum in particular stages of the muscle contraction. Predictive analysis may also be very useful while smoothing and averaging the EMG signal spectrum in time.
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  2. Moshou D., Hostens I., Papaioannou, Ramon H., Dynamic muscle fatigue detection using selforganizing maps, Applied Soft Computing 5 (2005): 391. [3] Manal K., Buchanan T. S., A one-parameter neural activation to muscle activation model: estimation isometric joint moments from electromyograms, Journal of Biomechanics 36 (2003): 1197.
  3. Faina D., Falla D., Estimation of muscle conduction velocity from two-dimensional surface EMG recordings in dynamic tasks, Biomechanical Signal Processing and Control 3 (2008): 138.
  4. Coorevits P., Danneels L., Cambier D., Ramon H., Druyts H., Karlsson J. S., De Moor G., Vanderstraeten G., Correlations between short-time Fourier and continuous wavelet transforms in the analysis of localized back and hip muscle fatigue during isometric contractions, Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 18 (2008): 637.
  5. Fele-Žorž G., Kavšek G., Novak-Antolic Ž., Jager F., A comparison of various linear and nonlinear processing techniques to separate EMG records of term and pre-term delivery groups, Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 46 (2008): 911.
  6. Flanders M., Choosing a wavelet for single-trial EMG, Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 116 (2002): 165.
  7. von Tscharner V., Goephert B., Nigg B.M., Changes in EMG signals for muscle tibialis anterior while running barefoot or with shoes resolved by non-lenarly scaled wavelets, Journal of Biomechanics 36 (2003): 1169.
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  9. Codello I., Kuniszyk-Józkowiak W., Digital signals analysis with the LPC method, Annales UMCS Informatica AI5 (2006): 315.
  10. Codello I., Kuniszyk-Józkowiak W.,’Wave Blaster’ – A comprehensive tool for speech analysis and its application for vowel recognition using wavelet continuous transform with bark scales, 56th open Seminar in Acoustics (2009): 141.
  11. Codello I., Kuniszyk-Józkowiak W., Smołka E., Suszynski W., Speaker Recognition Using Continuous Wavelet Transform with Bark Scales, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 18(3B) (2009): 78.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0001-7
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Article 03EN: A self–stabilizing algorithm for finding weighted centroid in trees
27-37

Halina Bielak 1, Michał Pańczyk 2


1 Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.
2 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland.

In this paper we present some modification of the Blair and Manne algorithm for finding the center of a tree network in the distributed, self-stabilizing environment. Their algorithm finds n/2 -separator of a tree. Our algorithm finds weighted centroid, which is direct generalization of the former one for tree networks with positive weights on nodes. Time complexity of both algorithms is O(n2), where n is the number of nodes in the network.
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  6. Bruell S. C., Ghosh S., Karaata M. H., Pemmaraju S. V., Self-stabilizing algorithms for finding centers and medians of trees, SIAM Journal on Computing 29 (1999): 600.
  7. Blair J. R. S., Manne F., Efficient self-stabilizing algorithms for tree networks, Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, (ICDCS) Providence, Rhode Island (2003): 20.
  8. Chepoi V., Fevat T., Godard E., Vaxès Y., A self-stabilizing algorithm for the median problem in partial rectangular grids and their relatives, Algorithmica 62 (2012): 146.
  9. Bielak H., Panczyk M., A self-stabilizing algorithm for median election in some weighted graphs (in preparation).
10.2478/v10065-012-0035-x
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Article 04EN: Automatic disordered sound repetition recognition in continuous speech using CWT and kohonen network
39-48

Ireneusz Codello, Wiesława Kuniszyk–Jóźkowiak, Elżbieta Smołka, Adam Kobus


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-036 Lublin, Poland

Automatic disorders recognition in speech can be very helpful for a therapist while monitoring therapy progress of patients with disordered speech. This article is focused on sound repetitions. The signal is analyzed using Continuous Wavelet Transform with 16 bark scales. Using the silence finding algorithm, only speech fragments are automatically found and cut. Each cut fragment is converted into a fixed-length vector and passed into the Kohonen network. Finally, the Kohonen winning neuron result is put on the 3-layer perceptron. Most of the analysis was performer and the results were obtained using the authors’ program WaveBlaster. We use the STATISTICA package for finding the best perceptron which was then imported back into WaveBlaster and used for automatic blockades finding. The problem presented in this article is a part of our research work aimed at creating an automatic disordered speech recognition system.
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  2. Wisniewski M., Kuniszyk–Józkowiak W., Smołka E., Suszynski W., Improved approach to automatic detection of speech disorders based on the Hidden Markov Models approach, Journal Of Medical Informatics & Technologies 15 (2010): 145.
  3. Kobus A., Kuniszyk–Józkowiak W., Smołka E., Codello I., Speech nonfluency detection and classification based on linear prediction coefficients and neural networks, Journal Of Medical Informatics & Technologies 15 (2010): 135.
  4. Szczurowska I., Kuniszyk–Józkowiak W., Smołka E., Speech nonfluency detection using Kohonen networks, Neural Computing and Application 18(7) (2009): 677.
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  6. Codello I., Kuniszyk–Józkowiak W.,Wavelet analysis of speech signal, Annales UMCS Informatica AI 6 (2007): 103.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0014-2
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Article 05EN: Long-range dependencies in reading memory pages in the man-computer system interaction
49-58

Paweł Dymora, Mirosław Mazurek, Dominik Strzałka


Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems, ul. Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

The modern computer systems consist of many interdependent subsystems. There are two possible approaches to their analysis. The first one is based on the idea of reductionism proposed by Descrates[1] and can be considered as a still ruling paradigm in the case of computer science and engineering. The second one can be related to the still new idea of the complex systems approach, where in order to understand the behaviour of such systems one needs to have the knowledge about the behaviour of system components and also, that is more important, how they act together [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. This specific paradigm change can be even shown in the case of the idea of Turing machines and new approach for consideration in the case of interactive processing – even the opinion that “the computer engineering is not a mathematical science” was presented [9]. It should be noted that the Turing machine is a mathematical idea [10] while its implementations are the physical ones [11], but if the physical nature of computer systems was indicated, there is a need to have an appropriate physical (thermodynamical) basis for deliberations in such a case. In [12] it has been shown that the analysis of processes in the computer systems can be based on non-extensive thermodynamics. However, this analysis considers only spatial correlations, meanwhile in this paper we will focus on time dependencies leading to a long-memory effect.
The paper is divided into 5 sections. In Section 2 the conception of the hierarchical structure of memory system in the computer is presented. This proposal was given in [11] where its influence on computer thermodynamics was discussed. In Section 3 there is a short survey about long-range dependencies whereas Section 4 discusses practical usage of theoretical considerations. The last section concludes the paper.
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  11. Dymora P., Mazurek M., Strzałka D., Statistical mechanics of memory pages reads during man–computer system interaction, Metody Informatyki Stosowanej 1(26) (2011): 15.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0011-5
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Article 06EN: Sensor network infrastructure for intelligent building monitoring and management system
59-71

Paweł Dymora, Mirosław Mazurek, Sławomir Nieroda


Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems, ul. Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

The aim of this study was to present that it is possible to design and implement an efficient and functional intel-ligent building management system based on free tools, own project and self-realization of sensor network sys-tem which may be a low cost alternative to commercial ones. The paper presents the designed system consisting of implemented devices on the basis of sensor network technology and own hardware project in a building manage-ment system. At the application level there was designed and implemented the building management system which allows communication between the sensors, data exchange between the sensors and the database as well as the system parameters visualization panel used for intelligent building monitoring.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0010-6
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Article 07EN: A comparison of different modulation techniques performances in an underground multiuser communications scenario
73-85

Alina-Mihaela Badescu


Dept. of Telecommunications, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, bd. Iuliu-Maniu, nr. 1-3, Bucharest, Romania

The potential use of typical commercial communication systems with ultra high frequencies for the underground emergency/military situations will be investigated, as commercial systems have already a fully developed market that makes them cheap and reliable. The possible usage of broadband techniques like CDMA in the direct sequence will be studied because most commercial communication systems have already been designed to support multiple users, as the underground propagation has many possible applications. The performances of both modulation techniques are evaluated from the point of view of the quality of the signals, power spectral density and the effect that the propagation medium has on the transmitted signals such that the best modulation technique is determined. The 16QAM and QPSK modulations (two of the most popular modulation techniques in the terrestrial wireless system) are compared in a scenario where a number of underground sources share the same physical channel (and antenna) - the receiver is placed at the ground level so the generated signals must propagate through the dielectric layer in order to reach it. The transmitted power, electric and magnetic fields as well as occupied bandwidth are also calculated.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0015-1
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Article 08EN: The role of standardization in the development of e-learning
87-92

Tomasz Prauzner 1, Paweł Ptak 2


1 Institute of Technical Education and SafetyJan Długosz University, Armii Krajowej 17, 42-218 Częstochowa, Poland
2 Institute of Telecommunications and Electromagnetic Compatibility, Technical University of Częstochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-218 Częstochowa, Poland

This paper presents the essential issues of creating the educational content of e-learning platforms from the viewpoint of both didactic and technological standards. Although e-learning is currently the fastest developing method of distance learning based on the most advanced information technology, the problems of content standardization have not been sufficiently dealt with so far. Owing to that, this paper touches upon the most essential aspects of creating didactic materials employing advanced information technology.
  1. Prauzner T., Wykorzystanie mediów elektronicznych w edukacji technicznej studentów, Warszawa: IBE (2006).
  2. Conference Proceedings: 27nd International Scientific Conference:Technology Education as a Part of General Education, Vielka Łomnica, Słowacja (2011).
  3. Kaczmarski K., Nauczanie na odległosc a standaryzacja materiałów edukacyjnych, Conference Proceedings: Warsaw University of Technology (2011).
  4. Chmielewski J. M., Wackowski K., Rola standaryzacji platform w e-learningu, E-mentor 2(19) (2007).
  5. Sudoł P., Okreslenie wymagan klienta za pomoca analizy przedwdrozeniowej, http://pawelsudol.com; (2011.10.6).
  6. Orzechowicz K., Standaryzacja w obszarze e-learningu, Serwis edukacyjny profesor.pl: http://www.profesor.pl/; (2011.10.3).
10.2478/v10065-012-0004-4
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Article 01EN: Parameterized Hash Functions
11-24

Tomasz Bilski, Krzysztof Bucholc, Anna Grocholewska-Czury


Institute of Control and Information Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, pl. Marii Skłodowskiej Curie 5, 60-965 Poznań, Poland

In this paper we describe a family of highly parameterized hash functions. This parameterization results in great flexibility between performance and security of the algorithm. The three basic functions, HaF-256, HaF-512 and HaF-1024 constitute this hash function family. Lengths of message digests are 256, 512 and 1024 bits respectively. The paper discusses the details of functions structure. The method used to generate function S-box is also described in detail.
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  2. Biham E., Dunkelman O., A framework for iterative hash functions - HAIFA, NIST 2nd Hash Function Workshop, Santa Barbara (2006); also: Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2007/278, http://eprint.iacr.org/2007/278.
  3. Bilski T., Bucholc K., Grocholewska-Czuryło A., Stokłosa J., HaF – A new family of hash functions, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Pervasive Embedded Computing and Communication Systems, PECCS 2012, Rome, Italy, 24–26 February, 2012, SciTePress (2012): 188.
  4. Lai X., Massey J. L., A proposal for a new block encryption standard, Damgøard I. B. (ed.), Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT ’90. LNCS 473, Springer, Berlin (1991): 389.
  5. Janicka-Lipska I., Stokłosa J., Boolean feedback functions for full-length nonlinear shift registers, Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology 5 (2004,): 28.
  6. Rueppel R. A., Analysis and Design of Stream Ciphers, Springer, Berlin (1986).
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  8. Fuller J., Millan W., On Linear Redundancy in the AES S-Box (2002); http://eprint.iacr.org/2002/111.
  9. Fuller J., Millan W., On Linear Redundancy in S-Boxes, FSE 2003, LNCS 2887, Springer(2003): 74.
10.2478/v10065-012-0025-z
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Article 02EN: Attacks on StreamHash 2
25-35

Mateusz Buczek


Institute of Mathematics and Cryptology, Faculty of Cybernetics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland

StreamHash 2 is a hash function proposed by Michał Trojnara at the Cryptography and Security Systems in 2011 Conference. This algorithm is a member of StreamHash family which was first introduced in 2008 during the SHA-3 Competition. In this paper we will show collision attacks on the internal state of the StreamHash 2 hash function with complexity about 28n for the 32n-bit version of the algorithm and its reduced version with complexity 28n. We will also show its application to attacking the full StreamHash 2 function (finding a collision on all output bits) with complexity about 288 . We will try to show that any changes made to the construction (for instance the ones proposed for StreamHash 3) will have no effect on the security of the family due to critical fault build into the compression function.
  1. Trojnara M., StreamHash Algorithm Specifications and Supporting Documentation, SHA-3 Submissionpackage (2008).
  2. Trojnara M., Evolution of the StreamHash Hash Function Family, Annales UMCS Informatica 11(2) (2011): 25; DOI: 10.2478/v10065-011-0013-8.
10.2478/v10065-012-0024-0
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Article 03EN: Hash function generation by means of Gene Expression Programming
37-53

Sébastien Varrette, Jakub Muszyński, Pascal Bouvry


University of Luxembourg, Computer Science and Communications (CSC) Research Unit, 6, rue Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, L-1359 Luxembourg, Luxembourg

: Cryptographic hash functions are fundamental primitives in modern cryptography and have many security applications (data integrity checking, cryptographic protocols, digital signatures, pseudo random number generators etc.). At the same time novel hash functions are designed (for instance in the framework of the SHA-3 contest organized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)), the cryptanalysts exhibit a set of statistical metrics (propagation criterion, frequency analysis etc.) able to assert the quality of new proposals. Also, rules to design "good" hash functions are now known and are followed in every reasonable proposal of a new hash scheme. This article investigates the ways to build on this experiment and those metrics to generate automatically compression functions by means of Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs). Such functions are at the heart of the construction of iterative hash schemes and it is therefore crucial for them to hold good properties. Actually, the idea to use nature-inspired heuristics for the design of such cryptographic primitives is not new: this approach has been successfully applied in several previous works, typically using the Genetic Programming (GP) heuristic [1]. Here, we exploit a hybrid meta-heuristic for the evolutionary process called Gene Expression Programming (GEP) [2] that appeared far more efficient computationally speaking compared to the GP paradigm used in the previous papers. In this context, the GEPHashSearch framework is presented. As it is still a work in progress, this article focuses on the design aspects of this framework (individuals definitions, fitness objectives etc.) rather than on complete implementation details and validation results. Note that we propose to tackle the generation of compression functions as a multi-objective optimization problem in order to identify the Pareto front i.e. the set of non-dominated functions over the four fitness criteria considered. If this goal is not yet reached, the first experimental results in a mono-objective context are promising and open the perspective of fruitful contributions to the cryptographic community.
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  14. Estevez-Tapiador J. M., Hernandez-Castro J. C., Peris-Lopez P, Ribagorda A., Automated Design of Cryptographic Hash Schemes by Evolving Highly-Nonlinear Functions, Journal of Information Science and Engineering 24(5) (2008): 1485–1504.
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  16. Aumasson J.-P., Henzen L., Meier W., Phan R. C.-W., SHA-3 proposal BLAKE, Technical report, NIST (2010); http://www.131002.net/blake/blake.pdf
  17. Knudsen L. R., Gauravaram P., Matusiewicz K., Mendel F., Rechberger C., Schläffer M., Thomsen Søren S., Grøstl a SHA-3 candidate, Technical report, NIST (2011); http://www.groestl.info/Groestl.pdf
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10.2478/v10065-012-0027-x
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Article 04EN: A Remark on Hierarchical Threshold Secret Sharing
55-64

Renata Kawa, Mieczysław Kulay


Institute of Mathematics, University of Silesia, Bankowa 14, 40-007 Katowice, Poland.

The main results of this paper are theorems which provide a solution to the open problem posed by Tassa [1]. He considers a specific family Γν of hierarchical threshold access structures and shows that two extreme members Γ and Γv of Γν are realized by secret sharing schemes which are ideal and perfect. The question posed by Tassa is whether the other members of Γν can be realized by ideal and perfect schemes as well. We show that the answer in general is negative. A precise definition of secret sharing scheme introduced by Brickell and Davenport in [2] combined with a connection between schemes and matroids are crucial tools used in this paper. Brickell and Davenport describe secret sharing scheme as a matrix M with n+1 columns, where n denotes the number of participants, and define ideality and perfectness as properties of the matrix M. The auxiliary theorems presented in this paper are interesting not only because of providing the solution of the problem. For example, they provide an upper bound on the number of rows of M if the scheme is perfect and ideal.
  1. Tassa T., Hierarchical Threshold Secret Sharing, Journal of Cryptology 20 (2007): 237.
  2. Brickell E., Davenport D., On the Classification of Ideal Secret Sharing Schemes, Journal of Cryptology 4 (1991): 123.
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  8. Farràs O. Padró C., Ideal Hierarchical Secret Sharing Schemes, Theory of Cryptography 5978 (2010): 219.
  9. Oxley J. G., Matroid Theory, Oxford University Press, New York (1992).
  10. Martí-Farré J., Padró C., Secret Sharing Schemes on Sparse Homogeneous Access Structures with Rank Three, The electronic journal of combinatorics 11 (2004): 1.
10.2478/v10065-012-0020-4
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Article 05EN: Dynamical systems as the main instrument for the constructions of new quadratic families and their usage in cryptography
65-74

Vasyl Ustimenko 2, Aneta Wróblewska 1;2


1 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Pawińskiego 5B; 02-106 Warszawa, Poland
2 Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Let K be a finite commutative ring and f = f(n) a bijective polynomial map f(n) of the Cartesian power Kn onto itself of a small degree c and of a large order. Let fy be a multiple composition of f with itself in the group of all polynomial automorphisms, of free module Kn. The discrete logarithm problem with the "pseudorandom" base f(n) (solvefy = b for y) is a hard task if n is "sufficiently large". We will use families of algebraic graphs defined over K and corresponding dynamical systems for the explicit constructions of such maps f(n) of a large order with c = 2 such that all nonidentical powers fy are quadratic polynomial maps. The above mentioned result is used in the cryptographical algorithms based on the maps f(n) – in the symbolic key exchange protocols and public keys algorithms.
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  4. Ustimenko V., CRYPTIM: Graphs as Tools for Symmetric Encryption, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2227 (2001): 278.
  5. Wroblewska A., On some properties of graph based public keys, Albanian Journal of Mathematics 2 (3) (2008): 229.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0030-2
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Article 06EN: Generation of random keys for cryptographic systems
75-87

Mariusz Borowski, Marek Lesniewicz, Robert Wicik, Marcin Grzonkowski


Cryptology Division, Military Communication Institute, Warszawska 22A, 05-130 Zegrze, Poland

Military and government institutions need security services for storing and exchanging classified information among them. Security of such information is important for independence of the State. At present, cryptography provides a lot of methods for information security. A one-time pad cipher may be used to ensure perfect (unconditional) security. There are many ciphers and other cryptographic transformations, which are not perfect, but ensure conditional security adequate to needs. All cryptosystems require keys and other crypto materials. These keys should satisfy numerous conditions. The basic is randomness. One of the best sources of random bit sequences used in the production of keys for special cryptosystems is a hardware generator. Now we have an electronic device, where it is possible to generate binary random sequences with the potential output rate of 100 Mbit/s. It gives us the capability of building an efficient key generation equipment for the cryptosystems to rely on the one-time pad cipher, where we need very long keys and for those based on symmetric or asymmetric transformations where many relatively short keys are needed.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0033-z
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Article 07EN: On the family of cubical multivariate cryptosystems based on the algebraic graph over finite commutative rings of characteristic 2
89-106

Urszula Romanczuk 1, Vasyl Ustimenko 1;2


1 Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Telecommunications and Global Information Space, Kiev, National Academy of Science of Ukraine Chokolovsky Boulevard 13, Kiev, Ukraine

The family of algebraic graphs A(n;K) defined over the finite commutative ring K were used for the design of different multivariate cryptographical algorithms (private and public keys, key exchange protocols). The encryption map corresponds to a special walk on this graph. We expand the class of encryption maps via the use of an automorphism group of A(n;K). In the case of characteristic 2 the encryption transformation is a Boolean map. We change finite field for the commutative ring of characteristic 2 and consider some modifications of algorithm which allow to hide a ground commutative ring.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0029-8
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Article 08EN: LDPC Codes Based on Algebraic Graphs
107-119

Monika Polak 1, Vasyl Ustimenko 1;2


1 Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Telecommunications and Global Information Space, National Academy of Science of Ukraine Chokolovsky Boulevard 13, Kiev, Ukraine.

In this paper we investigate correcting properties of LDPC codes obtained from families of algebraic graphs. The graphs considered in this article come from the infinite incidence structure. We describe how to construct these codes, choose the parameters and present several simulations, done by using the MAP decoder. We describe how error correcting properties are dependent on the graph structure. We compare our results with the currently used codes, obtained by Guinand and Lodge [1] from the family of graphs D(k; q), which were constructed by Ustimenko and Lazebnik [2].
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10.2478/v10065-012-0034-y
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Article 09EN: Performance Evaluation of Different Universal Steganalysis Techniques in JPG Files
121-139

Ashraf M. Emam 1, Mahmoud M. Ouf 2


1 Associate Professor of Computer Science Institute of Graduate Studies and Research Alexandria University
1 Lecturer of Programming Language Information Technology Institute Ministry of Communication and Information Technology

Steganalysis is the art of detecting the presence of hidden data in files. In the last few years, there have been a lot of methods provided for steganalysis. Each method gives a good result depending on the hiding method. This paper aims at the evaluation of five universal steganalysis techniques which are “Wavelet based steganalysis”, “Feature Based Steganalysis”, “Moments of characteristic function using wavelet decomposition based steganalysis”, “Empirical Transition Matrix in DCT Domain based steganalysis”, and “Statistical Moment using jpeg2D array and 2D characteristic function”. A large Dataset of Images -1000 images- are subjected to three types of steganographic techniques which are “Outguess”, “F5” and “Model Based” with the embedding rate of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2. It was followed by extracting the steganalysis feature used by each steganalysis technique for the stego images as well as the cover image. Then half of the images are devoted to train the classifier. The Support vector machine with a linear kernel is used in this study. The trained classifier is then used to test the other half of images, and the reading is reported The “Empirical Transition Matrix in DCT Domain based steganalysis” achieves the highest values among all the properties measured and it becomes the first choice for the universal steganalysis technique.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0026-y
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Article 01EN: Hardened Bloom Filters, with an Application to Unobservability
11-22

Nicolas Bernard, Franck Leprévost


LACS, University of Luxembourg, 162 a, Avenue de la Faïencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg

Classical Bloom filters may be used to elegantly check if an element e belongs to a set S, and, if not, to add e to S. They do not store any data and only provide boolean answers regarding the membership of a given element in the set, with some probability of false positive answers. Bloom filters are often used in caching system to check that some requested data actually exist before doing a costly lookup to retrieve them. However, security issues may arise for some other applications where an active attacker is able to inject data crafted to degrade the filters’ algorithmic properties, resulting for instance in a Denial of Service (DoS) situation. This leads us to the concept of hardened Bloom filters, combining classical Bloom filters with cryptographic hash functions and secret nonces. We show how this approach is successfully used in the TrueNyms unobservability system and protects it against replay attacks.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0018-y
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Article 02EN: Specialized Genetic Algorithm Based Simulation Tool Designed For Malware Evolution Forecasting
23-37

Vaidas Juzonis, Nikolaj Goranin, Antanas Cenys, Dmitrij Olifer


Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Saul˙etekio al. 11,SRL-I-415, LT-10223, Vilnius, Lithuania

From the security point of view malware evolution forecasting is very important, since it provides an opportunity to predict malware epidemic outbreaks, develop effective countermeasure techniques and evaluate information security level. Genetic algorithm approach for mobile malware evolution forecasting already proved its effectiveness. There exists a number of simulation tools based on the Genetic algorithms, that could be used for malware forecasting, but their main disadvantages from the user’s point of view is that they are too complicated and can not fully represent the security entity parameter set. In this article we describe the specialized evolution forecasting simulation tool developed for security entities, such as different types of malware, which is capable of providing intuitive graphical interface for users and ensure high calculation performance. Tool applicability for the evolution forecasting tasks is proved by providing mobile malware evolution forecasting results and comparing them with the results we obtained in 2010 by means of MATLAB.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0031-1
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Article 03EN: Image reconstruction with the use of evolutionary algorithms and cellular automata
39-49

Franciszek Seredyński 1;2, Jarosław Skaruz 2, Adrian Piraszewski


1 Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Woycickiego 1/3, 01-938 Warszaw, Poland
2 Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Institute of Computer Science, 3 Maja 54, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland

In the paper we present a new approach to the image reconstruction problem based on evolution algorithms and cellular automata. Two-dimensional, nine state cellular automata with the Moore neighbourhood perform reconstruction of an image presenting a human face. Large space of automata rules is searched through efficiently by the genetic algorithm (GA), which finds a good quality rule. The experimental results show that the obtained rule allows to reconstruct an image with even 70% damaged pixels. Moreover, we show that the rule found in the genetic evolution process can be applied to the reconstruction of images of the same class but not presented during the evolutionary one.
  1. Rosin P. L., Training Cellualr Automata for Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 15(7) (2006): 2076.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0017-z
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Article 04EN: Automatic detection of DoS vulnerabilities of cryptographic protocols
51-67

Urszula Krawczyk 1, Piotr Sapiecha 1;2


1 Krypton-Polska, Al. Jerozolimskie 131 Warsaw, Poland
1Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology Warsaw, Poland

In this article the subject of DoS vulnerabilities of cryptographic key establishment and authentication protocols is discussed. The system for computer-aided DoS protocol resistance analysis, which employs the Petri nets formalism and Spin model-checker, is presented.
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  7. Vanek T., Rohlik M., Model of DoS Resistant Broadcast Authentication Protocol in Colored Petri Net Environment, (2010); www.ic.uff.br/iwssip2010/Proceedings/nav/papers/paper_85.pdf
  8. Sapiecha P., Krawczyk U., DoS Analizer language syntax (2012); www.krypton-polska.com/upload/1f0e3dad99908345f7439f8ffabdffc4.pdf
  9. Balbo G., Desel J., Jensen K., Reisig W., Rozenberg G., Silva M., Introductory Tutorial - Petri Nets (2000); www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/TGI/PetriNets/introductions/pn2000_introtut
  10. Workshop and Tutorial on Practical Use of Coloured Petri Nets and the CPN Tools, annual workshops in years 1998-2008; www.daimi.au.dk/CPnets
  11. Jensen K., An Introduction to the Theoretical Aspects of Coloured Petri Nets (1994); www.dsc.ufcg.edu.br/ãbrantes/CursosAnteriores/MVSRP/rex.pdf
  12. Holzmann G. J., Spin model-checker; http://spinroot.com
  13. Sapiecha P., Krawczyk U., Effective reduction of cryptographic protocols specification for modelchecking with Spin, Annales UMCS, Informatica AI 11 (3) (2011): 27; DOI: 10.2478/v10065-011-0002-y
  14. Jensen K., CPN Tools, www.daimi.au.dk/CPNTools
  15. Boyd C., Mathuria A., Protocols for authentication and key establishment, Springer (2003).
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10.2478/v10065-012-0028-9
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Article 05EN: On the modelling of Kerberos protocol in the Quality of Protection Modelling Language (QoP-ML)
69-81

Bogdan Księżopolski 1;2, Damian Rusinek 1, Adam Wierzbicki 2


2 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Koszykowa 86, 02-008 Warsaw, Poland

The security modelling of IT systems is a very complicated task. One of the issues which must be analysed is the performance of IT systems. In many cases the guaranteed security level is too high in relation to the real threats. The overestimation of security measures can decrease system performance. The paper presents the analysis of Kerberos cryptographic protocol in terms of quality of protection performed by Quality of Protection Modelling Language (QoP-ML). The analysis concerns the availability attribute. In the article the Kerberos protocol was modelled and the QoP analysis of two selected versions was performed.
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  3. Ksiezopolski B., Kotulski Z., Szalachowski P., On QoP method for ensuring availability of the goal of cryptographic protocols in the real-time systems, European Teletraffic Seminar (2011):
  4. Ksiezopolski B, Kotulski Z., Adaptable security mechanism for the dynamic environments, Computers & Security 26 (2007): 246.
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  11. Sun Y., Kumar A., Quality od Protection(QoP): A quantitative methodology to grade security services, In 28th confrence on Distributed Computing Systems Workshop (2008): 394.
  12. Jürjens J., Secure System Development with UML, Springer (2007).
  13. Ksiezopolski B., QoP-ML: Quality of Protection modelling language for cryptographic protocols, Computers & Security 31(4) (2012): 569.
  14. Theoharidou M., Kotzanikolaou P., Gritzalis S., A multi-layer Criticality Assessment methodology based on interdependencies, Computers & Security 29 (2010): 643.
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  16. ISO/IEC 27001:2005. Information technology – Security techniques – Information security managemen t systems – Requirements (2005).
  17. Rusinek D., Ksiezopolski B., Influence of CCM, CBC-MAC, CTR and stand-alone encryption on the quality of transmitted data in the high-performance WSN based on Imote2 Annales UMCS Informatica AI XI (3) (2011): 117.
  18. Szalachowski P., Ksiezopolski B., Kotulski Z., CMAC, CCM and GCM/GMAC: advanced modes of operation of symmetric block ciphers in the Wireless Sensor Networks, Information Processing Letters 110 (2010): 247.
  19. Grocholewska-Czurylo A., Cryptographic properties of modified AES-like S-boxes, Annales UMCS Informatica AI XI (2) (2011): 37.
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  21. Jaquith A., Security Metrics: Replacing Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt, Addison-Wesley (2007).
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10.2478/v10065-012-0032-0
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Article 06EN: Energy-aware Key Management in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
83-96

Xiaobing He 1, Paweł Szalachowski 2, Zbigniew Kotulski 2, Nikos Fotiou 3, Giannis F. Marias 3, George C. Polyzos 3, Hermann De Meer 1


1 Faculty of Computer Science and Mathematics, University of Passau, Passau, Germany.
2 Institute of Telecommunications, the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.
3 Department of Informatics, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece.

Wireless sensor networks have received wide attention recently across the indoor and outdoor applications. On the other hand, more and more application scenarios require sensor nodes to be mobile, which imposes new technological challenges for security. Key management is the core for secure data communications among the resource-constrained sensor nodes. In this paper, based on the Group Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocols and the energy level of each node in the network, we propose Energy Aware Group Diffie-Hellman key management protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks. The simulation results show that the proposed key management protocol provide significant improvement in maximizing the lifetime of networks.
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  19. Deng X., Xiong Y., A new protocol for the detection of node replication attacks in mobile wireless sensor networks, Journal of Computer Science Technology 26 (2011): 732.
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  23. Kotulski Z., Szczepinski W., Error Analysis with Applications in Engineering, Springer (2010).
  24. Duarte-melo E. J., Liu M., Data-gathering wireless sensor networks: Organization and capacity, Computer Networks 43 (2003): 519.
  25. Gura N., Patel A., Wander A., Eberle H., Shantz S. C., Comparing elliptic curve cryptography and RSA on 8-bit cpus, in Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems-CHES 2004 3156 (2004): 119.
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  31. Wander A. S., Gura N., Eberle H., Gupta V., Shantz S. C., Energy analysis of public-key cryptography for wireless sensor networks, in Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (2005).
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10.2478/v10065-012-0022-2
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Article 07EN: Notary-based self-healing mechanism for centralized peer-to-peer infrastructures
97-112

Grzegorz Oryńczak 1, Zbigniew Kotulski 2


1 Jagellonian University, Department of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science Cracow, Poland
1 Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology Warsaw, Poland

Centralized architecture, due to its simplicity, fast and reliable user management mechanism (authorization, authentication and lookup) and O(1) searching capability, is still a preferable choice for many P2P-based services. However, it suffers from a “single point of failure” vulnerability, so networks based on this topology are highly vulnerable to DoS attacks or other blocking attempts. This paper describes a new mechanism that can be used for centralized P2P networks to prevent a P2P service unavailability after central server failure. High security level is obtained by using notary servers which track server public key changes and collect social feedback from users. This allows not only to detect popular attacks (like man-in-the middle) but also to assess whether the Central Server (CS) behaves properly. In the case of central server failure or when server becomes compromised, decentralized Condorcet voting is preformed and new CS is selected. Additionally, by incorporating a reputation mechanism which uses two kinds of scores respectively for providing good service and fair evaluation of other peers, the best candidates for a new Central Server can be chosen. Valuable data which is used to rebuild user database in new CS is stored in the encrypted form in peers and updated during the user-peer authorization process. The decryption key is divided between peers using the threshold secret sharing method.
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  2. Orynczak G., Kotulski Z., Agent based infrastructure for real-time applications, Annales UMCS Informatica 11 (4) (2011): 33.
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  4. Dingledine R., Mathewson N., Syverson P., Tor: The Second-Generation Onion Router, Proceedings of the 13th USENIX Security Symposium (2004).
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  6. Stoica I., Morris R., Karger D., Kaashoek F., Balakrishnan H., Chord: A scalable peer-to-peer lookup service for Internet applications, Proceedings of ACM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications SIGCOMM’01 (2001): 149.
  7. Ratnasamy S., Francis P., Handley M., Karp R., Shenker S., A scalable content addressable network, Proceedings of ACM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications SIGCOMM’01 (2001): 161.
  8. Wang Ch., Li B., Peer-to-peer overlay networks: A survey, Technical Report, Department of Computer Science, HKUST (2003).
  9. Liu J., Issarny V., Enhanced Reputation Mechanism for Mobile ad hoc Networks, Proceeding of Trust Management: Second International Conference iTrust’04, LNCS 2995 (2004): 48.
  10. Callegati F., Cerroni W., Ramilli M., Man-in-the-middle attack to the HTTPS protocol, IEEE Security and Privacy 7 (1) (2009): 78.
  11. Wendlandt D., Andersen D., Perrig A., Perspectives: Improving SSH-style host authentication with multi-path probing, Proceedings of USENIX Annual Technical Conference (2008).
  12. Sheng S., Wardman B., Warner G., Cranor L. F., Hong J., Zhang C., An empirical analysis of phishing blacklists, Sixth Conference on Email and AntiSpam (2009).
  13. Gifford D., Weighted Voting for Replicated Data, Proceedings of Symposium on Operating Systems Principles SOSP’79 (1979): 150.
  14. Jetter O., Dinger J., Hartenstein H., Quantitative analysis of the sybil attack and effective sybil resistance in peer-to-peer systems, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications ICC’10 (2010): 1.
  15. Schulze M., A new monotonic, clone-independent, reversal symmetric, and condorcet-consistent single-winner election method, Social Choice and Welfare 36 (2) (2011): 303.
  16. Nakamoto S., Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system; http://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf.
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10.2478/v10065-012-0023-1
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Article 08EN: Distributed Social Network - data security
113-122

Marcin Alan Tunia


Institute of Telecommunications of WUT, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

The present day Internet provides a wide range of services users can benefit from. Some of the services require gathering, processing and presenting data that come from many users in order to deliver additional information. The suitable example can be social networking service. The more valuable data it stores and processes, the more profitable it can become. Users’ personal data can constitute significant value. One of the issues of social networking is storing and processing data by only one entity. Users cannot choose the most suitable security policy because there is only one provided for certain social network. Being part of it, means accepting the risk of unauthorized data distribution and data leakage because of application vulnerabilities. This paper presents new architecture of social network, which provides mechanisms for dividing data between more than one entity and combining independent data repositories in order to deliver one social network with clearly defined interfaces used to connect new data sources.
  1. The Diaspora Project (2012-05-31); http://diasporaproject.org/
  2. Tunia M. A., M.Sc. thesis, Distributed social network - data security, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland (2012).
  3. W3C, Web Services Architecture (2012-05-31); http://www.w3.org/TR/ws-arch/
  4. Selenium IDE - Selenium Documentation (2012-05-31); http://seleniumhq.org/docs/02_selenium_ide.html#introduction
  5. Symantec - Nishant Doshi. Facebook Applications Accidentally Leaking Access to Third Parties - Updated (2012-05-31); http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/facebook-applicationsaccidentally-leaking-access-third-parties
  6. Symantec - Candid Wueest. Persistent XSS Vulnerability in Facebook (2012-05-31); http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/persistent-xss-vulnerability-facebook
10.2478/v10065-012-0019-x
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Article 09EN: Security issues on digital watermarking algorithms
123-139

Wioletta Wójtowicz, Marek R. Ogiela


AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Mickiewicza Ave, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

This paper gives a general introduction to the digital watermarking procedures and their security aspects. The first issue is to clarify unifying and differentiating properties of steganography and watermarking. Then the most important aspects of digital watermarking are reviewed by studying application, requirement and design problems. We put emphasis on the importance of digital watermark as an effective technology to protect intellectual property rights and legitimate use of digital images. In the paper we provide an overview of the most popular digital watermarking methods for still images available today. The watermarking algorithms are divided into two major categories of spatial and transform domains. Because of outstanding robustness and imperceptibility the transform domain algorithms are the mainstream of research. Popular transforms of images include the DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]), DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) ([1, 3, 6, 5]) and DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) ([1, 3, 4, 7, 6, 5]). In the paper we emphasize the advantageous features of DWT such as local time-frequency and multi-scale analysis, preserving the quality of host image and ensuring high robustness of watermark. Finally, we present three algorithms which are based on the combination of DWT and some other transformations like DFT ([4]), DCT ([6]) and the Arnold transform ([7, 6]). Finally, we discuss security requirements and possible attacks on the watermarking systems.
  1. Arnold M., Schmucker, M.,Wolthusen S.D., Techniques and Applications of DigitalWatermarking and Content Protection, Artech House (2003).
  2. Cox I. J., Miller M. L. et al., Digital watermarking and steganography, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers (2008).
  3. Katzenbeisser, S., Petitcolas, F.A., Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking, Artech House (2000).
  4. Manoochehri, M., Pourghassem, H., Shahgholian, G., A Novel Synthetic Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform and Fourier-Mellin Transform, IEEE 3rd International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN) (2011): 265.
  5. Zielinski T.P., Cyfrowe przetwarzanie sygnałów, Wydawnictwa Komunikacji i Łacznosci (2005).
  6. Wang Huai-bin, Yang Hong-liang, Wang Chun-dong, Wang Shao-ming, A new Watermarking Algorithm Based on DCT and DWT Fusion, International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE) (2010): 2614.
  7. QiWei Lin, JiSheng, XuFeng Wu, A New DWT and Multi-Strategy Watermark Embedding Algorithm, IEEE International Conference on Anti-Counterfeiting, Security and Identification (ASID) (2011): 57.
  8. Kołodziejczyk M., Ogiela M. R., Applying of security mechanisms to middle and high layers of OSI/ISO network model, Theoretical and Applied Informatics 24 (1) (2012): 95.
  9. Ogiela, M. R., Systemy utajania informacji - od algorytmów do kryptosystemów szyfrujacych, Wydawnictwa AGH (2003).
10.2478/v10065-012-0021-3
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Volume 11 - 2011

Article 01EN: A strategy in sports betting with the nearest neighbours search and genetic algorithms
7-13

Damian Borycki


Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

The point of sports betting is not merely to correctly predict the outcome of a game, but to actually win on a bet. We propose a model of sports betting that uses the nearest neighbours search and genetic algorithms to do the job. It uses data on the teams playing, their respective formations, individual players, results of previous games, as well as odds offered by bookmakers. The model has been trained using the data from the seasons 2002/03 until 2008/09 of the English Premier League and tested against the already played games of the seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11.
10.2478/v10065-011-0027-2
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Article 02EN: The database of interval orders difficult for the jump number minimizing algorithms
15-22

Przemysław Krysztowiak


Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Chopina 12/18, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

The problems of scheduling jobs on a single machine subject to precedence constraints can often be modelled as the jump number problem for posets, where a linear extension of a given partial order is to be found which minimizes the number of noncomparabilities. In this paper, we are investigating a restricted class of posets, called interval orders, admitting approximation algorithms for the jump number problem, in which the problem remains NP-complete. We have implemented three known approximation algorithms for this problem, all of which are guaranteed to produce solutions that are at most 50% worse than the optimal ones. More importantly, we have performed an exhaustive search for particularly hard interval orders, which enforce the algorithms to generate orderings which are exactly 50% worse than the optimal linear extensions. The main purpose of this paper is to present the database of those problematic posets.
10.2478/v10065-011-0025-4
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Article 03EN: A mesh algorithm for principal quadratic forms
23-31

Agnieszka Polak


Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Chopina 12/18, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

In 1970 a negative solution to the tenth Hilbert problem, concerning the determination of integral solutions of diophantine equations, was published by Y. W. Matiyasevich. Despite this result, we can present algorithms to compute integral solutions (roots) to a wide class of quadratic diophantine equations of the form q(x) = d, where q : Z is a homogeneous quadratic form. We will focus on the roots of one (i.e., d = 1) of quadratic unit forms (q11 = … = qnn = 1). In particular, we will describe the set of roots Rq of positive definite quadratic forms and the set of roots of quadratic forms that are principal. The algorithms and results presented here are successfully used in the representation theory of finite groups and algebras. If q is principal (q is positive semi-definite and Ker q={v ∈ Zn; q(v) = 0}=Z · h) then |Rq| = ∞. For a given unit quadratic form q (or its bigraph), which is positive semi-definite or is principal, we present an algorithm which aligns roots Rq in a Φ-mesh. If q is principal (|Rq| < ∞), then our algorithm produces consecutive roots in Rq from finite subset of Rq, determined in an initial step of the algorithm.
10.2478/v10065-011-0026-3
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Article 04EN: Comparative evaluation of performance-boosting tools for Python
33-41

Jakub Swacha


Institute of Informatics Technology in Management, University of Szczecin, Mickiewicza 64,71-101 Szczecin

The Python programming language has a number of advantages, such as simple and clear syntax, concise and readable code, and open source implementation with a lot of extensions available, that makes it a great tool for teaching programming to students. Unfortunately, Python, as a very high level interpreted programming language, is relatively slow, which becomes a nuisance when executing computationally intensive programs. There is, however, a number of tools aimed at speeding-up execution of programs written in Python, such as Just-in-Time compilers and automatic translators to statically compiled programming languages. In this paper a comparative evaluation of such tools is done with a focus on the attained performance boost.
10.2478/v10065-011-0022-7
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Article 05EN: Use of convolution and filtration to extract information from the DCM graphic files
43-54

Mirosław Zając


Institute of Mechatronic and Information Systems, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego18/22 90-924 Łódź, Poland

The paper describes the problem of using digital filters on the DICOM graphic files. An attempt has been made to improve the process of extracting information from graphic files generated by medical measuring instruments.
10.2478/v10065-011-0021-8
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Article 06EN: Simulation of the algorithms and their visualization forthe solutions to the restricted problems of the cosmic dynamics of the fourteen bodies with three rings
55-65

Aliaksandr Chychuryn


Department of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, ul. Konstantynow 1H, 20-708 Lublin, Poland

The restricted problem of the fourteen bodies with three rings is considered. The results of the visualization and dynamic investigations with the Mathematica system are given. The equilibrium positions are found with the use of analytical, numerical and graphical possibilities of the system. The stability of the equilibrium positions is then considered. Visualization and animation techniques are used for the observations of the motion processes.
10.2478/v10065-011-0024-5
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Article 07EN: A novel approach to fault tolerant multichannel networks designing problems
67-77

Mirosław Hajder, Paweł Dymora


Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Distributed Systems, Rzeszów University of Technology, ul. Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

This work presents solution of a bus interconnection network set designing task on the base of a hypergraph model. In order to do this the interconnection network is presented as a multipartite hypergraph. A system with virtual bus connections functioning in an environment of common physical channel was analyzed, which is characteristic of the networks based on the WDM technology. The mathematical reliability model was proposed for two modes of system functioning: with redundancy of communication subsystem and division of communication load. As solution estimation criteria the expected changes of processing efficiency changes were used as also a communication delay change criteria and system reliability criteria. The designing task solution is searched in a Pareto set composed of Pareto optima. The selection procedure of a specific solution in the case of its equivalency in relation to a vector goal function was presented.
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Article 08EN: Ontology of e-learning applications
79-87

Tomasz Ordysiński


Institute of IT in Management, University of Szczecin, Mickiewicza 64, 71-101 Szczecin, Poland

E-learning became very popular on various levels of education (from primary to academic) and as a way of business training. Each organization which is considering implementation of this type of distance learning must choose a software platform. This decision requires complex knowledge from the area of e-learning methodology, available platforms in dimension of costs, technological requirements and (what is the most important) their functionalities. Of course, there is a lot of supporting literature and websites. However, from the decision maker's point of view it would be helpful to have a kind of expert system, which presents e-learning knowledge in a suitable and reasonable way. The goal of that article is presentation of a prototype of e-learning application ontology (this approach enables to reflect multidimensionality of the domain) which in further research will be used as knowledge base for the expert system.
10.2478/v10065-011-0028-1
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Article 09EN: Python and C#: a comparative analysis fromsStudents' perspective
89-101

Jakub Swacha, Karolina Muszyńska


Institute of Informatics Technology in Management, University of Szczecin, Mickiewicza 64,71-101 Szczecin

Python and C# are two programming languages of great educational value. Python has a simple and clear syntax, as well as a concise and readable source code, but is relatively slow, and its industrial applications are mostly web-based. Although the syntax and code readability of C# does not match the Python's high level, they are not very bad either; besides, the .NET language offers a fast JIT compiler, and can be found within a wide gamut of industrial applications. In this paper we present a comparison of these two languages, based on the data acquired from IT students who learnt both of them during programming courses. We use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to show the dominance of one language over another in respective comparison criteria, and obtain an overall answer which of the two languages is better, according to the ratings given by students.
10.2478/v10065-011-0023-6
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Article 01EN: Differential cryptanalysis of PP-1 cipher
9-24

Michał Misztal


Institute of Mathematics and Cryptology, Cybernetics Faculty, Military University of Technology, ul. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland

In this paper we present a differential attack on the block cipher PP-1 which was designed at Poznan University of Technology. Complexity of the attack is smaller than that of brute force attack for every version of the cipher (for every block length). The attack is possible is spite of the fact that the S-box exhibits optimal security against the differential cryptanalysis. The attack is based on the fact that the design of the cipher S-box and permutation were constructed independently. The permutation operates on individual bits, and in the XOR profile table of S-box 1 bit to 1 bit transitions are possible. It allows constructing a simple one-round differential characteristic which is "almost" iterative with the probability 1.5 · 2-6. By 9 times concatenation of the characteristic and its relaxation in the last round we obtained a 10-round characteristic with the probability 2-48.7. Using this characteristic with 1R attack makes differential cryptanalysis of full 11-round cipher with complexity smaller than exhaustive search possible. By carefully exploiting similar characteristics it is possible to find analogous attacks on different versions of cipher PP-1, with higher a larger of rounds.
10.2478/v10065-011-0006-7
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Article 02EN: Evolution of the StreamHash hash function family
25-36

Michał Trojnara


Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warszawa, Poland

This paper describes the evolution of StreamHash cryptographic hash function family proposed by the author. The first member of the StreamHash family was StreamHash (now called StreamHash1) function, accepted for the first round of SHA-3 competition organized by the US government standards agency NIST†. The competition has been started in order to select a new SHA-3 standard as the successor of SHA-2 family of cryptographic hash functions. Function StreamHash2 mostly addresses security weaknesses identified during the SHA-3 competition, while the sketch of function StreamHash3 attempts to improve resistance to side-channel attacks and performance properties. The paper starts with an overview of basic properties of cryptographic hash functions followed by the description of the StreamHash family design principles and its basic structure. Subsequent sections illustrate the way each subsequent function uses lessons learnt while designing and testing the previous one.
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Article 03EN: Cryptographic properties of modified AES-like S-boxes
37-48

Anna Grocholewska-Czuryło


Institute of Control and Information Engineering, Poznań University of Technology, pl. Marii Skłodowskiej Curie 5, 60-965 Poznań, Poland

Using AES-like S-boxes (generated using finite field inversion) provides an excellent starting point for generating S-boxes with some specific design criteria dictated by the implemented cipher and still maintaining all the most commonly recognized cryptographic criteria to a large extent. This paper presents the results of statistical analysis of fulfilment of those basic cryptographic criteria by the modified AES-like S-boxes that do have neither equivalence nor cycles.
10.2478/v10065-011-0009-4
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Article 04EN: Methods of encrypting monotonic access structures
49-60

Jakub Derbisz


Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Mechanics, University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland

We will present some ideas about sharing a secret in a monotonic access structure. We show the relations which occur between the method of encrypting a monotonic access structure with the use of basis sets or maximal unprivileged sets, and that based on a logical formula (used by Benaloh and Leichter in [1]). We will also give some facts connected with the problem of security, including the aspects of a hierarchy security in the structure. The method of encrypting a monotonic access structure using a family of basis sets or a family of maximal sets that cannot reconstruct the secret will be described in a general way. Some aspects of using the latter based on a logical formula will be also given. Any (general) access structure can be encrypted by each of them but the way of sharing a secret is quite different and usually a specified method has to be chosen to achieve a desirable level of security and time complexity.
10.2478/v10065-011-0011-x
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Article 05EN: Combining message encryption and authentication
61-79

Wojciech Oszywa, Rafał Gliwa


Military Communication Institute, 05-130 Zegrze, Poland

The first part of the paper explains the need for combining message encryption and authentication. We begin with the example to emphasize the fact that privacy‡ does not imply authenticity. Then we prove, one needs both privacy and authenticity, even if one's aim is just getting privacy. In the second part we present an overview of different methods for providing authenticated encryption (AE) i.e. generic compositions, single-pass modes and two-pass combined modes. We analyze what are the advantages and disadvantages of different AE constructions. In the third part of the paper we focus on nonce§ based authenticated encryption modes. Our motivation is the wish to know the methodology of designing authenticated encryption mode of operation. We take into consideration a few most important properties, e.g. parallelizability, memory requirements and pre-processing capability. We analyze possibilities of choice of underlying encryption and authentication components and their order in a message we also try to answer. What does single-key mode really mean? Finally we mention the importance of provable security theory in the security of authenticated encryption modes.
10.2478/v10065-011-0010-y
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Article 06EN: Performance of algebraic graphs based stream-ciphers using large finite fields
81-93

Abderezak Touzene 1, Vasyl Ustimenko 2, Marwa Alraissi 1, Imene Boudelioua 1


1 College of Science Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
2 Institute of Mathematics, University of Maria Curie Sklodowska, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Algebraic graphs D(n, q) and their analog graphs D(n, K), where K is a finite commutative ring were used successfully in Coding Theory (as Tanner graphs for the construction of LDPC codes and turbo-codes) and in Cryptography (stream-ciphers, public-keys and tools for the key-exchange protocols. Many properties of cryptography algorithms largely depend on the choice of finite field Fq or commutative ring K. For practical implementations the most convenient fields are F and rings modulo Z modulo 2m. In this paper the reader can find the first results about the comparison of D(n, 2m) based stream-ciphers for m = 8, 16, 32 implemented in C++. They show that performance (speed) of algorithms gets better when m is increased.
10.2478/v10065-011-0012-9
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Article 07EN: On the key expansion of D(n, K)-based cryptographical algorithm
95-111

Vasyl Ustimenko 1, Aneta Wróblewska 1;2


1 Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Pawinskiego 5B; 02-106 Warszawa, Poland

The family of algebraic graphs D(n, K) defined over finite commutative ring K have been used in different cryptographical algorithms (private and public keys, key exchange protocols). The encryption maps correspond to special walks on this graph. We expand the class of encryption maps via the use of edge transitive automorphism group G(n, K) of D(n, K). The graph D(n, K) and related directed graphs are disconnected. So private keys corresponding to walks preserve each connected component. The group G(n, K) of transformations generated by an expanded set of encryption maps acts transitively on the plainspace. Thus we have a great difference with block ciphers, any plaintexts can be transformed to an arbitrarily chosen ciphertex by an encryption map. The plainspace for the D(n, K) graph based encryption is a free module P over the ring K. The group G(n, K) is a subgroup of Cremona group of all polynomial automorphisms. The maximal degree for a polynomial from G(n, K) is 3. We discuss the Diffie-Hellman algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem for the group τ-1Gτ, where τ is invertible affine transformation of free module P i.e. polynomial automorphism of degree 1. We consider some relations for the discrete logarithm problem for G(n, K) and public key algorithm based on the D(n, K) graphs.
10.2478/v10065-011-0014-7
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Article 08EN: Generating elements of orders dividing p6 ± p5 + p4 ± p3 + p2 + p ± 1
113-125

Maciej Grześkowiak


Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 87, 61-614 Poznań, Poland

In this paper we propose an algorithm for computing large primes p and q such that q divides p6 + p5 + p4 + p3 + p2 + p + 1 or p6 - p5 + p4 - p3 + p2 - p + 1. Such primes are the key parameters for the cryptosystem based on the 7th order characteristic sequences.
10.2478/v10065-011-0008-5
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Article 09EN: The implementation of cubic public keys based on a new family of algebraic graphs
127-141

Michał Klisowski 1, Urszula Romańczuk 1;2, Vasyl Ustimenko 1;2


1 Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Human - The Best Investment

Families of edge transitive algebraic graphs defined over finite commutative rings were used for the development of stream ciphers, public key cryptosystems and key exchange protocols. We present the results of the first implementation of a public key algorithm based on the family of algebraic graphs, which are not edge transitive. The absence of an edge transitive group of symmetries means that the algorithm can not be described in group theoretical terms. We hope that it licates cryptanalysis of the algorithm. We discuss the connections between the security of algorithms and the discrete logarithm problem. The plainspace of the algorithm is Kn, where K is the chosen commutative ring. The graph theoretical encryption corresponds to walk on the bipartite graph with the partition sets which are isomorphic to Kn. We conjugate the chosen graph based encryption map, which is a composition of several elementary cubical polynomial automorphisms of a free module Kn with special invertible affine transformation of Kn. Finally we compute symbolically the corresponding cubic public map g of Kn onto Kn. We evaluate time for the generation of g, and the number of monomial expression in the list of corresponding public rules.
10.2478/v10065-011-0007-6
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Article 10EN: On LDPC codes corresponding to affine parts of generalized polygons
143-152

Monika Polak, Vasyl Ustimenko


Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

In this paper we describe how to use special induced subgraphs of generalized m-gons to obtain the LDPC error correcting codes. We compare the properties of codes related to the affine parts of q-regular generalised 6-gons with the properties of known LDPC codes corresponding to the graphs D(5, q).
10.2478/v10065-011-0003-x
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Article 01EN: Security problems of systems of extremely weak devices
9-25

Marek Klonowski


Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, Wrocław University of Technology, ul. Wybrzeże Wyspiańskieo 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

In this paper we discuss some fundamental security issues of distributed systems of weak devices. We briefly describe two extreme kinds of such systems - the sensor network and the Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system from the point of view of security mechanisms designer. We describe some most important particularities and issues (including unsolved problems) that have to be taken into account in security design and analysis. Finally we present some fundamental concepts and paradigms of research on security of weak devices. In the paper we also give a brief survey of ultra-light HB/HB+ - family of encryption schemes and so-called predistribution protocols.
10.2478/v10065-011-0015-6
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Article 02EN: Effective reduction of cryptographic protocols specification for model-checking with Spin
27-40

Urszula Krawczyk 1, Piotr Sapiecha 1;2


1 Al. Jerozolimskie 131 Warsaw, Poland, Krypton-Polska
2 Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

In this article a practical application of the Spin model checker for verifying cryptographic protocols was shown. An efficient framework for specifying a minimized protocol model while retaining its functionality was described. Requirements for such a model were discussed, such as powerful adversary, multiple protocol runs and a way of specifying validated properties as formulas in temporal logic.
10.2478/v10065-011-0002-y
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Article 03EN: Secure time information in the internet key exchange protocol
41-56

Paweł Szałachowski 1, Zbigniew Kotulski 2


1 Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
2 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5 b, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland

Many network services and protocols can work correctly only when freshness of messages sent between participants is assured and when the protocol parties' internal clocks are adjusted. In this paper we present a novel, secure and fast procedure which can be used to ensure data freshness and clock synchronization between two communicating parties. Next, we show how this solution can be used in other cryptographic protocols. As an example of application we apply our approach to the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol family.
10.2478/v10065-011-0019-2
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Article 04EN: Implementation of the DSSS method in watermarking digital audio objects
57-70

Jarosław Wojtuń, Zbigniew Piotrowski, Piotr Gajewski


Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 1,01-476 Warsaw, Poland

The paper presents the results of implementation in the Matlab environment for watermarking embedder and extractor based on the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). A block diagram of watermarking system, an analysis of watermarked signal reproduced as well as watermarking system robustness to degrading factors: lossy compression, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as a change in sampling frequency, were shown.
10.2478/v10065-011-0005-8
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Article 05EN: Non—cryptographic methods for improving real time transmission security and integrity
71-86

Grzegorz Oryńczak 1, Zbigniew Kotulski 2;3


1 Department of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland
1 Institute of Telecomunications, Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
1 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

In this paper we present a few non cryptographic methods for improving the security, integrity and reliability of real time services. The methods presented in this paper apply to real time transmitting systems, which are based on the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) model. A basic idea of the first technique is to use agents for detecting steganographic content in packet headers, so packets with suspicious entries in the IP header fields will be blocked or the fields will be erased. The two other presented techniques are based on reputation and trust systems, so trust and reputation basic definitions, types and modelling methods are shown. Also a simple design scheme of using these mechanisms in a P2P real-time data transmitting infrastructure is presented. Additionally, we describe an idea of path selecting technique, which can be used to avoid paths that are susceptible to eavesdropping.
10.2478/v10065-011-0017-4
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Article 06EN: Small prototype acquisition system with secure remote data access
87-100

Dariusz Rzońca, Andrzej Stec


Department of Computer and Control Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, W. Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

The paper describes Small Data Acquisition System, named PACQ, which can be used for collecting data from user-programmable I/O modules and sharing data through a web browser. All connections and data transfers between the client and the server are secure. Due to the resource restrictions only symmetric cryptography and challenge-response protocol could be used, but the solution should be resistant to most of common attacks.
10.2478/v10065-011-0004-9
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Article 07EN: Group signature revocable anonymity scheme for network monitoring
101-115

Krystian Baniak


Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Subscriber's Privacy is in a constant conflict with security and accountability providing controls employed for network monitoring activities of service providers and enterprises. This paper presents the results of the author's research in the field of distributed network security monitoring architectures and the proposal of such a system that incorporates cryptographic protocols and a group signature scheme to deliver privacy protecting, network surveillance system architecture that provides subscriber's accountability and controlled, revocable anonymity.
10.2478/v10065-011-0020-9
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Article 08EN: Influence of CCM, CBC-MAC, CTR and stand-alone encryption on the quality of transmitted data in the high-performance WSN based on Imote2
117-127

Damian Rusinek, Bogdan Księżopolski


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

In this paper we examine the influence of different types of encryption and authentication on the quality of transmitted data in the high-performance WSN based on Imote2. The performance has been tested in the wireless sensor network using Collection Tree Protocol. The examined types and modes of encryption are provided by the hardware of used sensor platforms Intelmote2 and its integrated radio chip CC2420. The presented results can be helpful to choose which cryptographic modules should be implemented according to the acceptable packet loss.
10.2478/v10065-011-0018-3
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Article 09EN: The security of the multi-application public transport card One mifare card exploration
129-139

Łukasz Papież


Military University of Technology, Warsaw

Mifare Classic widely used as a public transport card based on the weak cipher Crypto-1 broken three years ago with a number of serious attacks published by researchers from the Dutch University of Nijmegen and still another was developed at University College of London. The report entitled Cloning Reactivation published in the Polish Computerworld magazine presented the security of Warsaw City Card at that time. It also announced that starting from 2010 the security of the Warsaw system would undergo an upgrade with the usage of 3DES algorithm. While in London all new Oyster cards emitted since 2010 are more secureDesFire cards, the security of the Warsaw card stays nearly the same.
10.2478/v10065-011-0001-z
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Article 10EN: Mobile identity management system in heterogeneous wireless networks
141-152

Łukasz Kucharzewski, Zbigniew Kotulski


Institute of Telecomunications, Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

Heterogeneous wireless networks increasingly encroach on our lives. Various technologies and mobile applications more often than usual are now used by mobile users. Intensive development of mobile networks not only sets new standards for radio, but increasingly focuses on providing security for traffic transmitted in wireless networks. Security in wireless networks has never been the primary objective of the designers of new network standards. The reason for this fact were both low hardware resources of equipment, but also lack of awareness of users about the potential vulnerabilities. Creating a secure, independent of network architecture solutions effectively raising the level of security of transmitted data between end users is the main priority of our research. Current wireless security solutions do not provide sufficient protection of the integrity, confidentiality of data, are not designed to operate in heterogeneous networks, or are too complex to implement. Both networks WiMAX, LTE and WiFi, there are methods that protect the resources in these networks, but they are not consistent with each other. The proposed security system requires the use of mobile version of the PKI to verify the identity of mobile users. Mobile PKI center is an innovative solution, not yet introduced for casual use. Such a solution in heterogeneous wireless networks is a fast, secure and transparent to transmission medium. Designing secure and efficient authentication protocols to enable fast connections to the heterogeneous network is challenging. In the proposed system in this paper, the users authenticate their identity digital certificates that are issued by a trusted third party (CA). PKI uses the algorithms based on elliptic curves. Advantages of elliptic curves in mobile environment will be particularly evident. This ensures adequate protection of data in a heterogeneous networks. In this system, it is possible to implement many new secure services for end users secure email, secure chat, secure remote access.
10.2478/v10065-011-0016-5
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Article 01EN: Cryptographic software: vulnerabilities in implementations
1-10

Michał Łuczaj


Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Security and cryptographic applications or libraries, just as any other generic software products may be affected by flaws introduced during the implementation process. No matter how much scrutiny security protocols have undergone, it is — as always — the weakest link that holds everything together to makes products secure. In this paper I take a closer look at problems usually resulting from a simple human made mistakes, misunderstanding of algorithm details or a plain lack of experience with tools and environment. In other words: everything that can and will happen during software development but in the fragile context of cryptography
10.2478/v10065-011-0030-7
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Article 02EN: On the key exchange with new cubical maps based on graphs
11-19

Urszula Romańczuk, Vasyl Ustimenko


Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Families of edge transitive algebraic graphs Fn(K), over the commutative ring K were used for the graph based cryptographic algorithms. We introduce a key exchange protocol defined in terms of bipartite graph An(K), n ≥ 2 with point set Pn and line set Ln isomorphic to n-dimensional free module Kn. Graphs A(n, K) are not vertex and edge transitive. There is a well defined projective limit lim A(n, K) = A(K), n → ∞ which is an infinite bipatrtite graph with point set P = lim Pn and line set L = limLn. Let K be a commutative ring contain at least 3 regular elements (not zero divisors). For each pair of (n, d), n ≥ 2, n ≥ 1 and sequence of elements α1, α2, …, α2d, such that α1, αi+αi+1, i = 1, 2, …, 2d, i = 1, 2, … 2d-1 and α2d+α1 are regular elements of the ring K. We define polynomial automorphism hn = hn (d, α1, α2, …, α2d) of variety Ln (or Pn). The existence of projective limit lim An(K) guarantees the existence of projective limit h = h(d, α1, α2, …, α2d) = lim hn, n → ∞ which is cubical automorphism of infinite dimensional varieties L (or P). We state that the order of h is an infinity. There is a constant n0 such that hn, n ≥ n0 is a cubical map. Obviously the order of hn is growing with the growth of n and the degree of polynomial map (hn)k from the Cremona group of all polynomial automorphisms of free module Kn with operation of composition is bounded by 3. Let τ be affine automorphism of Kn i.e. the element of Cremona group of degree 1. We suggest "symbolic" Diffie Hellman key exchange with the use of cyclic subgroup of Cremona group generated by τ-1hnτ. In the case of K = Fp, p is prime, the order of hn is the power of p. So the order is growing with the growth of p. We use computer simulation to evaluate the orders in some cases of K = Zm, where m is a composite integer. Show References
10.2478/v10065-011-0038-z
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Article 03EN: Reliability of feedback fechanism based on root cause defect analysis - case study
21-32

Marek G. Stochel


Motorola Solutions, Kraków, Poland

The case study presented in this article focuses on the common pitfall in which many defect prevention activities fall, caused by inconsistency of data. Before any collected Root Cause Defect Analysis (RCA) data can be used reliably, an analysis of the variation due to the measurement system itself such as a Gauge R&R study, should be performed. This allows to understand of the integrity of the data in terms of data consistency and validity. The RCA data collection process chosen for this case study concentrates on the RCA assessment performed by engineers independently.
10.2478/v10065-011-0037-0
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Article 04EN: Agent based infrastructure for real-time applications
33-47

Grzegorz Oryńczak 1, Zbigniew Kotulski 2;3


1 Department of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagellonian University, Cracow, Poland 2 Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology Warsaw, Poland 3 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

In this paper we propose a new infrastructure for real-time applications. As a preliminary, we describe basic characteristics of the most popular real-time services like VoIP, videoconferencing, live media streaming, and network multiplayer games. We focus on the end-to-end latency, bandwidth and efficient transmission methods. Next, we present our project concepts, infrastructure model, details of implementation and our testing environment which was designed for testing many aspects of real-time services. The system combines mechanisms for ensuring best possible connection quality (QoS), load balance of servers in infrastructure and gives control over the packet routing decisions. Additionally, provided security mechanisms make it a good choice even in the environment where a high security level is required. The system is based on the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) model and data between users is routed over an overlay network, consisting of all participating peers as network nodes. This overlay can by used for application level multicast or live media stream. In the logging process each user is assigned to a specific node (based on his geographic location and nodes load). Because nodes are participating in data transmission, we have control over the data flow route. It is possible to specify the desired route, so, regardless of the external routing protocol, we can avoid paths that are susceptible to eavesdropping. Another feature of the presented system is usage of agents. Each agent acts within the single node. Its main task is to constantly control the quality of transmission. It analyzes such parameters like link bandwidth use, number of lost packets, time interval between each packet etc. The information collected by the agents from all nodes allows to build a dynamic routing table. Every node uses the Dijkstra's algorithm to find the best at the moment route to all other nodes. The routes are constantly modified as a consequence of changes found by agents or updates sent by other nodes. In VoD services agents also analyze popularity of streamed media, which helps build intelligent video cache. To ensure greater security and high reliability of the system, we have provided a reputation mechanism. It is used during bringing up to date the information about possible routes and their quality, given by other nodes. Owing to this solution nodes and routes which are more reliable get higher priority.
10.2478/v10065-011-0035-2
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Article 05EN: A conceptual Bayesian net model for integrated software quality prediction
49-60

Łukasz Radliński


Institute of Information Technology in Management, University of Szczecin Mickiewicza 64, 71-101 Szczecin, Poland

Software quality can be described by a set of features, such as functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, portability and others. There are various models for software quality prediction developed in the past. Unfortunately, they typically focus on a single quality feature. The main goal of this study is to develop a predictive model that integrates several features of software quality, including relationships between them. This model is an expert-driven Bayesian net, which can be used in diverse analyses and simulations. The paper discusses model structure, behaviour, calibration and enhancement options as well as possible use in fields other than software engineering.
10.2478/v10065-011-0032-5
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Article 06EN: Automated geometric features evaluation method for normal foot skeleton model
61-75

Bartosz Borucki 1, Krzysztof Nowiński 1, Michał Chlebiej 2, Andrzej Rutkowski 2, Paweł Adamczyk 3, Jacek Laskowski 3


1 Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warsaw, Poland
1 Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, N. Copernicus University, Chopina 12/18, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
1 Carolina Medical Center, Pory 78, 02-757 Warsaw, Poland

"Normal foot model" is a geometric model of a healthy human foot. As the comparison of the processed feet requires a reference ideal healthy foot parameterization it was necessary to create such a model by defining skeleton geometric features and generating the feature set on a dataset population. Manual positioning of such number of landmarks is both a complex and time consuming task for a skilled radiologist, not to mention the total cost of such a procedure. Thus it was recommended to formulate an automated computer algorithm to perform this procedure with accuracy at a comparable level as the manual process. The following paper describes our approach based on automatic landmark positioning in a volumetric foot dataset. The proposed automated procedure is based on four main steps: manual landmark positioning on a reference dataset, registration of the reference dataset with the examined study, transformation of landmark positions from the reference dataset space into the examined dataset space, and calculation of the geometric features on the basis of landmarks positions. The results of our algorithm are presented and discussed in the context of pros and cons of the automated method itself as well as in the context of the generated normal foot model.
10.2478/v10065-011-0034-3
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Article 07EN: Models of analysis for enterprise information technology strategy
77-78

Marcin W. Mastalerz


Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Szczecin Mickiewicza 64, 71-101 Szczecin, Poland

Creation of informatization strategy requires adjustment of its content to the existing standards, as well as principles of the contemporary market. A good practice is to use the worked out solutions and recommendations that have already been applied for a long time in IT companies, being the potential suppliers of IT solutions. The work focuses on the concept of using IT service, coming from ITIL library as a point of reference in evaluation of informatization alternatives, as well as communication between the IT supplier and recipient.
10.2478/v10065-011-0033-4
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Article 08EN: Communication management in Polish IT Companies
89-101

Karolina Muszyńska


Institute of Information, University of Szczecin Mickiewicza 64, 71-101 Szczecin, Poland

Effective communication management is a crucial component of project management as it reduces non-productive effort, prevents duplication, helps to eliminate mistakes, manage uncertainty and generate ideas that lead to better solutions. It also encourages team-work, increases motivation and ensures the involvement of all team members. The larger the project, the more significant communication is for the results, because communication is the coordinating mechanism, which most strongly influences the results. That is why we should search for methods and tools to support this area of project management. The aim of the paper is to present the recent findings concerning methods and tools supporting communication processes, which are mostly used by project teams, kinds of communication, which prevail in realization of projects and kinds of media, indicated as the most popular among project team members. The paper also depicts the project managers' opinion concerning the factors, which cause communication problems as well as th
10.2478/v10065-011-0031-6
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Article 09EN: Identification of e-learning services in higher education
103-113

Tomasz Komorowski


Institute of Information, Technology in Management, University of Szczecin Mickiewicza 64, 71-101 Szczecin, Poland

The main purpose of this paper is to present the problem, identify goals and discuss higher education e-learning services. The basis for the discussion is the development of process approach to measuring operational efficiency and improving the quality of services. The paper presents various perspectives on e-learning and definitions of service efficiency. For the sake of service identification, one of the most common business processes classification, i.e. APQC Process Classification Framework, was employed. According to the approach suggested by the APQC in the article, there are two groups of processes. The first group consists of the operating processes of e-learning, and the second one - of management and support processes. Another section illustrates the example of e-exam service business model presented with the use of the map of business processes. It also sets out the assumptions and results of time simulation of e-exam service. The summary presents conclusions and suggested directions for further research.
10.2478/v10065-011-0036-1
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Volume 10 - 2010

Article 01EN: Developing brain electric activity acquisition software for Linux
7-14

Sławomir Kotyra, Grzegorz M. Wójcik


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This article discusses the first successful phase of our work on the construction of a complete modular research station for EEG signal acquisition and analysis performed in real-time mode and in a way that meets our needs. Our intentions were presented in [1].
10.2478/v10065-010-0031-y
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Article 02EN: An Application of Expectation-Maximization for Model Verification
15-27

Barbara Łukawska, Grzegorz Łukawski, Krzysztof Sapiecha


Department of Computer Science, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland

A description which summarizes entire and usually big set of data is called its model. The problem investigated in the paper consists in verification of models of data coming from a simulation experiment of selecting candidates for operators of mobile robot (more strictly building reliable predictive model of the data). The models are validated using train-and-test method and verified with the help of the EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm which was originally designed for solving clustering problems with missing data. Actually, the selecting is a clustering problem because the candidates are assigned to ‘chosen’, ‘accepted’ or ‘rejected’ subgroups. For such a case the missing data is the category (the subgroup) for which a candidate should be assigned on the basis of his activity measured during the simulation experiment. The paper explains the procedure of model verification. It also shows experimental results and draws conclusions.
10.2478/v10065-010-0032-x
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Article 03EN: SDDSfL vs. local disk - a comparative study for Linux
29-39

Arkadiusz Chrobot, Maciej Lasota, Grzegorz Łukawski, Krzysztof Sapiecha


Divison of Computer Science, Świętokrzyska Polytechnic, Al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland

Efficient data management and distribution in a multicomputer is a subject of much research. Distributed file systems are the most common solution of this problem, however, recent works are focused on more general data distribution protocols. Scalable, Distributed Data Structures (SDDS) are another promising approach to this issue. In this paper we discuss the efficiency of an implementation of SDDS in various applications. The results of experiments are presented.
10.2478/v10065-010-0033-9
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Article 04EN: Current challenges in content based image retrieval by means of low-level feature combining
41-49

Paweł Forczmański, Dariusz Frejlichowski


Division of Multimedia Systems, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Żołnierska 49, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland

The aim of this paper is to discuss a fusion of the two most popular low-level image features - colour and shape - in the aspect of content-based image retrieval. By combining them we can achieve much higher accuracy in various areas, e.g. pattern recognition, object representation, image retrieval. To achieve such a goal two general strategies (sequential and parallel) for joining elementary queries were proposed. Usually they are employed to construct a processing structure, where each image is being decomposed into regions, based on shapes with some characteristic properties - colour and its distribution. In the paper we provide an analysis of this proposition as well as the exemplary results of application in the Content Based Image Retrieval problem. The original contribution of the presented work is related to different fusions of several shape and colour descriptors (standard and non-standard ones) and joining them into parallel or sequential structures giving considerable improvements in content-based image retrieval. The novelty is based on the fact that many existing methods (even complex ones) work in single domain (shape or colour), while the proposed approach joins features from different areas.
10.2478/v10065-010-0034-8
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Article 05EN: Analysis of neural networks usage for detection of a new attack in IDS
51-59

Przemysław Kukiełka 1, Zbigniew Kotulski 2


1 Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
2 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Świętokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw, Poland

Generally, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) work using two methods of identification of attacks: by signatures, that are specific defined elements of the network traffic possible to identify and by anomalies being some deviation form of the network behaviour assumed as normal. Recently, some attempts have been made to implement artificial intelligence method for detection of attacks. Many such implementations use for testing and learning process the data set provided by KDD (Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Competition) project in 1999. Unfortunately, KDD99 data set was created more than eight years ago and during this time many new attacks have been discovered. In this paper we present our research on updating KDD99 data with traces of attacks of new types. After updating, the data set was used for training and testing MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron) neural network architecture IDS.
10.2478/v10065-010-0035-7
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Article 06EN: Stamp detection in scanned documents
61-68

Paweł Forczmański


Chair of Multimedia Systems, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Żołnierska 49, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland

The article presents current challenges in stamp detection problem. It is a crucial topic these days since more and more traditional paper documents are being scanned in order to be archived, sent through the net or just printed. Moreover, an electronic version of paper document stored on a hard drive can be taken as forensic evidence of possible crime. The main purpose of the method presented in the paper is to detect, localize and segment stamps (imprints) from the scanned document. The problem is not trivial since there is no such thing like "stamp standard". There are many variations in size, shape, complexity and ink color. It should be remembered that the scanned document may be degraded in quality and the stamp can be placed on a relatively complicated background. The algorithm consists of several steps: color segmentation and pixel classification, regular shapes detection, candidates segmentation and verification. The paper includes also the initial results of selected experiments on real documents having different types of stamps.
10.2478/v10065-010-0036-6
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Article 07EN: Image quality index of the monochrome archival photographs' compression
69-78

Marzena Gromaszek, Mariusz Michalik


Humanistic and Economics University, ul. Rewolucji 1905 r. nr 64, 90-222 Łódź, Poland

The recent process of digitalizing archives has increased the importance of choosing the best compression method and evaluating the quality of the compressed materials. Our paper focuses on monochrome photographs. We suggest a new image quality index partly based on Human Visual System. We think that, despite its simplicity, it is equal to Mean Subjective Rank. In addition, we intend to ascertain that (the index submitted by us) our index is very easy both to understand and to implement.
10.2478/v10065-010-0037-5
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Article 08EN: Image Sequence Stabilization Through Model Based Registration
79-86

Marcin Denkowski 1, Michał Chlebiej 2


1 Faculty of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, N. Copernicus University, Chopina 12/18, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

Acquisition of image series using the digital camera gives a possibility to obtain high resolution/quality animation, much better than while using the digital camcorder. However, there are several problems to deal with when producing animation using such approach. Especially, if motion involves changes in observer position and spatial orientation, the resulting animation may turn out to look choppy and unsmooth. If there is no possibility to provide some hardware based stabilization of the camera during the motion, it is necessary to develop some image processing methods to obtain smooth animation. In this work we deal with the image sequence acquired without stabilization around an object. We propose a method that enables creation of smooth animation using the registration paradigm.
10.2478/v10065-010-0038-4
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Article 09EN: Visualization of the extensive air shower and estimation of its parameters
87-92

Jan Malinowski, Anna Śmiałkowska


Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź, Poland

In the process of cosmic ray penetrating the Earth's atmosphere new particles forming a cascade called the extensive air shower (EAS) are produced. The objective of our paper is to estimate chosen parameters and detailed visualization of the EAS based on the data received from simulations of physical processes describing this phenomenon. The simulation of the EAS is conducted using the CORSICA program. The tool presented in this paper allows estimating the altitude in the atmosphere where the EAS has the greatest number of particles, X__max, as well as the curvature radius of the produced particles on the front of the EAS, R__front. The estimated parameters serve as a basis for further physical analysis and the visualization can serve for physicists as a tool for presentation and popularization of the described phenomena. The presented paper has an interdisciplinary character combining physics with IT. The program developed here is a tool for research in physics, in this case for the analysis of cosmic ray.
10.2478/v10065-010-0039-3
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Article 10EN: On departure process in the batch arrival queue with single vacation and setup time
93-102

Wojciech M. Kempa


Institute of Mathematics, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Kaszubska 23, Gliwice, Poland

A single-server queueing system of MX/G/1 type with unlimited buffer size is considered. Whenever the system becomes empty, the server takes a single compulsory vacation that is independent of the arrival process. The service of the first customer after the vacation is preceded by a random setup time. We distinguish two cases of the evolution of the system: when the setup time begins after the vacation only, or if it begins at once when the first group of customers enters. In the paper we investigate the departure process h(t) that at any fixed moment t takes on a random value equal to the number of customers completely served before t. An explicit representation for Laplace Transform of probability generating function of departure process is derived and written down by means of transforms of four crucial "input" distributions of the system and factors of a certain factorization identity connected with them. The results are obtained using the method consisting of two main stages: first we study departure process on a single vacation cycle for an auxiliary system and direct the analysis to the case of the system without vacations, applying the formula of total probability; next we use the renewal-theory approach to obtain a general formula.
10.2478/v10065-010-0040-x
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Article 11EN: The linear-quadratic stochastic optimal control problem with random horizon at the finite number of infinitesimal events
103-115

Edward Kozłowski


Department of Quantitative Methods, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

The aim of the article is to expand the results of the theory of Linear Quadratic Control (the state of the system is described with the help of stochastic linear equation while the quality coefficient is of a quadratic form) in the case of random horizon independent of the states of the system. As for the question under consideration the control system horizon is an independent variable with a discreet decomposition and has got a limited number of possible accomplishments. The above mentioned situation takes places when the number of controls is brought out by the outside factor (generally independent of the system).
10.2478/v10065-010-0041-9
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Article 12EN: A genetic algorithm for the project scheduling with the resource constraints
117-130

Marcin Klimek


The Institute of Computer Science, State School of Higher Vocational Education, Sidorska 102, 21-500 Biała Podlaska, Poland

The resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) has received the attention of many researchers because it can be applied in a wide variety of real production and construction projects. This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA) solving the RCPSP with the objective function of minimizing makespan. Standard genetic algorithm has to be adapted for project scheduling with precedence constraints. Therefore, an initial population was generated by a random procedure which produces feasible solutions (permutation of jobs fulfilling precedence constraints). Besides, all implemented genetic operators have taken sequential relationships in a project into consideration. Finally, we have demonstrated the performance and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Computational experiments were performed using a set of 960 standard problem instances from Project Scheduling Problem LIBrary (PSPLIB) presented by Kolisch and Sprecher [1]. We used 480 problems consisting of 30 jobs and 480 90-activity instances. We have tested effectiveness of various combinations of parameters, genetic operators to find the best configuration of GA. The computational results validate the good effectiveness of our genetic algorithm.
10.2478/v10065-010-0042-8
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Article 13EN: Middleware non-repudiation service for the data warehouse
131-144

Bogdan Księżopolski 1, Zbigniew Kotulski 2;3


1 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of PAS, Świętokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw, Poland
3 Institute of Telecommunications of WUT, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

Nowadays, storing the information is fundamental for the correct functioning of any organization. The critical factor is to guarantee the security of the stored data. In the traditional database systems the security requirements are limited to confidentiality, integrity, availability of the data and user authorization. The criticality of the database system and data repositories for modern business with the new requirements of law and governments, makes the development of new system architecture necessary which ensures sophisticated set of security services. In this paper we propose the database architecture that ensures the non-repudiation of the user queries and data warehouse actions. These security services are accomplished by means of the middleware layer in the data warehouse architecture.
10.2478/v10065-010-0043-7
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Article 14EN: Progress specialist IT knowledge among students based on learning blended learning
145-157

Robert Rajs


Institute of technology, State Higher Vocational School, ul. Wyspiańskiego 20, 38-400 Krosno, Poland

The article includes the analysis of the course whose aim is to present the potentialities of the system of virtual education Moodle[1], which is the basis for constructing e-Student platform owned by State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The article presents the use of e-learning in the course ‘Computer science in tourism’ conducted at the Department of Tourism and Recreation in State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The analysis of test practical task and final axam results computer science in tourism for the students of Tourism and recreation, which involved work in Voyager Travel, Hotel, Euroticket On-Line has clearly shown a strong correlation between the acquired computer science knowledge (good and very good grades) and the results of the final semester exam in Computer Science in Tourism e-course. The article describes the observations and conclusions drawn from the computer science courses run with a portal system based on the Moodle platform in the State Higher Vocational School Institute of Technology.
10.2478/v10065-010-0044-6
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Article 15EN: The role of the students' and teachers' activities in the adoption and continued use of an e-learning platform
159-165

Tomasz Walczyński, Beata Bylina, Jarosław Bylina


Institute of Mathematics, University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This paper identifies and examines an impact of students' and teachers' activities on possibility of using and adapting e-learning platform in postgraduate studies. The paper aims at experimental survey of students' satisfaction level, their opinions concerning implementing e-learning at work as well as correlation students' activity, teachers' activity and e-learning results. Our hypotheses are tested with 160 students of postgraduate studies using e-learning educational platform.
10.2478/v10065-010-0045-5
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Article 16EN: Applications of multimedia devices as teaching aids
167-175

Tomasz Prauzner


Institute of Technical Education, Jan Długosz University in Częstochowa, ul. Bohaterów Katynia 40/42, Częstochowa, Poland

The development of computer technology is reflected, among others, in the development of modern didactics. Current pedagogy and media education, as a fast developing discipline of general pedagogy, is a topic of a number of studies. Applying the modern multimedia aids at various stages and in various types of education is considered as an indispensable element of modern didactics, due to new opportunities the modern media offer. An interactive whiteboard is an example of such a modern teaching aid applied at present in education.
10.2478/v10065-010-0046-4
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Article 01EN: Formant paths tracking using Linear Prediction based methods
7-12

Ireneusz Codello, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Plac M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, Lublin, Poland

This paper focuses on formants as basic parameters for vowels recognition. There are used two different algorithms for formants finding based on the LP algorithm: spectral peak picking and root extraction algorithm - obtaining very good path estimations by each algorithm. Those methods are compared in a graphical form in our application ‘WaveBlaster’.
10.2478/v10065-010-0047-3
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Article 02EN: Kohonen networks application in speech analysis algorithms
13-19

Ireneusz Codello, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak, Adam Kobus


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This article presents the Kohonen network application in the speech analysis. The Authors have modified the traditional Kohonen network learning process like weights initialization, neurons reduction and neurons sorting. The results will be presented using authors' program - "WaveBlaster".
10.2478/v10065-010-0048-2
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Article 03EN: Parallelizing a new algorithm for the set partition problem
21-28

Hoang Chi Thanh


Department of Informatics, Hanoi University of Science, VNUH, 334 - Nguyen Trai Rd., Thanh Xuan, Hanoi, Vietnam

In this paper we propose a new approach to organizing parallel computing to find a sequence of all solutions to a problem. We split the sequence into subsequences and then execute concurrently the processes to find these subsequences. We propose a new simple algorithm for the set partition problem and apply the above technique for this algorithm.
10.2478/v10065-010-0049-1
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Article 04EN: POSIX threads parallelization for example of Particle-In-Cell density calculations in plasma computer simulations
29-40

Anna Sasak, Marcin Brzuszek


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The TRQR program [1-4] simulates trajectories of charged particles (electrons or ions) in the electromagnetic field. TRQR is based on the Particle-In-Cell method whose basic guideline is the use of computational particles (called macro particles) that represent a large number of real particles of the same kind moving in the same direction. The program calculates particles charge density distribution and potential distribution for chosen ion sources, analyses particles behaviour in the electromagnetic field, describes the process of beams from the source extraction. A number of factors influences simulation results. In order to improve efficiency the program has been parallelized. This paper presents the process of converting chosen parts of the TRQR program into the multi-thread version. In the first step the program was moved from Fortran 77 to C++. Then it was parallelized using the Pthread library with the standard API for C++ contained in the POSIX IEEE 1003.1c standard. Each of threads has its own stack, set of registers, program counter, individual data, local variables, state information. All threads of particular process share one address space, general signal operations, virtual memory, data, input and output. The Mutex functions were used as a synchronization mechanism. This paper presents the analysis of a particular piece of main program that implements computations of particles density distribution. The paper presents execution time dependencies for different simulation parameters such as: the number of macro particles, size of the simulation mesh and the number of used threads.
10.2478/v10065-010-0050-8
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Article 05EN: Speculative execution plan for multiple query execution systems
41-50

Anna Sasak, Marcin Brzuszek


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

There are different levels at which parallelism can be introduced to the database system. Starting from data partitioning (intra-operator parallelism) up to parallelism of operation (inter-operator parallelism) that depends on a query granularity. The paper presents the parallelisation method based on speculative execution for the database systems which are expected to give answers to complex queries coming from different sources as soon as possible. Taking under consideration W of upcoming queries waiting for execution, the execution plan for the first query should be developed. This plan should give the largest benefit also for W-1 of the consecutive queries. Thus, in parallel to the first query, some excessive computations can be executed, which in further steps would reduce the execution time of the consecutive queries. The paper presents possible risks and benefits are using this method and also analyses of possible execution time reduction for different models of speculative parallelization [1].
10.2478/v10065-010-0051-7
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Article 06EN: Usage of JSF framework and EJB technology in the creation of corporate applications
51-62

Przemysław Dębski, Barbara Gocłowska


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

In the following article we describe the architecture of an online store project, which is an application utilising Java Enterprise Edition. Our project is based on a customer expectations model. The choice of technology has been due to its easy expandability by additional modules as well as its functionality which does not require reorganising the existing code.
10.2478/v10065-010-0052-6
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Article 07EN: Modelling 3D scene based on rapid face tracking and objects recognition
63-68

Krzysztof Dmitruk, Grzegorz M. Wójcik


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Mixed reality techniques are presented. Implementation and application of CAMSHIFT algorithm is discussed to some extent. In the initial stage of the research the technology of real object's edge detection and geometrical figures' representation in the virtual scene has been worked out.
10.2478/v10065-010-0053-5
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Article 08EN: Application of the CIE color spaces for the digital image quality assessment
69-77

Krzysztof Okarma


Chair of Signal Processing and Multimedia Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, ul. 26. Kwietnia 10, 71-126 Szczecin, Poland

The digital image quality assessment is one of the most relevant aspects of contemporary digital image processing. A rapid development of some modern quality assessment techniques in recent years has caused the introduction of some new metrics, much better correlated with the Human Visual System (HVS) than the traditional ones such as the Mean Squared Error (MSE) or PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio). One of the most popular modern image quality assessment techniques is the usage of the Structural Similarity index (SSIM) defined in 2004. Unfortunately, even some modern image quality metrics are usually defined for the grayscale images so the colour information is often ignored. A typical classical approach to the quality assessment of the color images is the use of the Normalized Color Difference calculated in the CIE L*a*b* ob CIE Lu'v' colour space but its correlation with the human assessment is rather poor. In the paper the analysis of the influence of using the color spaces recommended by the CIE on the results of the digital image quality assessment using some modern metrics is performed. All the results have been calculated for the widely known LIVE database (release 2) containing the Differential Mean Opinion Scores (DMOS) for nearly 1000 color images with five types of distortions: JPEG compression, JPEG2000 compression, Gaussian blur, white noise and transmission over the simulated fast fading Rayleigh channel typical of wireless transmissions. As the final result the comparison of the correlations between the DMOS values and the SSIM metric calculated for various colour spaces recommended by the CIE is presented.
10.2478/v10065-010-0054-4
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Article 09EN: Level-oriented universal visual representation environment
79-91

Leszek Rybicki, Marta Burzańska


Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Chopina 12/18, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

We propose a three-dimensional graphics engine targeted at simultaneous visualizing multiple data sets and simulations in progress using a number of different visualization methods. The user can navigate between different views in a way in which one would traverse a museum: by switching focus from one object to another or zooming out to include several objects at the same time. Related visual-izations are vertically organized into levels or floors, further enhancing the museum metaphor. Additional information and means of manipulating the visualized data or simulations are provided for the user in a form of a two-dimensional on-screen overlay and also with the use of various input devices, not only mouse or keyboard. L.O.U.V.R.E. proved to be a very efficient and useful tool when dealing with experiments on robotics simulations. This paper presents such usage, and al-so indicates other possible applications. We find that it fills a gap as an intuitive solution encompassing graphing, simulation and user interface at the same time. Its applications go far beyond computer science research into such fields as biology or physics.
10.2478/v10065-010-0055-3
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Article 10EN: Difference schemes of arbitrary order of accuracy for semilinear parabolic equations
93-109

Magdalena Lapinska-Chrzczonowicz


Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

The Cauchy problem for a semilinear parabolic equation is considered. Under the conditions u(x, t) = X(x)T1(t) + T2(t), ∂u/∂x ≠ = 0, it is shown that the problem is equivalent to the system of two ordinary differential equations for which exact difference scheme (EDS) with special Steklov averaging and difference schemes with arbitrary order of accuracy (ADS) are constructed on the moving mesh. The special attention is paid to investigating approximation, stability and convergence of the ADS. The convergence of the iteration method is also considered. The presented numerical examples illustrate theoretical results investigated in the paper.
10.2478/v10065-010-0056-2
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Article 11EN: Associative memory in artificial immune systems
111-122

Barbara Borowik 1, Bohdan Borowik 2, Jan Kucwaj 1, Sophie Laird 3


1 Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
2 University of Bielsko-Biala, Willowa 2, 43-309 Bielsko Biala, Poland
3 Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, Maryland, USA

The paper concentrates on analyzing associative properties of Artificial Immune Systems, especially on immunological memory, which is a member of a class of sparse and distributed associative memories [18]. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents [16]. Immunological memory is one of the defining characteristics of the adaptive immune system [4]. This memory is able to store and recall patterns when it is required, and can easily categorize new input data [11]. Immunological memory is distributed among the cells in the AIS memory population, and is robust, because when a portion of the memory population is lost, the remaining memory cells persist to produce a response. The major principle behind vaccination procedures in medicine and immunotherapy takes its source from associative properties of immunological memory [13]. Associative recall is a general phenomenon of immunological memory [18].
10.2478/v10065-010-0057-
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Article 12EN: The Possibility of Using Artificial Neural Networks for the Estimation of Mass Composition of High-Energy Primary Cosmic Ray
123-131

Jan Malinowski 1, Grzegorz Gustek 2


1 Department of High Energy Astrophysics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
2 Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz, Poland

This paper shows that the artificial neural networks (ANN) can be used for determining the type of particles of high-energy primary cosmic ray (i.e. its mass composition) initiating the EAS. The approach implemented here can be used, e.g., in the Auger experiment. We describe the details of the ANN construction and demonstrate that the program is correct and can be further used to solve physical problems. The network was taught and tested based on the data for the maximum of the EAS development (X_max) and primary energy of a particle initiating this EAS (lg(E0)). The identification of particles based on X_max and lg(E0) resulted in around 80% of correct answers for the light mass composition and 99% for the heavy one. We have a correct answer for the mass composition with domination of one type of particles, i.e. light or heavy. Otherwise, additional parameters should be included as ANN input data.
10.2478/v10065-010-0058-0
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Article 13EN: ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction simulations
133-141

Bartłomiej Bielecki 1, Marek Zieliński 2, Paweł Mikołajczak 1;3


1 State School of Higher Education in Chełm, ul. Pocztowa 54, 22-100 Chełm, Poland
2 Province Hospital of Ludwik Rydygier in Chełm, ul. Ceramiczna 1, 22-100 Chełm, Poland
3 Marie Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin, Plac M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, Lublin, Poland

The authors present the methods of ECG signal simulation especially ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction known as STEMI. It occurs in the case of blood flow around and towards heart problem. It is strongly associated with a heart attack due to low level of oxygen transported to the heart muscle. The most common symptoms of this disease are chest pain, breath shortness or sweating. There are many symptoms of STEMI but the most characteristic feature is a line change between the QRS complex and T wave which are considered by the authors. The obtained results are compared with actual signals from three leads of ECG Holter, or scanned signals digitalized to formatted files. All simulations, results and analyses are made used of in the applications created by the authors.
10.2478/v10065-010-0059-z
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Article 14EN: Modelling role hierarchy structure using the Formal Concept Analysis
143-159

Ścibor Sobieski 1, Bartosz Zieliński 1;2


1 Department of Theoretical Physics II, University of Lódź, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź, Poland
2 Institute of Mathematics, PAN, ul. Śniadeckich 8, 00-956 Warszawa, Poland

We demonstrate how one can use the formal concept analysis (FCA) to obtain the role hierarchy for the role based access control from the existing access control matrix. We also discuss assesed by means of FCA the quality of security system and finding users with excess permissions.
10.2478/v10065-010-0060-6
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Article 15EN: Intuitive Control System for Cable-Driven Robot Manipulator
161-168

Janusz Baczy


1 Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, 149/153 Pomorska St., 90-236 Łód´z, Poland.
2 Institute of Automatic Control, Technical University of Lodz, 18/22 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Łód´z, Poland.

The presented controller system has been designed and dedicated to the intuitive and instinctive cable driven robot manipulator. The described robot manipulator is the moving platform suspended by the set of six variable-length steel cables. In practice the construction is like a standard inverted Stewart platform - the platform is able to move in all six degrees of freedom with respect to its base. The presented manipulator has been equipped with the suspending base that has been adequately improved. The improvement gives the additional 3 degrees of freedom and it allows to effectively increase the operation ability of the manipulator in small workspaces. The cable robot can be employed as the master-slave system useful for various teleoperator tasks
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Article 16EN: Internet-Based Teleoperator System for Remote Video Monitoring
169-176

Janusz Baczy


1Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, 149/153 Pomorska St., 90-236 Łód´z, Poland.
1Institute of Automatic Control, Technical University of Lodz, 18/22 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Łód´z, Poland.

The presented robotic system has been designed and dedicated to remote control video cameras away from monitoring workspaces. The idea of the system is that the camera is installed on the flying platform of the cable driven manipulator. The manipulator is the slave part of the robotic system similar to the standard inverted Stewart platform that features six degrees of freedom. The presented manipulator has been extended with additional three degrees of freedom to increase maneuverability of the camera. The system can be employed in two basic modes, both as an autonomous robot and as a teleoperator instrument.
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Article 17EN: WiMAX Networks – architecture and data security
177-185

Łukasz Kucharzewski, Zbigniew Kotulski


Institute of Telecomunications, Warsaw University of Technology, Pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warszawa, Poland.

This document presents thorough information on the WiMAX technology, its detailed architecture and illustrates security mechanisms employed. The first part discusses basic properties and components of WiMAX network. Individual sub-layers of the network operation have been presented. The second part describes all security-related aspects and solutions employed to ensure secure data exchange: cryptographic keys generation and exchange, authentication processes and encrypted data exchange. The last part illustrates potential attacks, means of effective protection and methods for improving security in WiMAX networks.
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Article 18EN: Learning with a game
187-194

Zuzana Kureková 1, Lucia Záhumenská 2


1 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, 949 74 Nitra Slovakia.
2 Department of Managment of Culture and Tourism, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University, Hodžova 1, 949 74 Nitra, Slovakia.

Mathematics is not only arithmetic. It comprises also developing abilities and skills, for example precision, skillfulness, reasoning, ability for systematic work. Children obtain basic information about mathematics, in a general form which is necessary for further study in elementary school. The main activity which develops mathematical reasoning and creative abilities, such as independence, originality, imagination, intuition and memory, are games. This paper is devoted to characterization of didactic games, their effect on development of empirical education of children of preschool age. It includes a few examples of didactic games which are focused on development of mathematical abilities in children, too.
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Article 19EN: Mathematics in Physics, Physics in Mathematics
195-198

Eva Mokráňová


Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, 949 74 Nitra Slovakia.

In the paper we deal with the movement problems solved in various ways. We try to point to the interconnection of mathematics and physics with real life. We also try to propose the common solution of the same problem in both subjects. Solving of these problems differ in mathematics and physics, though only slightly, and the unification of the solutions would simplify the understanding of the fact that it is the same problem to pupils.
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Volume 09 - 2009

Article 01EN: Transposition Rearrangement: Linear Algorithm for Length-Cost Model
7-13

Łukasz Mikulski


Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland

The contemporary computational biology gives motivation to study dependencies between finite sequences. Primary structures of DNA or proteins are represented by such sequences (also called words or strings). In the paper a linear algorithm, computing the distance between two words, is presented. The model operates with transpositions of single letters. The cost of a single transposition is equal to the distance which transposed letter has to cover. Other papers concerning the model give, as the best known, algorithms of time complexity O(n log n). The complexity of our algorithm is O(nk), where k is the size of the alphabet, and O(n) when the size is fixed.
10.2478/v10065-009-0001-4
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Article 02EN: An algorithm of combining of advancing front and delaunay triangulation to 3-D domain tesselation
15-26

Jan Kucwaj, Barbara Borowik


Institute of Computer Modelling, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-150 Cracow, Poland

The paper presents an algorithm of volume meshing by using the Advancing Front Technique (AFT) combined with the Delaunay Triangulation. The tetrahedronization starts with the surface mesh with the elements oriented towards the interior 3-D domain. The main idea is based upon AFT, with simultaneous points insertion and tetrahedra creation. The characteristic feature of the approach is the part of AFT in the case, when a new calculated point on the current face of the front is not accepted then the existing point in the front is found to create a new tetrahedron by using the Delaunay triangulation on the given set of points. Additionally the algorithm takes a mesh size function into account.
10.2478/v10065-009-0002-3
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Article 03EN: Parallelization methodology and analysis of benefits from the TRQR program with parallel computing
27-34

Marcin Brzuszek 1, Anna Sasak 1, Marcin Turek 2


1 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Physics, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Benefits from parallelization of sequential TRQR application were analyzed and presented in this paper. The TRQR program based on the Particle-In-Cell method is used in simulations of particles trajectories in the electromagnetic field. To estimate the performance of parallelized program some formal and informal measures were provided. Analysis was based on three main issues. First - if and how parallel computing influenced program efficiency. Secondly, the way that system reliability increases and thirdly, how this solution improves the extent to which the available hardware computing power is used. The paper also presents the methodology that was used for code re-engineering in order to get a parallel version on the basis of its sequential version.
10.2478/v10065-009-0003-2
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Article 04EN: Numerical schemes for a system of one-dimensional hyperbolic equations
35-57

Krzysztof Murawski


Institute of Physics, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

In this paper modern numerical methods for one-dimensional hyperbolic equations are reviewed. Several results of advanced numerical simulations for complex systems are presented. These results prove that the numerical codes, based on the Godunov-type methods cope very well with all numerically induced problems.
10.2478/v10065-009-0004-1
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Article 05EN: Optimization of TLS security protocol using the adaptable security model
59-75

Paweł Szałachowski 1, Bogdan Księżopolski 1, Zbigniew Kotulski 2;3


1 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of PAS, Swietokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw, Poland
1 Institute of Telecommunications of WUT, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

Security protocols used in today's communication are complex and it is very difficult to analyze and optimize them. Literature reports some results which optimize security protocols. In the case of devices with limited resources (mobile phones, PDA, sensors) the speed and efficiency of the process is crucial for their stable work. Security methods used during transporting the data between parties are crucial as for as efficiency is concerned. However, optimization cannot significantly reduce the security of the process. We must remember that in many fields (e.g. e-banking, e-court etc.) security level will always be the main factor. In this paper, we show how to optimize security protocols in terms of the security level. We present the visualization tool for the adaptable security model, which defines the protection level of the transmitted data. These elements help us analyze and optimize a cryptographic protocol. The presented optimization results are based on the TLS protocol. We describe this protocol by the adaptable model and we create different versions of the protocol. Finally, we discuss differences between them and their impact on the protection level.
10.2478/v10065-009-0005-0
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Article 06EN: Query Optimization by Indexing in the ODRA OODBMS
77-97

Tomasz M. Kowalski 1, Michał Chromiak 2, Kamil Kuliberda 1, Jacek Wiślicki 1, Radosław Adamus 1, Kazimierz Subieta 3


1 Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 18/22, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
2 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
3 Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Koszykowa 86, 02-008 Warsaw, Poland

We present features and samples of use of the index optimizer module which has been implemented and tested in the ODRA prototype system. The ODRA index implementation is based on linear hashing and works in a scope of a standalone database. The solution is adaptable to distributed environments in order to optimally utilize data grid computational resources. The implementation consists of transparent optimization, automatic index updating and management facilities.
10.2478/v10065-009-0006-z
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Article 07EN: The hierarchical system of distributed objects work control
99-109

Dariusz Bober


Institute of Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

The common attribute of the geo-distributed systems (GS) is the way of their organization. The structure of GS is usually an up-down depended hierarchy where the processes of their inter work control are implemented as two sides (up-down, down-up) information exchange. As a result, the subcomponents of typical GS are in some distance from each other. The main clue of GS manager is the quality of information process flow and a medium of data exchange. The state of art of data describes technologies, e.g. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) [1, 2, 3] and the progress of the Internet interoperabilitation, especially in Web Services [4], gives for the designers some new opportunities of application design. In this way, the layer of data interchange of GS subcomponents will migrate to the next/new level of abstraction. Its consequence is ability of reorganization of the controlled object structures and modelling of dimensions extends. This article presents a model of hierarchical system of distributed objects work control (HCS). The model is based on a cube of data repository and dedicated web serviced methods. This model is used in the investigations of the electric energy consumption control by the author.
10.2478/v10065-009-0007-y
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Article 08EN: Analysis of communication processes in the multi-agent systems
111-122

Wojciech Pieprzyca


University of Computer Science and Management, ul. Fredry 51, 43-346 Bielsko-Biała, Poland

The article deals with the problems related to the possibility of information exchange in the multi-agent systems. Therefore it presents a model of coloured Petri net which was created in order to illustrate and to simulate the agents communication processes as well as exemplary diagrams which determine the sequences of information exchange between the agents with the use of the required performatives of KQML.
10.2478/v10065-009-0008-x
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Article 09EN: Numerical analysis of EM estimation of mixture model parameters
123-134

Małgorzata Plechawska 1, Łukasz Wójcik 1, Andrzej Polański 2


1 Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Computers Science, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland Abstract

Optimisation of distribution parameters is a very common problem. There are many sorts of distributions which can be used to model environment processes, biological functions or graphical data. However, it is common that parameters of those distribution may be, partially or completely unknown. Mixture models composed of a few distributions are easier to solve. In such a case simple estimation methods may be used to obtain results. Usually models are composed of several distributions. Those distributions may be of the same or different type. Such models are called mixture models. Finding their parameters may be complicated. Usually in such cases iterative methods need to be used. The paper gives a brief survey of algorithms designed for solving mixtures of distributions and problems connected with their usage. One of the most common method used to obtain mixture model parameters is Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. EM is the iterative algorithm performing maximum likelihood estimation. The authors present the results of adjusting the Gaussian mixture models to the data. It is done with the usage of EM algorithm. The article gives advantages and disadvantages of EM algorithm. Improvements of EM applied in the case of large data are also presented. They help increase efficiency and decrease operation time of the algorithm. Another considered issue is the problem of optimal input parameters selection and its influence on the adjustment results. The authors also present algorithm performance observations.
10.2478/v10065-009-0009-9
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Article 10EN: Combined MR brain segmentation
135-144

Rafał Henryk Kartaszyński, Paweł Mikołajczak


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The paper presents a new approach to segmentation of brain from the MR studies. The method is fully automated, very efficient, and quick. The main point of this algorithm is subtraction of T1 series form T2 series (therefore we called it combined), followed by a few image processing steps. The method has been tested using the data sets from three sources. The results were compared numerically to those produced by experts. They indicate great effectiveness of the presented algorithm.
10.2478/v10065-009-0010-3
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Article 11EN: Polar contour shape descriptors in the template matching approach to object recognition
145-152

Dariusz Frejlichowski


Faculty of Computer Science and Information Systems, West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin, 49 Zolnierska St., 71-210, Szczecin, Poland

The paper provides a review of contour polar shape descriptors used in recognition of objects based on their silhouettes. The process of recognition in the template matching approach has to be based on so called descriptors, assigned to object features, e.g. shape, texture, color, luminance, context of the information and movement. Amongst them very special attention is paid to the shape, because in many applications it is the most relevant and the less changeable feature that can be used. The shape in the digital image processing has usually a form of binary object. One of the representations uses the boundary, contour of a silhouette. The most important advantage of such approach is a small number of pixels to consider. Amongst several dozen shape descriptors special properties can be found in the polar ones, which use the transformation from the Cartesian to the polar coordinates. The most important is invariance to translation of the object points. The rotation becomes a circular shift what can be easily solved in further processing. Owing to the normalization the descriptors can be also invariant to scaling. Some of the methods are also robust to some level of noise and occlusion.
10.2478/v10065-009-0011-2
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Article 12EN: Application of the central weighted structural similarity index for the estimation of the face recognition accuracy
153-163

Paweł Forczmański 1, Krzysztof Okarma 2


1 Chair of Multimedia Systems, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Żołnierska 49, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
2 Chair of Signal Processing and Multimedia Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, 26. Kwietnia 10, 71-126 Szczecin, Poland

In the paper a novel method for the estimation of the face recognition accuracy based on the modified Structural Similarity is presented. A typical application of the Structural Similarity index is related to the full-reference objective image quality assessment. Growing popularity of this metric is caused not only by the fact of its relatively low computational complexity but also by its sensitivity to three common types of distortions: the loss of contrast, luminance distortions and the loss of correlation. Taking into account the output of the SSIM metric as the quality map with the resolution nearly the same as that of the input images, it is possible to use any two-dimensional central weighting function to control the level of importance of each image region. The approach proposed in this article is based on the usage of the Central Weighted SSIM index for the prediction of the face recognition accuracy using the images contaminated by several common types of distortions e.g. salt and pepper noise, lossy compression, filtration etc. The described method is based on the assumption that facial portraits are cropped and centered, which is true for almost all biometric systems. Finally, the results of face recognition by means of PCArc method has been used, as the state-of-the art in this domain. The experiments were conducted on the Olivetti Research Lab database [1].
10.2478/v10065-009-0012-1
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Article 13EN: Quality of Experience (QoE) Assurance by a Multi-path Balanced Traffic-Splitting Algorithm in MPLS Networks
165-177

Cs Krishnadas, Rajarshi Roy


Dept. of E & ECE, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India

Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technology has proven its worth for delivering new services while at the same time allowing migration from old to new generation networks. Avoidance of congestion is one of the major performance objectives of traffic engineering in MPLS networks. Load balancing can prevent the congestion caused due to inefficient allocation of network resources. Another important aspect in network performance is the end user perception of the quality delivered by the network called the Quality of Experience (QoE). The final arbiter of service performance is the end user whose opinion about quality is based on his or her perception. This end user perception of audiovisual quality is quantified by Mean opinion score (MOS). The network parameters that affect the MOS are delay, Jitter and loss. Though a number of multipath load balancing algorithms have been proposed in [1] and [2], none have proportioned traffic keeping the QoE constraint in mind. Here, a multipath load balancing algorithm is used to optimally split the incoming traffic based on the effect of average delay and jitter offered by the network so that the QoE measure of MOS is maximized. These initial results indicate that desirable QoE can be achieved by finite and small number of executions of an appropriate iterative load balancing algorithm once the step-size and the weights of the composite cost function representing combined effect of average delay and jitter are judiciously chosen.
10.2478/v10065-009-0013-0
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Article 14EN: The mechanical design and control system of 9 DOF robotic crane
179-189

Michał Baczyński 1, Janusz Baczyński 2


1 Institute of Automatic Control, Technical University of Lodz, 18/22 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Łódź, Poland
1 Faculty of Physics and Applied Computers Science, University of Lodz, 149/153 Pomorska St., 90-236 Łódź, Poland

This work presents the status of running project (2007-2010). The new nine degrees of freedom cable driven robot has been developed. Main parts: the mechanical design of parallel manipulator and the heart of control system have been presented. The preliminary tests of the prototype application have been performed. As the final result of the project, a robotic cable driven crane will be developed, applicable in a wide range of practical commercial solutions.
10.2478/v10065-009-0014-z
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Article 15EN: Simple cable-pulley manipulator system for remote translocation of radioactive materials
191-199

Janusz Baczyński 1, Michał Baczyński 2


1 Faculty of Physics and Applied Computers Science, University of Lodz, 149/153 Pomorska St., 90-236 Łódź, Poland
2 Institute of Automatic Control, Technical University of Lodz, 18/22 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Łódź, Poland

The simple and low cost manipulator system for the use in small workspace of nuclear laboratories is presented. The system is designed for remote translocation of radioactive sources and other applications increasing staff safety during processing of radioisotope materials. The described cable-pulley manipulator is controlled by a very simple PC set-up.
10.2478/v10065-009-0015-y
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Article 16EN: Simulation of the electromagnetic vector field in the high-frequency components with dispersive materials
201-212

Bogusław Butryło


Białystok Technical University, ul. Wiejska 45D, 15-351 Białystok, Poland

This paper deals with parallel analysis of an electromagnetic problem for frequency-dependent materials. The solution of the linear wave equation is achieved using the finite element time domain method. A multi-pole Debye model approximates the memory of the dispersive material. The time-domain convolution is explicitly calculated using the integration by parts method. The linear recursive technique is implemented to estimate the convolution integral in each time step. The comparative study of two parallel implementations of the algorithm is presented. The discussed parallel versions are based on the domain decomposition paradigm and task decomposition scheme. The task decomposition is developed using some heuristic scheme of coupling of parallel tasks. The presented algorithms are executed over a distributed, homogeneous testbed. Some aspects connected with simulation of a broadband electromagnetic field in a dispersive and isotropic material are discussed.
10.2478/v10065-009-0016-x
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Article 17EN: Contests Hosting Service as a tool to teach programming
213-324

Rafał Kluszczyński, Łukasz Mikulski, Marek Nowicki, Piotr Bała


Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Chopina 12/18, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

Computer science would not exist without the concept of algorithm. Therefore design of algorithms plays an important role in education while implementation is usually considered to be straightforward. Increasing variety of programming languages, wealth of possible constructions, programming environments and tools makes programming difficult for the beginners. Apart from the idea of problem solution, it is important to teach programming skills. Size of classes of 10-20 pupils and a limited number of lessons and their short time are the major problem. The teacher has to check solution of every pupil, compile it and run tests. This is definitely a time-consuming process which makes teaching difficult. In this paper the authors present the use of problem solutions validation systems during classes. With the help of such a system called Zawody WEB, the authors teach algorithms and programming for the secondary school students.
10.2478/v10065-009-0017-9
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Article 11EN: Numerical analysis of controllability of a parabolic system with the delayed controls and non-zero boundary conditions
119-128

Jerzy Stefan Respondek


Departament of Theory of Information, Institute of Computer Science, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

The aim of the article is the numerical analysis of the controllability of a parabolic system with the delayed controls and non zero boundary conditions. The main novelty of the article are just non-zero Dirichlet conditions for the PDE. As the result the conditions of the controllability for the parabolic PDE with delayed controls are determined.
10.2478/v10065-008-0030-4

Volume 08 - 2008

Article 01EN: Stream security particularities in Java
5-13

Michał Chromiak, Zdzisław Łojewski


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl.M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Regarding numerous threats connected with sending and storing confidential data, there is a problem of assuring the efficiency. As an answer to those needs, we discuss the SUN's Java Virtual Machine mechanism provided to assure security to a single object. Thanks to the mechanism of serialization in Java, it is possible to provide secure solution. In this paper, we compare the efficiency of algorithms such as DES, Blowfish, AES, RSA and ECC as means of securing serialization of an object.
10.2478/v10065-008-0001-9
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Article 02EN: Hierarchical graph transformations with meta-rules
15-21

Wojciech Palacz


Department of Computer Design and Graphics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

This paper is concerned with hierarchical graph models and graph transformation rules, specifically with the problem of transforming a part of graph which may contain subordinated nodes and edges. Meta-rules are proposed as a formal way of representing transformations which remove or duplicate a node along with its contents. The paper discusses the behavior of meta-rules when applied to different types of hierarchical graphs, possible failure cases, and concludes by introducing a type of hierarchical graphs in which meta-rules can always be successfully expanded.
10.2478/v10065-008-0002-8
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Article 03EN: Enhancement of Multiobjective Hierarchical Bayesian Optimization Algorithm using Sporadic Model Building
23-30

Wiesław Piasecki


Information Security Division, Institute of Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

This paper describes and analyzes the efficiency enhancement of Multiobjective hierarchical Bayesian Optimization Algorithm (mohBOA) by using Sporadic Model Building (SMB). Firstly, Multiobjective hierarchical Bayesian Optimization Algorithm is shortly described. Secondly, sporadic model building is presented. Using sporadic model building, the structure of a probabilistic model is updated once every few iterations, whereas in the remaining iterations only model parameters (conditional and marginal probabilities) are updated. Since the time of learning the structure of a model is much longer than the time of updating model parameters, sporadic model building decreases the total time complexity of model building. The results of experiments show that the theoretical predictions about using sporadic model building to the enhancement of mohBOA are true. Finally, short discussion about the results of experiments is added.
10.2478/v10065-008-0003-7
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Article 04EN: An energy efficient routing algorithm based on genetic algorithm for ad hoc networks
31-41

Marek Pilski 1, Franciszek Seredyński 2;3


1 Computer Science Department, University of Podlasie, Sienkiewicza 51, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
2 Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Koszykowa 86, 02-008 Warszawa, Poland
3 Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ordona 21, 01-237 Warszawa, Poland

Highly dynamic topology is an essential feature of mobile ad hoc networks. For this reason, maintaining a consistent state for routing purposes can be a very difficult task. The primary goal is correct and efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes. Although a more challenging goal is to provide energy efficient routing protocols. This paper presents a concept of an energy efficient routing algorithm based on applying genetic algorithm (GA). The aim of the algorithm is a prolongation of life time of the network. The life time of the network depends on nodes life, which is a function of battery energy nodes. A routing metric is a time measure from a moment when the network starts up, to the moment when the first battery in any nodes runs down. The purpose of the proposed algorithm is to maximize the life time of the network. To choose a path we propose to use one of a few different heuristics. In this paper we describe the GA-based approach to find a heuristic combination for solving power-aware routing problem. A problem solution is such a heuristic combination, which depends on an actual state of the network (energy of nodes) and will choose optimal paths.
10.2478/v10065-008-0004-6
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Article 05EN: Photography image enhancement by image fusion
43-53

Marcin Denkowski, Paweł Mikołajczak


Department of Information Technology, Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie Skłodowska University, pl.M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This paper presents an overview of two-dimensional image fusion methods using convolution filters and discrete wavelet transform developed by the authors. Image fusion is a process of combining two or more images of the same object into one extended composite image. It can extract features from source images and provide more information than one image. This technique can be easily used for image restoration and enhancement. In this article the authors focus on multi-exposure images, high dynamic range improvement and depth-of-field enhancement.
10.2478/v10065-008-0005-5
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Article 06EN: Image processing algorithms employing two-dimensional Karhunen-Loeve Transform
55-65

Paweł Forczmański


Institute of Computer Graphics and Multimedia Systems, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Systems, Szczecin University of Technology, Żołnierska 49, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland

In the fields of image processing and pattern recognition there is an important problem of acquiring, gathering, storing and processing large volumes of data. The most frequently used solution making these data reduced is a compression, which in many cases leads also to the speeding-up further computations. One of the most frequently employed approaches is an image handling by means of Principal Component Analysis and Karhunen-Loeve Transform, which are well known statistical tools used in many areas of applied science. Their main property is the possibility of reducing the volume of data required for its optimal representation while preserving its specific characteristics. The paper presents selected image processing algorithms such as compression, scrambling (coding) and information embedding (steganography) and their realizations employing the twodimensional Karhunen-Loeve Transform (2DKLT), which is superior to the standard, onedimensional KLT since it represents images respecting their spatial properties. The principles of KLT and 2DKLT as well as sample implementations and experiments performed on the standard benchmark datasets are presented. The results show that the 2DKLT employed in the above applications gives obvious advantages in comparison to certain standard algorithms, such as DCT, FFT and wavelets.
10.2478/v10065-008-0006-4
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Article 07EN: Trademark recognition using the PDH shape descriptor
67-73

Dariusz Frejlichowski


Faculty of Computer Science and Information Systems, Szczecin University of Technology, Żołnierska 49, 71-210, Szczecin, Poland

The paper presents the results of experiments, where trademark shapes were described using the PDH algorithm and recognized using the template matching approach. Those experiments were performed to verify some properties of the PDH shape descriptor in the presence of real contour object deformations.
10.2478/v10065-008-0007-3
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Article 08EN: Static methods for object reconstruction overview: for medical diagnosis
75-86

Karolina Nurzyńska


Institute of Computer Science, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

This article presents the overview of static methods exploited for object reconstruction from point cloud or the special case which are the sets of parallel contours gathered from the medical scanners. It includes a brief description of each method and a comparison of their performance in respect to the achieved object appearance, an impact of noisy data, possible types of object reconstruction and time consumption. The aim of this comparison is to find which of the presented methods are promising for object reconstruction needed for medical diagnosis.
10.2478/v10065-008-0008-2
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Article 09EN: Comparison of modern nonlinear multichannel filtering techniques using recent full-reference image quality assessment methods
87-98

Krzysztof Okarma


Chair of Signal Processing and Multimedia Engineering, Szczecin University of Technology, 26. Kwietnia 10, 71-126 Szczecin, Poland

In the paper the quality analysis of some modern nonlinear color image filtering methods is presented. Traditionally, many image filtering algorithms are analyzed using classical image quality assessment metrics, mainly based on the Mean Square Error (MSE). However, they are all poorly correlated with subjective evaluation of images performed by observers. Due to necessity of better image quality estimation, some other methods have been recently proposed. They are especially useful for development of new lossy image compression algorithms, as well as evaluation of images obtained after applying some image processing algorithms e.g. filtering methods. Most of image quality algorithms are based on the comparison of similarity between two images: the original (reference) one and the second one which is processed e.g. contaminated by noise, filtered or lossily compressed. Such a group of full-reference methods is actually the only existing universal solution for automatic image quality assessment. There are also some "blind" (no-reference) algorithms but they are "specialized" for some kinds of distortions e.g. blocky effects in the JPEG compressed images. The last years' state-of-the-art full-reference metrics are Structural Similarity (SSIM) and M-SVD based on the Singular Value Decomposition of two images' respective blocks. Another important aspect of color image quality assessment is the way the color information is utilized in the quality metric. The authors of two analyzed metrics generally do not consider the effects of using color information at all or limit the usage of their metrics to luminance information in YUV color model only so in this article the solutions based on RGB and CIE LAB models are compared. In the paper the results of quality assessment using the SSIM and M-SVD methods obtained for some modern median-based filters and Distance-Directional Filter for color images are presented with comparison to those obtained using classical metrics as the verification of their usefulness.
10.2478/v10065-008-0009-1
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Article 10EN: 2DLDA-based texture recognition in the aspect of objective image quality assessment
99-110

Krzysztof Okarma 1, Paweł Forczmański 2


1 Chair of Signal Processing and Multimedia Engineering, Szczecin University of Technology, 26. Kwietnia 10, 71-126 Szczecin, Poland
2 Institute of Computer Graphics and Multimedia Systems, Szczecin University of Technology, Zołnierska 49, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland

The image quality is a crucial property of each image when it comes to successful recognition. There are many methods of image quality assessment which use both objective and subjective measures. The most desirable situation is when we can evaluate the quality of an image prior to recognition. It is well known that most of classical objective image quality assessment methods, mainly based on the Mean Square Error, are poorly correlated with the way humans perceive the quality of digital images. Recently some new methods of full-reference image quality assessment have been proposed based on Singular Value Decomposition and Structural Similarity, especially useful for development of new image processing methods e.g. filtration or lossy compression. Despite the fact that full-reference metrics require the knowledge of original image to compute them their application in image recognition systems can be also useful. In the remote controlled systems where lossy compressed images are transferred using low bandwidth networks, the additional information related to the quality of transmitted image can be helpful for the estimation of recognition accuracy or even the choice of recognition method. The paper presents a problem of recognizing visual textures using two-dimensional Linear Discriminant Analysis. The image features are taken from the FFT spectrum of gray-scale image and then rendered into a feature matrix using LDA. The final part of recognition is performed using distance calculation from the centers of classes. The experiments employ standard benchmark database - Brodatz Textures. Performed investigations are focused on the influence of image quality on the recognition performance and the correlation between image quality metrics and the recognition accuracy.
10.2478/v10065-008-0010-8
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Article 11EN: Watershed merging method for color images
111-121

Jakub Smołka, Maria Skublewska-Paszkowska


Institute of Computer Science, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

Watershed transformation can be applied to color as well as to gray-scale images. A problem arises when dealing with color images. It is caused by the fact that pixels in such images are vectors that describe all color components whereas the watershed transformation requires a scalar height function as its input. There are multiple gradient magnitude definitions for color images that allow for the needed conversion. As in the case of gray-scale images, the image after watershed transformation is heavily over-segmented. One can blur the image before calculating the gradient magnitude, threshold the gradient image or merge the resulting watersheds. Unfortunately, the result is still over-segmented. A solution presented in this paper complements those mentioned above. It uses hierarchical cluster analysis methods for joining similar classes of the over-segmented image into a given number of clusters. After the image has been preprocessed and segmented, the over-segmentation is reduced by means of the cluster analysis. The attribute values for each watershed in each color component are calculated and clustering is performed. The resulting similarity hierarchy allows for the simple selection of the number of clusters in the final segmentation. Several clustering methods, including complete linkage and Ward's methods with different sets of components, have been tested. Selected results are presented.
10.2478/v10065-008-0011-7
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Article 12EN: Application of computer algebra systems (CAS) to symbolic construction of coupled equations for magnetic susceptibility of amorphous systems with different coordination numbers
123-131

Adam Krzemieniewski 1, Grzegorz Wiatrowski 2


1 Department of Solid State Physics, University of Łódź, 90-236 Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, Poland
2 Division of Applied Computer Science, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź, Poland

We present the application of computer algebra systems to symbolic construction of two coupled systems of equations obtained from the exact Callen equation for a set of magnetizations and relevant magnetic susceptibilities in the case of complex amorphous ternary and binary diluted alloys like (ApB1-p)xC1-x with concentrations p and x, and different coordination numbers. The present paper is an extension of our previous one (Annales UMCS Informatica AI 5, 2006, 93) where the systems of polynomial equations for spontaneous magnetizations without external magnetic field have been obtained. Now, we introduce the external magnetic field and determine with the use of CAS full system of equations for both local magnetic susceptibilities and local magnetizations concerning all components of the complex magnetic systems. Finally, the numerical solutions of constructed coupled equations are found and discussed. The special attention is paid to the ferromagnetic region where the existence of low-temperature ordering transition, below the usual Curie phase transition, is searched as an interesting phenomenon from the technical point of view. The presented CAS added description can be understood as automatic constructor-simulator of relevant properties of amorphous alloys when the parameters of the system in question form an input to the described CAS-package.
10.2478/v10065-008-0012-6
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Article 13EN: Controllability of second order infinite dimensional dynamical systems with delays
133-149

Jerzy Respondek


Department of Theory of Information, Institute of Computer Science, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, Silesian Technical University, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

The article is devoted to analysing the approximate absolute and approximate relative controllability of a given type second order infinite dimensional system. The considered dynamical system is governed by the evolution equation with three damping terms and three terms without derivatives. Following this aim, spectral theory for linear unbounded operators is involved. At first the representation of considered infinite dimensional dynamical system by the infinite series of finite dimensional systems is given. Next, two theorems on necessary and sufficient conditions of approximate absolute and approximate relative controllability of the considered system are formulated and proved. Finally, proven theorems are applied to the analysis of the elastic beam.
10.2478/v10065-008-0013-5
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Article 14EN: Utterance intonation imaging using the cepstral analysis
157-163

Ireneusz Codello, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak, Tomasz Gryglewicz, Waldemar Suszyński


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl.M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Speech intonation consists mainly of fundamental frequency, i.e. the frequency of vocal cord vibrations. Finding those frequency changes can be very useful — for instance, studying foreign languages where speech intonation is an inseparable part of a language (like grammar or vocabulary). In our work we present the cepstral algorithm for F0 finding as well as an application for facilitating utterance intonation learning.
10.2478/v10065-008-0015-3
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Article 15EN: Wireless sensor networks for structural and environmental monitoring
165-175

Igor Dunajewski


Institute of Environmental Mechanics and Applied Computer Science, Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, 85-072 Bydgoszcz

The article discusses various applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WNS) in environment and civil engineering constructions monitoring with a particular emphasis on the evaluation of the influence of individual node failures on the operation of the whole network. The dynamic development of civilization more and more necessitates the use of applications of integrated measure and control systems enabling constant monitoring and tracking of environmental conditions as well as industrial and civilian constructions in real time. Appropriate measurements of relocations and deformations of geotechnical and hydrotechnical structures have a key significance for ensuring safety precautions and their appropriate use and operation. The article explores possibilities for the application of WNS's in the above fields. WNS networks make it possible to monitor engineering constructions, to keep track of any changes occurring in buildings and structures and their immediate surroundings, to measure the settlement and vertical dislocation of structures or surfaces, or to monitor land-slips of bridges, tunnels or road embankments. Information collected by sensor networks is reported and dispatched progressively from measure points (nodes) providing accurate description of abrupt or gradual changes in the state of a building and the conditions of the surrounding area. However, due to harsh environmental conditions, unattended operation and unique characteristics of WSN's, sensors are subjected to various hazards and risks. It is pointed out in the article that those features that decide on the practicality and applicability of the networks are at the same time instrumental in the vulnerability of the system or that their application involves a risk of purposeful malicious actions aiming at disruption of the whole monitoring system.
10.2478/v10065-008-0016-2
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Article 16EN: Interconnection distributed systems designed with hierarchical organization
177-184

Mirosław Hajder, Andrzej Paszkiewicz


Rzeszów University of Technology, Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

In this paper an origin approach to distributed systems design is shown. It allows to include complete costs of their life circuit. In order to simplify complexity of a design procedure we assume that a created system will have a regional hierarchical structure. A model based on the equivalence relation can describe that problem. In this way, it is possible to describe hierarchical regionalization simply for n-levels.
10.2478/v10065-008-0017-1
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Article 17EN: SecMon: end-to-end quality and security monitoring system
185-201

Tomasz Ciszkowski 1, Charlott Eliasson 2, Markus Fiedler 2, Zbigniew Kotulski 3, Radu Lupu 4, Wojciech Mazurczyk 1


1 Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warszawa, Poland
2 Department of Telecommunication Systems, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden
3 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Świetokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warszawa, Poland
4 University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania

The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is becoming a more available and popular way of communication for the Internet users. This also applies to the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems and merging these two have already proven to be successful (e.g. Skype). Even the existing standards of VoIP provide an assurance of security and Quality of Service (QoS), however, these features are usually optional and supported by a limited number of implementations. As a result, the lack of mandatory and widely applicable QoS and security guarantee makes the contemporary VoIP systems vulnerable to attacks and network disturbances. In this paper we are facing these issues and propose the SecMon system, which simultaneously provides a lightweight security mechanism and improves quality parameters of the call. SecMon is intended specially for VoIP service over P2P networks and its main advantage is that it provides authentication, data integrity services, adaptive QoS and (D)DoS attack detection. Moreover, the SecMon approach represents a lowbandwidth consumption solution that is transparent to the users and possesses a self-organizing capability. The above-mentioned features are accomplished mainly by utilizing two information hiding techniques: digital audio watermarking and network steganography. These techniques are used to create covert channels that serve as transport channels for lightweight QoS measurement results. Furthermore, these metrics are aggregated in a reputation system that enables best route path selection in the P2P network. The reputation system helps also to mitigate (D)DoS attacks, maximize performance and increase transmission efficiency in the network.
10.2478/v10065-008-0018-0
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Article 18EN: Perspectives for using software agents in e-Government applications
203-212

Zbigniew Piotrowski


Faculty of Computer Science and Information Systems, Szczecin University of Technology, Żołnierska 49, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland

Governing a country includes a set of decentralised processes. Moreover, in the unions of countries with integrated economic space, the decentralisation issue gains the attention. The most known examples of federated governments are two of the biggest world economies: the United States of America and the European Union. The decentralisation is even more significant when considering resources for businesses. Specifically the workforce, the land and the infrastructure are commonly managed at the local or the sub-local level. The paper addresses the issues concerning citizens’ mobility (both for personal and professional purposes) and businesses’ pan-European operations. Application of autonomous software agents to aid cross-border businesses operations and citizens movements is addressed. The paper presents the possibility of making citizens’ movements smoother and involving less paperwork. To support these ideas, the foundations and conclusions from Infocitizen initiative are introduced. In the conclusions of the paper, it is suggested that the agent-based technology for opening agents-ready virtual offices by agencies at all levels of government should be used. It would benefit the users if they were allowed to set up software agents to act on their behalf and to search all possible locations in order to find required resources. The mentioned task would be impossible or extremely resource-consuming when done manually.
10.2478/v10065-008-0019-z
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Article 01EN: Designing cryptographically strong S-boxes with the use of cellular automata
27-41

Mirosław Szaban 1, Franciszek Seredyński 2;3


1 Computer Science Department, The University of Podlasie, Sienkiewicza 51, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
2 Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Koszykowa 86, 02-008 Warsaw, Poland
3 Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ordona 21, 01-237 Warsaw, Poland

Block ciphers are widely used in modern cryptography. Substitution boxes (S-boxes) are main elements of these types of ciphers. In this paper we propose a new method to create S-boxes, which is based on application of Cellular Automata (CA). We present the results of testing CA-based S-boxes. These results confirm that CA are able to realize efficiently the Boolean function corresponding to classical S-boxes the proposed CA-based S-boxes offer cryptographic properties comparable or better than classical S-box tables.
10.2478/v10065-008-0022-4
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Article 02EN: Development of heart motion reconstruction framework based on the 4D echocardiographic data
43-50

Michał Chlebiej 1, Krzysztof Nowiński 2, Piotr Ścisło 3, Piotr Bała 1;2


1 Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science. N. Copernicus University, Chopina 12/18, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
2 Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modeling, Warsaw University, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
3 Department of Cardiology, Medical Academy of Warsaw, 02-097 Warszawa, Poland

Abnormalities in heart motion can eventually lead to life threatening cardiac injuries therefore measurements of dynamic heart functions are of great clinical importance. The images of moving spatial heart structures can be efficiently acquired using 4D echocardiography. Unfortunately, because of the low quality such images do not allow for precise measurements. To overcome this problem images need to be further processed and moving structures have to be extracted. In this work we present a method for estimating heart motion from the 3D echocardiographic image sequence. On the basis of this method we have developed an application that enables qualitative and quantitative (i.e. volume changes, stroke volume, ejection fraction and cardiac output parameters) description of the heart wall motion. We provide a set of tools for denoising images using the anisotropic diffusion algorithm extended to the fourth dimension and the time averaging method based on non-linear registration efficiently parameterized using the B-spline based Free Form Deformation. We have also developed a non-linear deformable segmentation algorithm for extraction of the inner ventricular surface. The motion of the left ventricle is reconstructed in our approach by recovering deformations of the matter during the cardiac cycle. All the obtained results using our framework can be efficiently presented in 3D using a set of newly developed heart motion visualization tools.
10.2478/v10065-008-0023-3
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Article 03EN: Implementation of perceptual measure Picture Quality Scale with neural network to evaluate distortions in compressed images
51-60

Maria Skublewska-Paszkowska, Jakub Smołka


Computer Science Institute, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 36b, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

The perceptual measures are often used to assess distortions in image compression. In this article different images were evaluated using the Picture Quality Scale (PQS) measure with neural network. On the basis of original and compressed images the local distortions in the compressed image are calculated. Then five factors {F1, F2, F3, F4, F5}, which represent these distortions are computed, and used to evaluate correlations among them by the covariance matrix. The new values are put to the input of neural network, to calculate the single PQS value. During the process of learning the neural network the best value PQS, which reflects the largest degree of particular distortions in the compressed images is obtained. The images are divided into three groups: faces, landscapes and shapes. The process of learning is controlled by the subjective measure Mean Opinion Score (MOS) with 15 observers.
10.2478/v10065-008-0024-2
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Article 04EN: New steerable pyramid steganography algorithm resistant to the Fisher Linear Discriminant steganalysis
61-73

Piotr Kopniak


Institute of Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 36b, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

This paper describes a new steganography algorithm based on a steerable pyramid transform of a digital image and the steganalysis of the existence of secret messages hidden by this new method. The data embedding process uses the elements of a Lee and Chen steganography algorithm which is adapted to the steerable pyramid transform domain. This article describes the Fisher Linear Disriminant (FLD) analysis and its steganalysis application, too. The main part of the paper is the description of the conducted research and the results of FLD steganalysis of stegoimages produced by the new steganography algorithm.
10.2478/v10065-008-0025-1
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Article 05EN: Test scenarios generation for a class of processes defined in the BPEL language
75-87

Krzysztof Sapiecha, Damian Grela


Department of Computer Science, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland

The main purpose of this research is adaptation of critical paths method [1] to the processes defined in BPEL. The critical path method is the specification based and simulation oriented method. In the paper it is show that under some assumptions the BPEL process may be considered as an embedded system, in which tasks are like services and communication between tasks is like coordination of the services according to the task graph of the system. An example is given where a set of test scenarios is presented.
10.2478/v10065-008-0026-0
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Article 06EN: Hierarchical graph transformations with meta-rules
89-96

Wojciech Palacz


Department of Computer Design and Graphics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

This paper is concerned with hierarchical graph models and graph transformation rules, specifically with the problem of transforming a part of graph which may contain subordinated nodes and edges. Meta-rules are proposed as a formal way of representing transformations which remove or duplicate a node along with its contents. The paper discusses the behaviour of meta-rules when applied to different types of hierarchical graphs, possible failure cases, and concludes by introducing a type of hierarchical graphs in which meta-rules can always be successfully expanded.
10.2478/v10065-008-0027-z
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Article 07EN: A procedure of verification of comprehensive tests for selection of candidates for operators of mobile robot
97-106

Krzysztof Sapiecha 1, Barbara Łukawska 2, Mariusz Bedla 2


1 Department of Computer Science, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków
2 Department of Computer Science, Kielce University of Technology, al. 1000-lecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce Abstract

This paper presents a part of research concerning an application of virtual reality for training operators of mobile robots (mobots). Mobots are often used for exploring areas dangerous or hardly accessible. It is obvious that the operator should not be a common person. In the paper a procedure of verification of comprehensive tests such as IQ test for initial selection of candidates for mobot operators is given and evaluated.
10.2478/v10065-008-0028-y
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Article 08EN: Hierarchical graph transformations with meta-rules
89-96

Wojciech Palacz


Department of Computer Design and Graphics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

This paper is concerned with hierarchical graph models and graph transformation rules, specifically with the problem of transforming a part of graph which may contain subordinated nodes and edges. Meta-rules are proposed as a formal way of representing transformations which remove or duplicate a node along with its contents. The paper discusses the behaviour of meta-rules when applied to different types of hierarchical graphs, possible failure cases, and concludes by introducing a type of hierarchical graphs in which meta-rules can always be successfully expanded.
10.2478/v10065-008-0027-z
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Article 09EN: Computer-based system for training and ranking mobot operators - selection procedure
107-118

Krzysztof Sapiecha, Barbara Łukawska, Mariusz Bedla


Department of Computer Science, Kielce University of Technology, al. 1000-lecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce

Mobots (mobile robots) remote-controlled by human operators are more and more widely used for watching and guarding. A mobot should not be controlled by an occasional person. A human being has to show specific ability to be a good mobot operator. This ability is individual for each person and can be discovered with the help of an experiment which is time-consuming and expensive. Then the problem arises whether there is a simple and cheap test of this ability or not and, which is more technical, how to find out such a test. The paper addresses this problem. The experimental data are compared with those obtained with the help of two quick and cheap tests and some correlations between them are pointed out.
10.2478/v10065-008-0029-x

Volume 07 - 2007

Article 01EN: Improved genetic algorithm for the context-free grammatical inference
15-25

Adrianna Gietka


Institute of Computer Science, University of Gdańsk

Inductive learning of formal languages, often called grammatical inference, is an active area in machine learning and computational learning theory. By learning a language we understand finding the grammar of the language when some positive (words from language) and negative examples (words that are not in language) are given. Learning mechanisms use the natural language learning model: people master a language, used by their environment, by the analysis of positive and negative examples. The problem of inferring context-free languages (CFG) has both theoretical and practical motivations. Practical applications include pattern recognition (for example finding DTD or XML schemas for XML documents) and speech recognition (the ability to infer context-free grammars for natural languages would enable speech recognition to modify its internal grammar on the fly). There were several attempts to find effective learning methods for context-free languages (for example [1,2,3,4,5]). In particular, Y.Sakakibara [3] introduced an interesting method of finding a context-free grammar in the Chomsky normal form with a minimal set of nonterminals. He used the tabular representation similar to the parse table used in the CYK algorithm, simultaneously with genetic algorithms. In this paper we present several adjustments to the algorithm suggested by Sakakibara. The adjustments are concerned mainly with the genetic algorithms used and are as follows:
– we introduce a method of creating the initial population which makes use of characteristic features of context-free grammars,
– new genetic operations are used (mutation with a path added, ‘die process’, ‘war/disease process’),
– different definition of the fitness function,
– an effective compression of the structure of an individual in the population is suggested.
These changes allow to speed up the process of grammar generation and, what is more, they allow to infer richer grammars than considered in [3].
  1. Boden M., Wiles J., On learning context-free and context sensitive languages. IEEE Tran. Neural Networks, 13(2) (2002).
  2. Nakamura K., Matsumoto M., Incremental learning of context free grammars based on bottom-up parsing and search. Pattern Recognition, 38 (2005) 1384.
  3. Sakakibara Y., Learning context-free grammars using tabular representations. Pattern Recognition, 38 (2005) 1372.
  4. Clark A., Learning deterministic context free grammars: The Omphalos Competition. Mach Learn, 66 (2007) 93.
  5. Higuera C., A bibliographical study of grammatical inference. Pattern Recognition, 38 (2005) 1332.
  6. Hopcroft J.E., Ullman J.D., Introduction to automata theory, languages, and computation. Publisher Addison-Wesley, (2001).
  7. Goldberg D.E., Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, Publisher Addison-Wesley (1989)
  8. Shi X., Liang Y., Lee H., Lu C., Wang L., An improved GA and a novel PSO-GA-based hybrid algorithm. Information Processing Letters, 93 (2005) 255.
  9. Starkie B., Coste F., van Zaanen M., The Omphalos context-free grammar learning competition. LNAI, 3264 (2004) 16.
  10. Nederhof M.J., Practical experiments with regular approximation of context-free languages. Association for Computational Linguistics, 26(1) (2000).
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Article 02EN: Algorithms for finding the maximal length quasiplateau interval of the experimental curve
27-36

Ewa Liśkiewicz, Rafał Świetlicki, Jerzy Niewczas


Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Konstantynów 1 H, 20-708 Lublin, Poland

There exist some problems related to the determination of the quasiplateau region in experimental sciences. The paper describes two approaches to this matter which lead to two algorithms for finding the maximal length quasiplateau interval for discrete data. Numerical tests are presented.
  1. Marszałek P., Chemical identification of individual macromolecules by means of atomic force microscopy, Proceedings of XXXVI Congress of Polish Physicists, Toruń, (2001), in Polish.
  2. Bieganowski A., Algorithm for the determination of quasiplateau of voltammetric curve of oxygen reduction, Acta Agrophysica, (2002) 72, in Polish.
  3. Malina W., Smiatacz M., Methods of digital image processing, Akademicka Oficyna Wydawnicza EXIT, Warszawa, (2005), in Polish.
  4. Bieganowski A., Metrological aspects of determination of potential oxygen flux density in soil, Acta Agrophysica, (2005) 118, in Polish.
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Article 03EN: The Extended Analog Computer and Turing machine
37-47

Monika Piekarz


Department of Computer Science, Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

In this paper we compare computational power of two models of analog and classical computers. As a model of analog computer we use the model proposed by Rubel in 1993 called the Extended Analog Computer (EAC) while as a model of classical computer, the Turing machines. Showing that the Extended Analog Computer can robustly generate result of any Turing machine we use the method of simulation proposed by D.S. Graça, M.L. Campagnolo and J. Buescu [1] in 2005.
  1. Graça D.S., Campagnolo M.L., Buescu J., Robust Simulations of Turing Machines with Analytic Maps and Flows, In B. Cooper, B. Loewe, and L. Torenvliet, editors, Proceedings of CiE'05, New Computational Paradigms, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3526. Springer- Verlag, (2005) 169.
  2. Siegelmann H.T., Neural Networks and Analog Computation: beyond the Turing Limit. Birkhäuser, (1999).
  3. Blum L., Shub M.,.Smale S., On a theory of computational and complexity over the real numbers: NP-completeness, recursive functions and universal machines. Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (NS), 21 (1989) 1.
  4. Rubel L.A., The Extended Analog Computer. Advances in Applied Mathematics, 14 (1993) 39.
  5. Koiran P., Moore C., Closed-form analytic maps in one and two dimentions can simulate universal Turing machine. Theoretical Computer Science, 210 (1999) 217.
  6. Branicky M.S., Universal computation and other capabilities of hybrid and continuous dynamical systems. Theoret. Comput. Sci., 138 (1995) 67.
  7. Campagnolo M.L., Moore C., Costa J.F., An analog characterization of the Grzegorczyk hierarchy. J. Complexity, 18 (2002) 997.
  8. Moore C., Finite-dimentional analog computers: Flows, maps, and recurrent neural natworks. In C.Calude, J.Casti, M.Dinneen, eds.: 1st International Conference on Unconventional Models of Computation-UMC'98, Springer, (1998) 59.
  9. Campagnolo M.L., Moore C., Costa J.F., Iteration, inequalities, and differentiability in analog computers. J. Complexity, 16 (2000) 642.
  10. Graça D.S., Campagnolo M.L., Buescu J., Robust Simulations of Turing Machines with Analytic Maps and Flows. In B.Cooper, B.Loewe, and L.Torenvliet, editors, Proceedings of CiE'05, New Computational Paradigms, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3526. Springer- Verlag, (2005) 169.
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  14. Campaniolo M.L., Computational complexity of real valued recursive functions and analog circuits, Universidade Técnica de Lisbona Instituto Superior Técnico, (2001).
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Article 04EN: Searching for efficient cellular automata based keys applied in symmetric key cryptography
49-60

Mirosław Szaban 1, Franciszek Seredyński 1;2


1 Computer Science Department, The University of Podlasie, Sienkiewicza 51, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
2 Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Koszykowa 86, 02-008 Warszawa, Poland

In this paper we consider a problem of generation by cellular automata of high quality pseudorandom sequences useful in cryptography. For this purpose one dimensional nonuniform cellular automata is used. The quality of pseudorandom sequences generated by cellular automata depends on collective behavior of rules assigned to the cellular automata cells. Genetic algorithm is used to find suitable rules from the earlier predefined set of rules. It has been shown that genetic algorithm eliminates bad subsets of rules and finds subsets of rules, which provide high quality pseudorandom sequences. These sequences are suitable for symmetric key cryptography and can be used in different cryptographic modules.
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  7. Gutowitz H., Cryptography with Dynamical Systems. in E. Goles and N. Boccara (Eds.) Cellular Automata and Cooperative Phenomena, Kluwer Academic Press, (1993).
  8. Tomassini M., Perrenoud M., Stream Ciphers with One- and Two-Dimensional Cellular Automata. in M. Schoenauer et al. (Eds.) Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN VI,, LNCS 1917, Springer, (2000) 722.
  9. Tomassini M., Sipper M., On the Generation of High-Quality Random Numbers by Two- Dimensional Cellular Automata. IEEE Trans. on Comp., 49(10) (2000) 1140.
  10. Seredynski F., Bouvry P., Zomaya A., Cellular Automata Computation and Secret Key Cryptography. Parallel Computing, 30 (2004) 753.
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  15. Bouvry P., Klein G., Seredynski F., Weak Key Analysis and Microcontroller Implementation of CA Stream Ciphers. LNAI 3684, Springer, (2005) 910.
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Article 05EN: Global models of dynamic complex systems – modelling using the multilayer neural networks
61-71

Grzegorz Drałus


Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, W. Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

In this paper, global models of dynamic complex systems using the neural networks is discussed. The description of a complex system is given by a description of each system element and structure. As a model the multilayer neural networks with the tapped delay line (TDL), which have the same structure as a complex system, are accepted. Two approaches, a global model and a global model with the quality local model taken into account are proposed.
To learn global models the modified back-propagation algorithms have been developed for the unique structure of the complex model. To model dynamic simple plants, of which the complex system is composed, a series-parallel model of identification using the feedforward network with the tapped delay line (TDL) and the feedback loops, in which the gradient can be calculated by means of the simpler static back-propagation method is proposed. Computer simulations were performed for the dynamic complex system, which consists of two dynamic nonlinear simple plants connected in series, described by means of nonlinear difference equations.
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  3. Józefczyk J., Decision making problems in complex of operations systems, Wrocław University of Technology Press, Wroclaw, (2002), in Polish.
  4. Drałus G., Świątek J., Globally optimal models of complex systems with regard to quality local models. Proceedings of 14th “International Conference on Systems Science”, Wrocław, (2001), 217.
  5. Drałus G., Modeling of Dynamic Nonlinear Complex Systems Using Neural Networks. Proceedings of the 15th “International Conference on Systems Science”, Wrocław, III, (2004), 87.
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Article 06EN: Shape description of MR brain images
73-83

Olena Buczko, Paweł Mikołajczak


Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-030 Lublin, Poland

The paper provides a classification of shape representation and description techniques and a review of some of the most important techniques. We examine shape description techniques on the reconstructed boundaries of brain structures (white matter) in the magnetic-resonance (MR) images using the Fourier descriptors for various frequency components in order to characterize brain structures.
  1. Sonka M., V. Hlavac, R. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision. Chapman and Hall, (1993).
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  3. Zhang D., Lu G., Review of shape representation and description techniques. Pattern Recognition, 37 (2004) 1.
  4. Loncavic S., A Survey of Shape Analysis Techniques. Patter Recognition, 31(8) (1998) 983.
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  7. Pratt W. K., Digital image processing. Third Edition., John Wiley&Sons, New York, (2001).
  8. Kumar M.P., Goyal S., Jawahar C.V., Narayanan P.J., Polygonal Approximation of Closed Curves across Multiple Views. Proceedings of the Third Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics, ICVGIP, (2002).
  9. Kolesnikov A., Efficient algorithms for vectorization and polygonal approximation. PhD Thesis, http://cs.joensuu.fi/~koles/
  10. Bow Sing-Tze, Pattern Recognition and Image Preprocessing. Second Edition Revised and Expanded, M. Dekker Inc., New York, (2002).
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  12. Kindratenko V, Development and Application of Image Analysis Techniques for Identification and Classification of Microscopic Particles. Universiteit Antwerpen, Ph.D. Thesis, Antwerpen, (1997).
  13. Klette R., Rosenfeld A., Digital geometry, Geometric Methods for Digital Picture Analysis. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, (2004).
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Article 07EN: Tabulating families of functions with symmetries
85-90

Andrzej Góźdź 1, Marek Góźdź 2


1 Division of Mathematical Physics, Institute of Physics,
2 Division of Complex Systems and Neuroscience, Institute of Informatics, University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska, Pl. M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

We propose a general algorithm which aims at optimizing the usage of computer resources for tabulating families of functions possessing known symmetries. The approach is based on the group theoretical description of symmetry relations among the functions and their parameters, where orbits play a crucial role.
  1. Lang S., Algebra. Addison-Wesley World Student Series, (1970).
  2. Wawrzyńczyk A., Współczesna teoria funkcji specjalnych. Biblioteka Matematyczna, PWN, Warszawa, 52 (1978), in Polish.
  3. Barut A.O., Rączka R., Theory of Group Representations and Applications. PWN, Warszawa, (1977).
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Article 08EN: Automatic detection of speech disorders with the use of Hidden Markov Model
91-100

Marek Wiśniewski, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak, Elżbieta Smołka, Waldemar Suszyński


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The most frequently used methods of automatic detection and classification of speech disorders are based on experimental determination of specific distinctive features for a given kind of disorder, and working out a suitable algorithm that finds such a disorder in the acoustic signal. For example, for detection of prolonged phonemes, analysis of the duration of articulation is used, and on the contrary, phoneme repetition can be detected with the spectrum correlation methods. Additionally, in the case of prolonged phonemes, classification based on their kind is required (nasal or whispered phonemes, vowels, consonants, etc). Therefore, for every kind of a disorder, a separate algorithm needs to be worked out.
Another, more flexible approach is the application of the Hidden Markov Models (HMM). For the needs of the presented work, the HMM procedures were implemented and some basic tests of speech disorder detection were conducted.
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  5. Kubanek M., Metoda rozpoznawania audio-wideo mowy polskiej w oparciu o ukryte modele markowa. Rozprawa doktorska, Częstochowa, (2005), in Polish.
  6. Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak W., Smołka E., Suszyński W., Akustyczna analiza niepłynności w wypowiedziach osób jakających się. Technologia mowy i języka, Poznań, (2001), in Polish.
  7. Suszyński W., Komputerowa analiza i rozpoznawanie niepłynności mowy. Rozprawa doktorska, Gliwice, (2005), in Polish.
  8. Wahab, A., See Ng, G., Dickiyanto, R., Speaker Verification System Based on Human Auditory and Fuzzy Neural Network System. Neurocomputing Manuscript Draft, Singapore.
  9. Picone, J.W., Signal modeling techniques in speech recognition. Proceedings of the IEEE, 1993, 81(9) (1993) 1215.
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Article 09EN: Sensitivity of DEA models to measurement errors
101-106

Joanicjusz Nazarko, Joanna Urban


Department of Business Information Technology and Logistics, Faculty of Management, Białystok Technical University, O. Tarasiuka 2, 16-001 Kleosin, Poland

One of the weak points of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) models indicated in literature [1,2] is their sensitivity to variable measurement errors. The occurrence of data interference, which is the basis of the productivity analysis, may distort the classification of the units and may cause misjudgement of their effectiveness.
In the article the results of simulation concerning the DEA models sensitivity to occurrence and features of random element in the monitored variables describing the model are presented. The set of thirty DMU (Decision Making Units) described by the means of three input variables, two output variables and one environmental variable was analysed. On the basis of the determined initial value of all the kinds of variables for each DMU, their relative effectiveness and their ranking were determined. Then, the value of each variable was interfered randomly with the noise with normal distribution N(m,σ) and once again relative effectiveness and ranking of DMU were determined. The calculation was done repeatedly, taking into account different levels of variance. The simulation carried out in the described manner was the basis for the assessment of the stability of the classification with the occurrence of measurement errors.
On the basis of the research, the limits of DEA models resistance to the occurrence of errors in the data that are used for productivity analysis were determined.
In the authors’ opinion, the proposals in the article may be recognised as a vital input for the development of the methodology of comparative productivity analysis by the means of DEA models.
  1. Nazarko J., Chrabołowska J., Benchmarking in the effectiveness assessment of national power distribution systems. Taksonomy, 12 (2005).
  2. Ramanathan R., An Introduction to Data Envelopment Analysis. A Tool for Performance Measurement, Sage Publications, New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London, (2003).
  3. Coelli T., Rao D.S.P., Battese G.E., An introduction to efficiency and productivity analysis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, (2002).
  4. Seiford L.M., Zhu J., Sensitivity and Stability of the Classifications of Returns to Scale in Data Envelopment Analysis. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 12(1) (1999).
  5. Cooper W.W., Seiford L.M., Zhu J., Handbook on Data Envelopment Analysis. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Boston, (2004).
  6. Avkiran N.K., Stability and integrity tests in data envelopment analysis. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, available online 10 August 2006.
  7. Zhu J., Quantitative models for performance evaluation and benchmarking. Springer, USA, (2003).
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Article 10EN: Computer-based system for training and selecting mobile robot operators – evolving software tools
107-115

Krzysztof Sapiecha, Mariusz Bedla, Barbara Łukawska, Paweł Paduch


Department of Computer Science, Kielce University of Technology, Al. 1000-lecia Państwa Polskiego, 25 - 314 Kielce, , Poland

A part of research on application of mobots (mobile robots) for watching real environment is the computer-based system for training and selecting candidates for mobot operators. The game played by the candidates is the main part of the system. The core of the game is touring simulator. Firstly, it was assumed that speed of simulation would be a crucial factor for the game. Hence, the initial version of the game was written in C++ for LAN. However, the experiments showed that promptness of the reaction of the game to the actions of the players was not so important. It turned out that wide and easy access to the game and its remote management (e.g. via Internet) are necessary. The current version of the game uses Java technology. Rewriting the game from C++ to Java created typical problems connected with moving an application from LAN to Internet. It was not a trivial problem. The paper evaluates and compares both versions of the game and describes problems with migration from C++ to Java.
  1. Sapiecha K., Łukawska B., Paduch P., Experimental Data Driven Robot for Pattern Classification. Annales UMCS Informatica AI, 3 (2005).
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  3. Urrutia J., Watchman’s problem. http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~jorge/openprob/Watchman/
  4. Sapiecha K., Łukawska B., Paduch P., System wspomagający profilowanie operatorów mobilnego robota. Zeszyty naukowe Politechniki Świętokrzyskiej, 43 (2005), in Polish
  5. Łukawska B., Paduch P., Sapiecha K., An application of virtual reality for training and ranking operators of mobile robot. Conference IBIZA 2006.
  6. Sapiecha K., Łukawska B., Bedla M., Computer-based system for training and ranking mobot operators – selection procedure. Conference IBIZA 2007.
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Article 11EN: Intelligent agents in support of internet security
117-125

Krystian Baniak


Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warszawa, Poland

Internet today is the main medium rapidly delivering information that we need. The information is delivered via a vast number of services that make our life become faster and more conscious. The question is at what price? The solutions devised by humans are prone to errors, which furthermore entail a new type of security challenge – cyber crime. With this paper we try to show that autonomous intelligent agent based systems are able to support or even offload humans in bringing Internet Security to the next level. The related research is focused on analyzing network information flows, building knowledge base and applying reasoning techniques that would allow agents to track suspicious network activities, identify and profile users and finally indicate and prevent cyber crime. The main applications for this solution are forensics and law enforcement support.
  1. Chari S.N., Cheng P., BlueBoX: A Policy-Driven, Host-Based Intrusion Detection System, ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, 6(2) (2003) (May).
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  3. Conner M., Patel C., Little M., Genetic Algorithm/Artificial Life Evolution of Security Vulnerability Agents. Army Research Laboratory Federal Laboratory 3rd Annual Symposium on Advanced Telecommunications & Information Distribution Research Program (ATIRP), February (1999).
  4. Sowa J.F., Knowledge Representation: Logical, Philosophical and Computational Foundations. Brooks Cole Publishing, (2000).
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Article 12EN: Model of rule engines applied in the intelligent systems
127-141

Barbara Gocłowska, Monika Puchacz


Institute of Computer Science, Maria-Curie Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Motto: “A really interactive tutor should act not only in an interactive but also active mode. He should not sleep between two successive answers in reply to the questions but should be able to monitor the work of students and react to their errors continuously” [1].
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  4. Kim J.H., Freedman R., Glass M., Evens M.W., Annotation of Tutorial Dialogue Goals for Natural Language Generation. Discourse Processes, 42(1) (2006) 37.
  5. Gorana S., Vladan D., Building an intelligent system using modern Internet technologies. Expert Systems with Applications, (2003) 1.
  6. Feng-Jen Yang, Turn planning for a dialogue-based Intelligent Tutoring System. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, (2001).
  7. Virvou M., Alepis E., Mobile educational features in authoring tools for personalised tutoring. Computers & Education, 44 (2005) 53, Shaaron Ainsworth, Piers Fleming, „Evaluating authoring tools for teachers as instructional designers”, Computers in Human Behavior, 22 (2006) 131.
  8. Kukla E., Zarys metodyki konstruowania strategii nauczania w multimedialnych Inteligentnych Systemach Edukacyjnych (MITS), in Polish.
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  10. Evens M.W., Chang R.Ch., Lee Y.H., Shim L.S., Woo Ch.W., Zbang Y., Michael J.A., Rovick A.A., CIRCSIM-Tutor: An Intelligent Tutoring System Using Natural Language Dialogue. (2006).
  11. Freedman R., Brandle S., Glass M., Kim J.H, Zhou Y., Evens M.W., System demonstration Content Planning as the basis for an Intelligent Tutoring System. Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Natural Language Generation (INLG-9), Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, (1998) 280.
  12. Rutkowski L., Metody i techniki sztucznej inteligencji. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa, (2006).
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  14. Ford M., Billington D., Strateges in Human Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Computational Intelligence, 16(3) (2000).
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  17. Gocłowska B., Łojewski Z., Java Server Faces and Java Bean Technologies in Expert Application. Annales Informatica, IV (2007).
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Article 13EN: PySBQL – Python-like query language constructed using stack base approach
143-151

Marta Rogińska, Piotr Wiśniewski


Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland

PySBQL (Python-like Stack Based Query Language) is a full scale programming and query language. Its syntax is based upon the Python’s syntax, which makes PySBQL highly readable and easy to use. Contrary to the classical approach in query languages, semantics is defined using a common structure for programming languages – the Environment Stack (ENVS). As a query language it is similar to SBQL proposed by Subieta [1,2]. The PySBQL language is implemented in Monad – Object Oriented Database Management System.
  1. Subieta K., Beeri C., Matthes F., Schmidt J.W., A Stack-Based Approach to Query Languages, (1993).
  2. Subieta K., Theory and Construction of Object-Oriented Query Languages. PJIIT – Publishing House, ISBN 83-89244-28-4, (2004), in Polish.
  3. www.python.org
  4. Kozankiewicz H., Leszczylowski J., Subieta K., Updateable XML Views. Proccedings of ADBIS’03, Springer LNCS 2798, (2003) 385.
  5. Kozankiewicz H., Updateable Object Views. PhD Thesis, 2005, http://www.ipipan.waw.pl/ ~subieta/ -> Finished PhD-s -> Hanna Kozankiewicz.
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Article 14EN: Data mining techniques for portal participants profiling
153-161

Danuta Zakrzewska, Justyna Kapka


Institute of Computer Science, Technical University of Łódź, Wólczańska 215, 93-005 Łódź, Poland

Recently, a large number of virtual learning communities appeared in the Web, however, keeping them up occurs to be problematic and information accessibility is one of the factors that may influence their sustainability. This feature may be achieved by dividing users into groups according to their information needs and by adapting properly the portal contents. In the paper application for data mining algorithms, for finding patterns together with different groups of preferences is considered. We base our research on the data contained in log files. Combination of sequential pattern mining and clustering techniques is proposed. We describe the data preparation process. The experiments conducted for real data log files are discussed.
  1. Teo H.H., Chan H.C., Wei K.K., Zhang Z., Evaluating information and community adaptivity features for sustaining virtual learning communities. International Journal of Human- Computer Studies, 59 (2003) 671.
  2. Morzy T., Wojciechowski M., Zakrzewicz M., Web users clustering, Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey (2000) 374.
  3. Zaïane O.R., Xin M., Han J., Discovering web access patterns and trends by applying OLAP and data mining technology on web logs. Proceedings of Advances in Digital Libraries Conference (ADL’98), Santa Barbara, CA (1998) 19.
  4. Pei J., Han J., Mortazavi-asl B., Zhu H., Mining access patterns efficiently from web logs. Proceedings of the 4th Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD’00), Kyoto, Japan, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1805, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, (2000) 396.
  5. Srikant R., Yang Y., Mining web logs to improve website organization. World Wide Web, (2001) 430.
  6. Mobasher B., Cooley R., Srivastava J., Automatic personalization based on web usage mining. Communications of the ACM, 43 (2000) 142.
  7. Liu R.-L., Lin W.-J., Mining for interactive identification of users’ information needs. Information Systems, 28 (2003) 815.
  8. van der Aalst W.M.P., van Dongen B.F., Herbst J., Maruster L., Schimm G., Weijters A.J.M.M., Workflow mining: a survey of issues and approaches. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 47 (2003) 237.
  9. Erinaki M., Vazigriannis M., Web mining for web personalization. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 3 (2003) 1.
  10. Pierrakos D., Pakouras G., Papatheodorou Ch., Spyropoulos C.D., Web usage mining as a tool for personalization: a survey. User Modelling and User Adapted Interaction, 13 (2003) 311.
  11. Facca F.M., Lanzi P,L., Mining interesting knowledge from weblogs: a survey. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 53 (2005) 225.
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Article 15EN: Rule languages used in Tutorial chatbots programming
163-170

Barbara Gocłowska, Michał Kufel, Monika Puchacz, Radosław Świech


Institute of Computer Science, Maria-Curie Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The function performed by the bots in Intelligent Tutorial Systems has been presented in the paper. Therefore we were able to justify the character of functions of the chatbot being designed by our team. Its purpose is to improve the functionality of an intelligent tutorial system. By means of tools used for the construction of the chatbot we were able to apply the strategies and techniques already used by commonly known authors as well as individual methods adapted to the ideas created in our group.
  1. Rutkowski L., Metody i techniki sztucznej inteligencji. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa, (2006) 435, in Polish.
  2. Byung-In Cho, Dynamic planning models to support curriculum planning and Multiple Tutoring Protocols In Intelligent Tutoring System. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, July (2000) 112.
  3. Zhou Yujian, Evens Martha W., A Practical Student Model in an Intelligent Tutoring System. Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligenc., Chicago, IL, (1999) 13.
  4. Graesser C., Lu S., Jackson G.T., Mitchell H., Ventura M., Olney A., Louwerse M.M., AutoTutor: A Tutor with Dialogue in Natural Language. Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36 (2004) 180.
  5. Rickel Jeff, Lesh Neal, Rich Charles, Sidner Candace L, Gertner Abigail, Collaborative Discourse Theory as a Foundation for Tutorial Dialogue. In Proc. Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Springer-Verlag, June (2002).
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  7. Gocłowska B., Łojewski Z., Intelligent Tutorial System LISE. Annales UMCS, Informatica AI, 5 (2006) 441.
  8. Russell, Rory Scott, Language use. Personality and True Conversational Interfaces http://www.geocities.com/rorysr2002/
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Article 16EN: The self-learning active problem in dynamic systems
171-180

Tomasz Hordjewicz, Edward Kozłowski


Department of Quantitative Methods, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin

The work concerns the theory of adaptive control. By using available tools of contemporary mathematics as well as computer science it is possible in the credible way to introduce the laws of control of a dynamic system as well as to simulate such process in the real world. Therefore we can learn the working of system by simulation, i.e. we can get precise knowledge about the parameters of the system, which were unknown at the beginning of the control process.
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Volume 06 - 2007

Article 01EN: Fault tolerant control for RP* architecture of Scalable Distributed Data Structures
5-13

Grzegorz Łukawski, Krzysztof Sapiecha


Department of Computer Science, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland

Scalable Distributed Data Structures consist of two components dynamically spread across a multicomputer: records belonging to a file and a mechanism controlling record placement in the file space. Record (data) faults may lead to invalid computations at most, while record placement faults may bring whole file to crash. In this paper, extended SDDS RP* (Range Partitioning) architecture tolerant to the latter faults is presented and evaluated.
  1. Dongarra J., Sterling T., Simon H., Strohmaier E., High-Performance Computing: Clusters, Constellations, MPPs, and Future Directions. IEEE Computing in Science and Engineering,
  2. Litwin W., Neimat M-A., Schneider D., RP*: A Family of Order-Preserving Scalable Distributed Data Structures. 20th Intl. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), (1994).
  3. Litwin W., Neimat M-A., Schneider D., LH*: A Scalable Distributed Data Structure. ACM Transactions on Database Systems ACM-TODS, (1996).
  4. Litwin, W., Neimat, M-A., High-Availability LH* Schemes with Mirroring. Intl. Conf. on Coope. Inf. Syst. COOPIS-96, Brussels, (1996).
  5. Sapiecha K., Łukawski G., Fault-tolerant Control for Scalable Distributed Data Structures. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Informatica, (2005).
  6. Sapiecha K., Łukawski G., Fault-tolerant Protocols for Scalable Distributed Data Structures. Springer-Verlag LNCS, 3911 (2006).
  7. Łukawski G., Sapiecha K., Software Functional Fault Injector for SDDS. GI-Edition Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), ARCS’06 Workshop Proceedings, (2006).
  8. Łukawski G., Sapiecha K., Cause-effect operational fault analysis for Scalable Distributed Data Structures. Submitted for publication in Technical Journal (Czasopismo Techniczne) PK, Kraków.
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Article 02EN: A parallel implementation in the investigations of the controllability of an infinite dimensional system in the three dimensional rectangular prism
15-22

Jerzy Stefan Respondek


Department of Theory of Information, Institute of Computer Science, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

The article is devoted to the parallel implementation of an algorithm for finding triples generating equal sums of the squares. Based on a known single thread algorithm, the parallel algorithm is built. The obtained improvement of the time performance is verified on a multi-core server.
  1. Schaefer R., Basics of global genetic optimization. UJ Kraków, (2002).
  2. Horstmann C.S., Cornell G., Core Java 2. Helion, Gliwice, I (2003).
  3. Horstmann C.S., Cornell G., Core Java 2. Helion, Gliwice, II (2005).
  4. Troelsen A., C# language and the .NET platform. PWN, Warszawa, (2006).
  5. Rutkowski L., Methods and techniques of artificial intelligence. PWN Warszawa, (2006).
  6. Cytowski J., Genetic algorithms. Basis and application. PLJ Warszawa, (1996).
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Article 03EN: Distributed genetic algorithm implementation by means of Remote Methods Invocation technique – Java RMI
23-36

Łukasz Maciura


The Bronisław Markiewicz State School of Higher Vocational Education in Jarosław, Czarnieckiego 16, 37-500 Jarosław, Poland

The aim of this work is distributed genetic algorithm implementation (so called island algorithm) to accelerate the optimum searching process in space of solutions. The distributed genetic algorithm has also smaller chances to fall in local optimum. This conception depends on mutual cooperation of the clients who perform separate work of genetic algorithms on local machines.
As a tool for implementation of distributed genetic algorithm, created to produce net application Java technology was chosen. In Java technology, there is a technique of remote methods invocation – Java RMI. By means of invoking remote methods, objects between the clients and the server RMI can be sent.
To test the work of genetic algorithm, searching for maximum function of two variables which possess a lot of local maxima and can be written by means of mathematical formula was chosen. The work of the whole system depends on existence of the server on which there are registered remote services (methods) RMI and clients, each one on a separate machine. Each of the clients has two threads, one of them accomplishes the work of local genetic algorithm whilst the other accomplishes the communication with the server. It sends to the server a new best individual which was found by the local genetic algorithm and takes the server form with the individuals, left there by other clients.
To sum up there was created an engine of distributed genetic algorithm which searches the maximum of function and after a not large modification can be used to solve every optimization problem.
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Article 04EN: Recurrent neural networks in the context of SQL attacks
37-48

Jarosław Skaruz 1, Franciszek Seredyński 2


1 Institute of Computer Science, University of Podlasie, Sienkiewicza 51, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
2 Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Koszykowa 86, 02-008 Warszawa, Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ordona 21, 01-237 Warszawa, Poland

In the paper we present a new approach based on application of neural networks to detect SQL attacks. SQL attacks are those attacks that take advantage of using SQL statements to be performed. The problem of detection of this class of attacks is transformed to time series prediction problem. SQL queries are used as a source of events in a protected environment. To differentiate between normal SQL queries and those sent by an attacker, we divide SQL statements into tokens and pass them to our detection system, which predicts the next token, taking into account previously seen tokens. In the learning phase tokens are passed to recurrent neural network (RNN) trained by backpropagation through time (BPTT) algorithm. Teaching data are shifted by one token forward in time with relation to input. The purpose of the testing phase is to predict the next token in the sequence. All experiments were conducted on Jordan and Elman networks using data gathered from PHP Nuke portal. The experimental results show that the Jordan network outperforms the Elman network predicting correctly queries of the length up to ten.
  1. Valeur F., Mutz D., Vigna G., A Learning-Based Approach to the Detection of SQL Attacks, Proceedings of the Conference on Detection of Intrusions and Malware and Vulnerability Assessment, Austria, (2005).
  2. Kruegel C., Vigna G., Anomaly Detection of Web-based Attacks. Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security (CCS ‘03), (2003) 251.
  3. Almgren M., Debar H., Dacier M., A lightweight tool for detecting web server attacks. In Proceedings of the ISOC Symposium on Network and Distributed Systems Security, (2000).
  4. Nunn I., The Application of Antigenic Search Techniques to Time Series Forecasting. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, USA, (2005).
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  6. Pollock D., A Handbook of Time-Series Analysis. Signal Processing and Dynamics, Academic Press, London, (1999)
  7. Lin T., Horne B.G., Tino P., Giles C.L., Learning long-term dependencies in NARX recurrent neural networks. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, (1996) 1329.
  8. Drake P.R., Miller K.A., Improved Self-Feedback Gain in the Context Layer of a Modified Elman Neural Network. Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems, (2002) 307.
  9. http://phpnuke.org/
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Article 05EN: Neural activity and new methods of computational analysis in the model of mammalian brain cortex
49-55

Grzegorz M. Wójcik, Marek Falski, Jan Ruthe, Michał Żukowski, Dorota Stanisławek, Wiesław A. Kamiński


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Analysis of the real brain’s neural activity can be performed in many different ways like for example electroencephalography. Sometimes the value of neural membrane potential is collected even from particular cells, using electrodes in neurophysiological experiments. However, this invasive method can be performed only on animals and in most cases leads to death of the experiment’s subject. Computer modelling and simulation are often very important for the design of real experiments and in this paper we present the set of three new methods of neurodynamical analysis, two of them analogical to the probing used in neurophysiology and electroencephalography. We show that in some cases our approach can be even more effective than the techniques used in bio-medical laboratories.
  1. Caton R., The electric currents of the brain. British Medical Journal, 2(1) 278, 1875.
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  3. Brazier M.A.B., A history of the electrical activity of the brain; the first half-century. New York: Macmillan, (1961).
  4. Hodgkin A.L., Huxley A.F., A Quantitative Description of Membrane Current and its Application to Conduction and Excitation in nerve. J. Physiol., 117 (1952) 500.
  5. Bower J.M., Beeman D., The Book of GENESIS – Exploring Realistic Neural Models with the GEneral NEural SImulation System. Telos, New York, (1995)
  6. http://www.neuron.yale.edu/neuron/
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Article 06EN: Supporting of legal decisions
57-63

Tomasz Żurek


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. Marii Curie Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Producers of legal software most frequently offer legal texts explorers with no possibilities of interpreting legal acts. Therefore, one of the aims of this work is to create and research a tool which could help actively to avoid the user’s necessity to interpret the legal text. Another aim of the work is selection of a suitable legal base, and analysis of possibilities of realization of expert system supporting legal decisions.
  1. Popple J., A Pragmatic Legal Expert System. Dartmouth, Aldershot, (1996).
  2. Greinke A., Legal Expert System: A humanistic critique of Mechanical Legal Interface. http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v1n4/greinke14.txt
  3. Pal Kamalendu, Approach to legal reasoning based on a hybrid decision-support system. Expert Systems with Applications, 17 (1999) 1.
  4. O’Callaghan T., Popple J., McCreath E., Shyster Mycin: Hybrid Legal Expert System. International Conference of Artificial Intelligence and Law, (2003) http://cs.anu.edu.au/software/shyster/tom/icail-03.pdf
  5. O’Callaghan T., Popple J., McCreath E., Building and Testing the SHYSTER-MYCIN Hybrid Legal Expert System. Technical Report, (2003) http://cs.anu.edu.au/software/shyster/tom/tr-cs-03-01.pdf
  6. O’Callaghan T., A Hybrid Legal Expert System. A subthesis in partial fulfilment of the degree of bechelor of science (honours), (2003) http://cs.anu.edu.au/software/shyster/tom/thesis.pdf
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  8. Niederliński A., Regułowo modelowe systemy ekspertowe. Wydawnictwo PJK Gliwice, (2006), in Polish.
  9. Niederliński A., Automatyzacja wnioskowania prawniczego. XV Krajowa Konferencja Automatyki, Warszawa, (2005), in Polish.
  10. Niederliński A., Prawo, finanse i hybrydowe systemy ekspertowe. Inżynieria wiedzy i Systemy Ekspertowe. Tom 2, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej, Wrocław, (2003), in Polish.
  11. Pietraś Z.J., Sztuczna inteligencja w politologii: heurystyczne modelowanie procesów adaptacji politycznej. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie Skłodowskiej. Lublin, (1990), in Polish.
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  14. Sangster A., The Bank’s of Scotland COMPASS – The Future of Bank Lending? Expert Systems with Applications, Elsevier, 9(4) (1995) 457.
  15. Zurek T., Komputerowe wspomaganie podejmowania decyzji kredytowych. WPKJS Gliwice, Poland, (2005), in Polish.
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Article 07EN: Comparison and evaluation of registration methods of intra-oral radiographs images
65-72

Marcin Denkowski, Paweł Mikołajczak


Laboratory of Information Technology, Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This paper presents comparisons and evaluations of registration methods of intra-oral radiograph images. Several automatic and manual algorithms were examined. Three similarity functions for automatic registration are described and evaluated. In addition, the results of two manual registration tests are compared for both 3 and 10 control points marked interactively by the operator.
  1. Gaszyńska E., Kozakiewicz M., Hanslik M., Denkowski M., Arkuszewski P., Transformation of Mandibular Onlay Bone Grafts Used for Preprosthetic Improvement of the Osseous Base. Raspall G., Laguna J. G. Ed. Medimond International Proceedings ISBN 88-7587-282-1, Bolonia, (2006) 105.
  2. Gonzalez R.C, Woods R.E., Digital image processing. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., (1992).
  3. Goshtasby A.A., Moigne J.L., Image registration. Guest editor’s introduction, Pattern Recognition, 32 (1999) 1.
  4. Lehmann TM, Grondahl H-G, Benn DK., Computer-based registration for digital subtraction in dental radiology. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., (2000) 29, 323.
  5. Banerjee D., Mukherjee D.P., Dutta Majumdar D., Point landmarks for the registration of CT and MR images. Pattern Recognition Lett. 16 (1995) 1033.
  6. Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A., Vetterling W.T., Numerical Recipes in C. Cambridge University Press, (2002) 412.
  7. Brown L. G., A survey of image registration. ACM Comput. Survey, 24 (1992).
  8. Shannon C.E., A mathematical theory of communication. Bell Systems Technical Journal, 27 (1948) 2790423, 623.
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Article 08EN: Hierarchical cluster analysis methods applied to image segmentation by watershed merging
73-84

Jakub Smołka


Institute of Computer Science, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

A drawback of watershed transformation is over-segmentation. It consists in creating more classes than there are objects present in the image. Over-segmentation partially results from the fact that the transformation extracts almost all edges present in the image, even those which are very weak. To alleviate this problem images are preprocessed: blurring (or selectively blurring) filter is applied before the edge detection performed by a gradient filter. Additionally, the resulting image may be thresholded in order to eliminate small gradient values.
This paper presents an alternative solution to this problem. The solution uses the hierarchical cluster analysis methods for joining similar classes of the over-segmented image into a given number of clusters. First, it calculates attribute values for each class. Second optionally, the values are standardized. Third, cluster analysis is performed. The resulting similarity hierarchy allows for simple selection of the number of clusters in the final segmentation.
Several clustering methods, including the Complete Linkage and Ward's method along with many similarity/dissimilarity measures have been tested. The selected results are presented.
  1. Ibanez L., Schroeder W., Ng L., Cates J., The ITK Software Guide. Kitware Inc., (2003).
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  3. Gonzalez R. C., Woods R. E., Digital Image Processing. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, (1993).
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  5. Seul M., O’Gorman L., Sammon M. J., Practical Algorithms for Image Analysis: Description, Examples, and Code. Cambridge University Press, (2000).
  6. Perona P., Malik J., Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence, 12 (1990) 629.
  7. Beucher S., The watershed transformation applied to image segmentation. Scanning Microscopy International, 6 (1992) 299.
  8. Romesburg Ch., Cluster Analysis for Researchers. Lulu Press, (2004).
  9. Everitt B. S., Landau S., Leese M., Cluster Analysis. Arnold a member of the Hodder Headline Group, (2001).
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Article 09EN: Markowitz scheme for the sparse WZ factorization
85-94

Beata Bylina, Jarosław Bylina


Department of Computer Science, Institute of Mathematics, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

In this paper the authors present problems which can appear when a sparse square matrix (without any special structure) is factorized to a product of matrices W and Z. The fill-in problem is considered, and the manners of its solving – by permuting both rows and columns with a modified Markowitz scheme among others. The results of numerical experiments for sparse matrices of various sizes are presented and they show the Markowitz scheme applicability.
  1. Evans D. J., Hatzopoulos M., The parallel solution of linear system. Int. J. Comp. Math., 7 (1979) 227.
  2. Chandra Sekhara Rao S., Existence and uniqueness of WZ factorization. Parallel Computing, 23 (1997) 1129.
  3. Yalamov P., Evans D. J., The WZ matrix factorization method. Parallel Computing, 21 (1995) 1111.
  4. Bylina B., Bylina J., The Vectorized and Parallelized Solving of Markovian Models for Optical Networks. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3037 (2004) 578.
  5. Tinney W .F., Walker J. W., Direct solution of sparse network equations by optimally ordered triangular factorization. Proc. IEEE, 55 (1967) 1801.
  6. Reid J., Duff I. S., Erisman A. M., On George’s nested dissection method. SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 13 (1976) 686.
  7. Markowitz H. M., The elimination form of the inverse and its application to linear programming. Management Science, 3 (1957), 255.
  8. Duff I. S., Erisman A. M., Reid J., Direct Methods for Sparse Matrices. Oxford University Press, New York, (1986).
  9. Amestoy P., Li X. S., Ng E. G., Diagonal Markowitz Scheme with Local Symmetrization (Report LBNL-53854, Dec. 2003). SIAM J. Matrix Anal. and Appl., 29 (2007) 228.
  10. Amestoy P., Pralet S., Unsymmetric Ordering Using a Constrained Markowitz Scheme, submitted to SIAM J. Matrix Anal. and Appl. (Report LBNL-56861, Jan. 2005).
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Article 10EN: Fast algorithms for polynomial evaluation and differentiation at special knots
95-102

Joanna Kapusta, Ryszard Smarzewski


Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Konstantynów 1H, 20-708 Lublin, Poland

We present fast evaluating and differentiating algorithms for the Hermite interpolating polynomials with the knots of multiplicity 2, which are generated dynamically in a field K = (K,+,⋅) by the recurrent formula of the form
Xi = αxi-1+β (i=1,2,..,n-1; x0=γ).
As in the case of Lagrange-Newton interpolating algorithms, the running time of these algorithms is C(n) + O(n) base operations from the field K, where C(n) = O(nlog n) denotes the time needed to compute the wrapped convolution in Kn.
  1. Ralston A., A first Course in Numerical Analysis. McGraw-Hill, New York, (1965).
  2. de Boor C., A Practical Guide to Splines. Springer-Verlag, New York, (2001).
  3. Smarzewski R., Kapusta J., Fast Lagrange-Newton transformations. Journal of Complexity, doi:10.1016/j.jco.2006.12.004, in press.
  4. Aho A.V., Hopcroft J.E., Ullman J.D., The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms. Addison-Wesley, London, (1974).
  5. Kapusta J., Smarzewski R., Fast interpolating algorithms in cryptography. Annales UMCS Informatica AI, 5 (2006) 37.
  6. Smarzewski R., Kapusta J., Algorithms for multi-secret hierarchical sharing schemes of Shamir type. Annales UMCS Informatica AI, 3 (2005) 65.
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Article 11EN: Wavelet analysis of speech signal
103-115

Ireneusz Codello, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This paper concerns the issue of wavelet analysis of signals by continuous and discrete wavelet transforms (CWT – Continous Wavelet Transform, DWT – Discrete Wavelet Transform). The main goal of our work was to develop a program which, through the CWT and the DWT analyses, would obtain graph of time-scale changes and would transform it into the spectrum, that is a graph of frequency changes. In this program we also obtain spectra of Fourier Transform and Linear Prediction. Owing to this, we can compare the Wavelet Transform results to those from the Fourier Transform and Linear Prediction.
  1. Jansen A., la Cour-Harbo A., Ripples in Mathematisc – The Discrete Wavelet Transform. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, (2001).
  2. Białasiewicz J.T., Falki i Aproksymacje. Wydawnictwo Naukowo-Techniczne, Warszawa, (2000), in Polish.
  3. Polikar R., The wavelet tutorial. http://users.rowan.edu/~polikar/WAVELETS/WTpart1.html
  4. Barański R., Falki, falki, falki. http://kmiw.imir.agh.edu.pl/falki/
  5. Nayak J., Bhat P.S., Acharya R., Aithal U.V., Classification and analysis of speech abnormalities.
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Article 12EN: Cepstral analysis of speech signals in the process of automatic pathological voice assessment
117-126

Anna Samborska-Owczarek


Faculty of Computer Science, Szczecin University of Technology, Żołnierska 49, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland

The paper describes the problem of cepstral speech analysis in the process of automated voice disorder probability estimation. The author proposes to derive two of the most diagnostically significant voice features: quality of harmonic structure and degree of subharmonic from cepstrum of speech signal. Traditionally, these attributes are estimated auricularly or by spectrum (or spectrogram) observation, hence this analysis often lacks accuracy and objectivity. The introduced parameters were calculated for the recordings from Disordered Voice Database (Kay, model 4337 version 2.7.0) which consists of 710 voice samples (657 pathological, 53 healthy) recorded in the laboratory environment and described with diagnosis and a number of additional attributes (such as age, sex, nationality).
The proposed cepstral voice features were compared to similar voice parameters derived from Multidimensional Voice Program (Kay, model 5105 version 2.7.0) in respect to their diagnostic significance and presented graphically. The results show that cepstral features are more correlated with decision and better discriminate clusters of healthy and disordered voices. Additionally, both parameters are obtained by single cepstral transform and do not require to perform F0 tracking earlier as it is derived simultaneously.
  1. Mathieson L., Greene and Mathieson’s the Voice and its Disorders, 6th Ed. Whurr Publishers Ltd., London, (2006).
  2. Owens F.J., Signal processing of speech. The Maximillian Press LTD, Londyn, (1993).
  3. Zieliński T., Od teorii do cyfrowego przetwarzania sygnałów, Wydział EAIiE AGH, Kraków, (2002), in Polish.
  4. Verdolini K., Rosen C.A., Branski R.C., Classification manual for voice disorders – I. Lawrance Erlbaum Associates, London, (2006).
  5. Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) Model 5105 – software instruction manual, KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ, (2006).
  6. Disordered Voice Database Model 4337 – operations manual, KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ, (2002).
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Article 13EN: Application of the digital image correlation algorithms for evaluation of two-phase flow in the heat exchanger
127-136

Mariusz Śleziak


Technology Department, Natural-Technical Faculty, University of Opole, Dmowskiego 7, 45-365 Opole, Poland

The aim of this research work is application of digital image analysis for working out the method, which will allow to evaluate irregularity rate of two-phase flow across various geometry of tube bundle in aspect of the shell – and – tube heat exchanger optimization. Visualization of liquid flow in the shell – side enables analysis of flow parameters by the used image processing and analysis methods.
Images of two-phase flow were obtained with the use of digital high speed CCD camera, then were analysed, to obtain information about hydrodynamics of flow with respect to tube bundle arrangement. Optical techniques of measurement, based on correlation algorithms, allow accurate determination of stabilization of velocity fields for the whole field of flow in shell-side, based on the area size criterion of “still zones” behind rows of tubes. The aim of work was also estimation of the influence of geometrical parameters (tube arrangements, the tube spacings, number of rows) on the homogeneity of two-phase flow in the heat exchangers along with complex analysis of flow area, especially the “still zones”.
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  2. Brathwaite A., A novel laboratory apparatus for simulating isotropic turbulence at low Reynolds Number. Phd. Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, (2003).
  3. Quenot G.M., Pakleza J., Kowalewski T.A., Particle image velocimerty with optical flow. Experiments in Fluids, Springer-Verlag, 25 (1998) 177.
  4. Lam K., Los C., A visualization study of cross-flow around four cylinders in a square configuration. Journal of fluids and structures, (1992) 83.
  5. Hobler T., Heat transfer and heat exchangers. WNT, Warszawa, (1986).
  6. Suchecki W., A visualization of flows with the used digital image anemometry. Engineering and Chemical Apparatus, Gdańsk, (2000) 232.
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Article 14EN: An MPI-based parallel code for high performance 3-D particle-in-cell ion source plasma simulation
137-148

Marcin Turek 1, Marcin Brzuszek 2, Juliusz Sielanko 12


1 Institute of Physics, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The paper presents parallel version of TRQR code, intended for ion source plasma simulation. The code is written using particle decomposition approach, and enables plasma potential, charge density, ion extraction current, etc. calculations. Parallelisation was done using widely accepted MPI platform. Additionally, the code has been rewritten and optimised in order to achieve better efficiency. The strong- and soft-scaling properties of the parallel code are shown (tests were done using SMP machine), as well as some results of physical meaning. The code in its present form allows calculation involving 5⋅108 pseudo-ions at reasonable wall-clock time (circa 15 hours), which opens the gate for realistic physical conditions plasma calculations.
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Article 15EN: Implementation of the SVM algorithm for high energy physics data analysis
149-160

Marcin Wolter 1, Andrzej Zemła 1;2


1 Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków, Poland
2 Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

Elementary particle physics experiments, searching for very rare processes require the efficient analysis and selection algorithms able to separate signal from the overwhelming background. In the last ten years a number of powerful kernel-based learning machines, like Support Vector Machines (SVM), have been developed. SVM approach to signal and background separation is based on building a separating hyperplane defined by the support vectors. The margin between them and the hyperplane is maximized. The extensions to a non-linear separation are performed by mapping the input vectors into a high dimensional space, in which data can be linearly separated. The use of kernel functions allows us to perform computations in a high dimension feature space without explicitly knowing a mapping function.
We have implemented an SVM algorithm and integrated it with the CERN ROOT package, which is currently a standard analysis tool used by elementary particle physicists. We also used the implemented SVM package to identify hadronic decays of τ leptons in the ATLAS experiment at LHC accelerator. The performance of the method is compared to the likelihood estimator, which does not take into account correlations between variables. The use of SVM significantly reduces the number of background events.
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  18. Richter-Was E., Przysiezniak H., and Tarrade, F. Exploring hadronic τ identification with dc1 data samples: a track based approach. Atlas Note ATL-PHYS-2004-030.
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Article 16EN: Application elasticity as the factor determining the choice of technology. Testing of the factors determining the choice of application technology
161-170

Barbara Gocłowska, Zdzisław Łojewski


Institute of Computer Science, Maria-Curie Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The learning creation interface constituting one of the most important elements incorporated in the Adaptive System LISE has been discussed in the present paper. The technologies associated with the use of JSF and EJB, Swing as well as GUI Builder have been selected for the testing.
JDBO and JDO packages have been used in order to compare various technologies of connection with the database. The tests have been carried out on the MySQL server and Sun Java System Application was used as the application server. The obtained results enable the choice of optimal solution.
  1. Gocłowska B., Łojewski Z., Intelligent Tutorial System LISE. Annales UMCS, Informatica AI, 5 (2006) 441
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  3. MySQL 5.0, Reference Manual, Copyright MYSQL AB, http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/index.html 16.02.2007,
  4. Jendrock E., Ball J., Carson D., Evans I., Fordin S., Haase K., The Java™ EE 5 Tutorial For Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9, (2006).
  5. Horstmann C., Cornell G., Core Java 2, Advanced Features. Polish edition Helion, Gliwice, (2005) 1143.
  6. Goei E., Stearns B., Writing Custom Components for Java Studio Creator Part 2: Design- Time Considerations. 16.02.2007, http://developers.sun.com/prodtech/javatools/jscreator/reference/techart/2/writing_component s_rules.html
  7. Understanding Oracle TopLink, 16.02.2007, http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/ias/toplink/doc/10131/main/_html/undtl.htm
  8. Tyagi S., McCammon K., VorburgerM., Bobzin H., Java Data Objects. Polish edition Helion, Gliwice, (2004) 456.
  9. Monnox A., Rapid J2EE Development: an Adaptative Foundation for Enterprise Application. Polish edition, Helion, Gliwice, (2006) 478.
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Article 17EN: Attack and revison of an electronic auction protocol using OFMC
171-183

Bogdan Księżopolski 1, Pascal Lafourcade 2


1 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Information Security, ETH Zürich, IFW C46.1 Haldeneggsteig 4 CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland

In the article we show an attack on the cryptographic protocol of electronic auction with extended requirements [1]. The found attack consists of authentication breach and secret retrieval. It is a kind of “man in the middle attack”. The intruder impersonates an agent and learns some secret information. We have discovered this flaw using OFMC an automatic tool of cryptographic protocol verification. After a description of this attack, we propose a new version of the e-auction protocol. We also check with OFMC the secrecy for the new protocol and give an informal proof of the other properties that this new e-auction protocol has to guarantee.
  1. Księżopolski B., Kotulski Z., Cryptographic protocol for electronic auctions with extended requirements. Annales UMCS Informatica, 2 (2004) 391.
  2. David E., Azoulay-Schwartz R., Kraus S., Tan english auction protocol for multi-attribute items. In Workshop on Agent Mediated Electronic Commerce on Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce IV, Designing Mechanisms and Systems, Springer-Verlag, 2531 (2002) 52.
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  9. Księżopolski B., Kotulski Z., Adaptable security mechanism for dynamic environments. Computers & Security, (2007) 367, to appear.
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  16. Armando A., Basin D., Boichut Y., Chevalier Y., Compagna L., Cuellar J., Drielsma P.H., Heám P.C., Kouchnarenko O., Mantovani J., Mödersheim S., Oheimb D., Rusinowitch M., Santiago J., Turuani M., Viganò L., Vigneron L., The avispa tool for the automated validation of internet security protocols and applications. In Proceedings of CAV’2005, LNCS 3576, Springer-Verlag, (2005) 281.
  17. Cremers C., Scyther – Semantics and Verification of Security Protocols. PhD thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, (2006).
  18. Basin D., Mödersheim S., Viganò L., Ofmc: A symbolic model checker for security protocols. International Journal of Information Security, , 4(3) (2005) 181.
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Article 18EN: TCP/IP traffic patterns: attacks, errors, steganography or normal behaviour?
185-194

Marta Rybczyńska


Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warszawa, Poland

This paper presents the results of research on the way the network security is affected by the current state of TCP-IP protocol suite behaviour. A number of examples of possible issues are presented. When discussing classes of such issues, it is pointed out that security is affected by the existence of not only incorrect implementations, but also differences in implementations that can be used for various purposes.
In the main part of the paper an analysis of the traffic collected on an Internet backbone link from the year 1999 up to 2006 is presented. The results show that the predicted behaviour can be observed in the real-world traffic. The differences between the measurement results and the theory are analysed, with a more in-depth look into a number of patterns and the changes of the patterns between the traffic collected in different years. In addition, an operating system detection tool is used to estimate the operating systems used by the nodes. Then the estimation is compared with anomaly patterns and the conclusions are presented. After analysing the findings, the pros and cons to different possible explanations of the observed patterns are presented, including flaws, attacks, various kinds of errors and steganography.
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Volume 04 - 2006

Article 01EN: Towards wireless sensor networks with enhanced vision capabilities
6-19

Andrzej Śluzek 1,2, Palaniappan Annamalai 1, Md. Saiful Islam 1, Paweł Czapski 1


1 Hanyang Technological University, Singapore
2Computer Science Institute, SWPS, Chodakowska 19/31, 03-815 Warszawa, Poland

Wireless sensor networks are expected to become an important tool for various security, surveillance and/or monitoring applications. The paper discusses selected practical aspects of development of such networks. First, design and implementation of an exemplary wireless sensor network for intrusion detection and classification are briefly presented. The network consists of two levels of nodes. At the first level, relatively simple microcontroller-based nodes with basic sensing devices and wireless transmission capabilities are used. These nodes are used as preliminary detectors of prospective intrusions. The second-level sensor node is built around a high performance FPGA controlling an array of cameras. The second-level nodes can be dynamically reconfigured to perform various types of visual data processing and analysis algorithms used to confirm the presence of intruders in the scene and to classify approximately the intrusion, if any. The paper briefly presents algorithms and overviews hardware of the network. In the last part of the paper, prospective directions for wireless sensor networks are analyzed and certain recommendations are included.
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  2. Estrin D., Sensor network research: Emerging challenges for architecture, systems, and languages. 10th Int. Conf. on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS-X^, ACM SIGPLAN notices, (eds C. Norris and J.J.B. Fenwick), New York: ACM Press, 37(10) (2002) 1-4.
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  4. Collins R., Lipton A., Fujiyoshi H., Kanadę T., Algorithms for cooperative multisensor surveillance. Proceedings of the IEEE, 89(10) (2001) 1456.
  5. Romer K., Mattern F., The design space of wireless sensor networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 11(6) (2004) 54.
  6. Vieira M.A.M., da Silva Jr. D.C., Coelho Jr. C.N., da Mata J.M., Survey on Wireless Sensor Network Devices. Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA03). IEEE 1 (2003).
  7. Bellis S.J., Delaney K., O'Flynn B., Barton J., Razeeb K.M., O'Mathuna C., Development of Field Programmable Modular Wireless Sensor Network Nodes for Ambient Systems. Computer Communications (accepted for special issue on Wireless Sensor Networks), to appear in 2005.
  8. Lach J., Evans D., McCune J., Brandon J., Power Efficient Adaptable Wireless Sensor Network. Military and Aerospace Programmable Logic Devices. Int. Conf. MAPLD 2003, Washington D. C., (2003).
  9. Meffert B., Blaschek R., Knauer U., Reulke R., Schischmanow A., Winkler F., Monitoring traffic by optical sensors. 2nd Int. Conf. on Intelligent Computing and Information Systems, Cairo, (2005).
  10. Gamal A.E., Collaborative visual sensor networks, 2004. http ://mediax. Stanford, edu/proj ects/cvsn.html
  11. Islam M.S., Sluzek A., Zhu L., Towards invariant interest point detection of an object. 13th Int. Conf. in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision, Plzen, (2005).
  12. Meguerdichian S., Koushanfar F., Potkonjak M., Srivastava M.B., Coverage problems in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. IEEE Infocom, (2001) 1380.
  13. Islam M.S., Zhu L., Matching interest points of an object. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing ICIP2005, Genova, (2005).
  14. Wu H., Abouzeid A., Energy Efficient Distributed JPEG2000 Image Compression in Multihop Wireless Networks. 4th Workshop on Applications and Services in Wireless Networks ASWN2004, Boston, (2004).
  15. Taylor C.N., Dey S., Adaptive image compression for enabling mobile multimedia communication. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications 2001, Helsinki, (2001).
  16. Taylor C.N., Dey S., Panigrahi D., Energy/latency/image quality trade-offs in enabling mobile multimedia communication, in: Software Radio - Technologies and Services (ed. E.D. Re), Springer Verlag, (2001) 55.
  17. Hu M.K., Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. IRE Trans.Inf.Theory, 8 (1962) 179.
  18. Maitra S., Moment invariants. Proc. of IEEE, 67 (1979) 697.
  19. Schmid C., Mohr R., Bauckhage C., Evaluation of interest point detectors. Int. Journal of Computer Vision, 37(2) (2000) 151.
  20. Islam M.S., Sluzek A., Detecting and Matching Interest Point in Relative Scale. Machine Graphics & Vision, accepted, (2005).
  21. Chen G.C.S., Wireless communication between FPGA boards SCE04-040 FYP report, NTU, Singapore, (2005).
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Article 02EN: Mathematical foundations of the infinity computer
20-33

Yaroslav D. Sergeyev


Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Sistemistica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 41-C, 87030 Rende (CS), Italy Software Department, N. I. Lobatchevsky State University, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia

All the existing computers are able to do arithmetical operations only with finite numerals. Operations with infinite and infinitesimal quantities could not be realized. The paper describes a new positional system with infinite radix allowing us to write down finite, infinite, and infinitesimal numbers as particular cases of a unique framework. The new approach both gives possibilities to do calculations of a new type and simplifies fields of mathematics where usage of infinity and/or infinitesimals is required. Usage of the numeral system described in the paper gives possibility to introduce a new type of computer - Infinity Computer - able to operate not only with finite numbers but also with infinite and infinitesimal ones.
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  5. Hilbert D., Mathematical problems: Lecture delivered before the International Congress of Mathematicians at Paris in 1900. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 8 (1902) 437.
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  8. Sergeyev Ya.D., Arithmetic of infinity. Edizioni Orizzonti Meridionali, CS, (2003).
  9. Benci V., Di Nasso M., Numerosities of labeled sets: a new way of counting. Advances in Mathematics, 173 (2003) 50.
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  13. Sergeyev Ya.D., Computer system for storing infinite, infinitesimal, and finite quantities and executing arithmetical operations with them, patent application, 08.03.04.
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Article 03EN: Experiences of software engineering training
34-44

Ilona Bluemke, Anna Derezińska


Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/17, 00-665 Warszawa, Poland

In this paper some experiences from laboratories of Advanced Software Engineering course are presented. This laboratory consists of seven exercises. The subjects of exercises are following: requirements engineering, system design with UML [1], reuse, precise modelling with the Object Constraint Language (OCL [2]), code coverage testing, memory leaks detection and improving application efficiency. For each laboratory exercise a set of training materials and instructions was developed. These internet materials are stored on a department server and are available for all students and lecturers of this course. Rational Suite tools [3] are used in the laboratory. The goal of introducing Internet materials was to improve the quality of SE education. Some experiences and observations are presented. The evaluation of students results is also given.
  1. Unified Modelling Language Specification, www.omg.org/uml
  2. Warmer J., Kleppe A., The Object Constraint Language Precise Modeling with UML. Addison Wesley, (1999).
  3. Rational Suite, http://www-306.ibm.com/software/ rational/
  4. Jazayeri M., The education of a Software Engineer. Proceedings of the 19th Inter. Conf. on Automated Software Engineering, ASE'04, (2004).
  5. Rombach D., Teaching how to engineer software. Proceedings of 16th Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, CSEE&T, (2003).
  6. Nikula U., Experiences of embedding training in a basic requirements engineering method. Proc of 17th Conf on Software Engineering Education and Training, CSEET'04, (2004) 104.
  7. www.swebok.org, Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge, (2004).
  8. Leffmgwell D, Widrig D., Managing software requirements. A unified approach, Addison Wesley, (2000).
  9. IEEE Std 830-1998, IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications.
  10. Nawrocki J.R., Towards Educating Leaders of Software Teams: A New Software Engineering Programme at PUT. in P.Klint, J.R.Nawrocki (eds.), Software Engineering Education Symposium SEES'98 Conference Proceedings, Scientific Publishers OWN, Poznań, (1998) 149.
  11. Gamma E., Helm R., Johnson R., Vlissides J., Design patterns: Elements of reusable object-oriented software. Addison-Wesley, (1995).
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Article 04EN: Incremental document map formation: multi-stage approach
45-59

Krzysztof Ciesielski, Michał Dramiński, Mieczysław A. Kłopotek, Dariusz Czerski, Sławomir T. Wierzchoń


Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ordona 21, 01-237 Warszaw a,Poland

The paper presents methodology for the incremental map formation in a multi-stage process of a search engine with the map based user interface1. The architecture of the experimental system allows for comparative evaluation of different constituent technologies for various stages of the process. The quality of the map generation process has been investigated based on a number of clustering and classification measures. Some conclusions concerning the impact of various technological solutions on map quality are presented.
  1. Kłopotek M., Dramiński M., Ciesielski K., Kujawiak M., Wierzchoń S.T., Mining document maps, in Proceedings of Statistical Approaches to Web Mining Workshop (SAWM) at PKDD'04, M. Gori, M. Celi, M. Nanni eds., Pisa, (2004) 87.
  2. Ciesielski K., Dramiński M., Kłopotek M., Kujawiak M., Wierzchoń S., Architecture for graphical maps of Web contents, in Proceedings of WISIS'2004, Warsaw, (2004).
  3. Ciesielski K., Dramiński M., Kłopotek M., Kujawiak M., Wierzchoń S., Mapping document collections in non-standard geometries. B.De Beats, R.De Caluwe, G. de Tre, J.Fodor,J.Kacprzyk, S.Zadrożny (eds): Current Issues in Data and Knowledge Engineering. Akademicka Oficyna Wydawnicza EXIT Publishing, Warszawa, (2004) 122.
  4. Ciesielski K., Dramiński M., Kłopotek M., Kujawiak M., Wierzchoń S.T., On some clustering algorithms for Document Maps Creation, to appear in: Proceedings of the Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining (IIS:IIPWM-2005), Gdańsk, (2005).
  5. Kłopotek M., Wierzchoń S., Ciesielski K., Dramiński M., Czerski D., Kujawiak M., Understanding Nature of Map Representation of Document Collections - Map Quality Measurements, to appear in Proceeding of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Siedlce, (2005).
  6. Ciesielski K., Dramiński M., Kłopotek M., Kujawiak M., Wierzchoń S.T., Crisp versus Fuzzy Concept Boundaries in Document Maps, to appear in: Proceedings of DMIN-05 Workshop at The 2005 World Congress in Applied Computing, Las Vegas, (2005).
  7. Berry M.W., Large scale singular value decompositions. International Journal of Supercomputer Applications, 6(1) (1992) 13.
  8. Kłopotek M, A New Bayesian Tree Learning Method with Reduced Time and Space Complexity. Fundamenta Informaticae, IOS Press,49(4) (2002) 349.
  9. Fritzke B., A growing neural gas network learns topologies, in: G. Tesauro, D.S. Touretzky, and T.K. Leen (Eds.) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 7, MIT Press Cambridge, MA, (1995) 625.
  10. Dittenbach M., Rauber A., Merkl D., Discovering Hierarchical Structure in Data Using the Growing Hierarchical Self-Organizing Map. Neurocomputing, Elsevier, ISSN 0925-2312, 48(1-4) (2002) 199.
  11. De Castro L.N., von Zuben F.J., An evolutionary immune network for data clustering. SBRN'2000, IEEE Computer Society Press, (2000).
  12. Kohonen T., Self-Organizing Maps. Springer Series in Information Sciences. Vol. 30, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2001. Third Extended Edition, ISBN 3-540-67921-9, ISSN 0720-678X.
  13. Fritzke B., Some competitive learning methods, draft available from http://www.neuroinformatik.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/ini/VDM/research/gsn/JavaPaper
  14. Fritzke B., A self-organizing network that can follow non-stationary distributions, in: Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks '97, Springer, (1997)613.
  15. Zhang T., Ramakrishan R., Livny M., BIRCH: Efficient Data Clustering Method for Large Databases, in: Proceedings of ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Data Management, (1997).
  16. Timmis J., aiVIS: Artificial Immune Network Visualization, in: Proceedings of EuroGraphics UK 2001 Conference, Univeristy College London, (2001) 61.
  17. Zhao Y., Karypis G., Criterion functions for document Clustering: Experiments and analysis, available at URL: http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/karypis/publications/ir.html
  18. Halkidi M., Batistakis Y., Vazirgiannis M., On Clustering Validation Techniques. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 17(2-3) (2001) 107.
  19. Hung C., Wermter S., A Constructive and Hierarchical Self-Organising Model in A Non-Stationary Environment. International Joint Conference in Neural Networks, (2005).
  20. Rauber A., Cluster Visualization in Unsupervised Neural Networks. Diplomarbeit, Technische Universitat Wien, Austria, (1996).
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Article 05EN: Instance reduction approach to machine learning and multi-database mining
60-71

Ireneusz Czarnowski, Piotr Jędrzejowicz


Department of Information Systems, Gdynia Maritime University Morska 83, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland

The paper proposes a heuristic instance reduction algorithm as an approach to machine learning and knowledge discovery in centralized and distributed databases. The proposed algorithm is based on an original method for a selection of reference instances and creates a reduced training dataset. The reduced training set consisting of selected instances can be used as an input for the machine learning algorithms used for data mining tasks. The algorithm calculates for each instance in the data set the value of its similarity coefficient. Values of the coefficient are used to group instances into clusters. The number of clusters depends on the value of the so called representation level set by the user. Out of each cluster only a limited number of instances is selected to form a reduced training set. The proposed algorithm uses population learning algorithm for selection of instances. The paper includes a description of the proposed approach and results of the validating experiment.
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Article 06EN: pecification of dependency areas in UML designs
72-85

Anna Derezińska


Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

A concept of dependency areas can help in tracing an impact of artifacts of a project (requirements, elements of the UML design, extracts of the code) and assist in their evolution. The dependency area of an element of a UML design is a part of the design that is highly influenced by the given initial element. Dependency areas are identified using sets of propagation rules and strategies. Selection strategies control application of many, possible rules. Bounding strategies limit the number of elements assigned to the areas. This paper is devoted to the specification of the rules and strategies. They are specified using an extended UML meta-model and expressions in the Object Constraint Language (OCL).
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Article 07EN: Model of mapping activities and competence in ICT projects
86-103

Kazimierz Frączkowski


Institute of Computer Science, Wrocław University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

This paper concerns a proposal for efficient increase methodology of ICT projects development, mainly shortening of projects completion, decreasing the costs as well as reducing the risk through project decomposition into activities in the form of their matrices. A project team, which is expected to carry out a particular project, goes through an identification process that includes description of the competences it has in the form of competence matrices. In order to estimate whether the chosen team will be able to carry out the project successfully, PM maps the planned project activities with competences. Lacking or insufficient team's competences, which do not cover the specific activities, may indicate the area for outsourcing of the project activities.
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Article 08EN: Ontology-based stereotyping in a travel support system
104-134

Maciej Gawinecki 1, Mateusz Kruszyk 1, Marcin Paprzycki 2


1 Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland Computer Science
2 Institute, SWPS, Chodakowska 19/31, 03-815 Warszawa, Poland

The aim of this paper is to address the problem of user profile initialization in a travel support system. In the system under consideration, ontologically demarcated data is stored in a central repository, while user profiles are functionalized as instances of travel object ontologies. Creation of an initial user profile is achieved through stereotyping. An example of utilization of this technique, in the case of restaurant stereotypes, is presented.
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Article 09EN: Analysing system susceptibility to faults with simulation tools
123-134

Piotr Gawkowski, Janusz Sosnowski


Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warszawa, Poland

In the paper we present original fault simulation tools developed in our Institute. These tools are targeted at system dependability evaluation. They provide mechanisms for detailed and aggregated fault effect analysis. Based on our experience with testing various software applications we outline the most important problems and discuss a sample of simulation results.
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Article 10EN: Grouping and joining transformations in the data extraction process
136-147

Marcin Gorawski, Paweł Marks


Institute of Computer Science, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

In this paper we present a method of describing ETL processes (Extraction, Transformation and Loading) using graphs. We focus on implementation aspects such as division of a whole process into threads, communication and data exchange between threads, deadlock prevention. Methods of processing of large data sets using insufficient memory resources are also presented upon examples of joining and grouping nodes. Our solution is compared to the efficiency of the OS-level virtual memory in a few tests. Their results are presented and discussed.
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Article 11EN: Comparison of two approaches to processing long aggregates lists in spatial data warehouses
149-160

Marcin Gorawski, Rafał Malczok


Institute of Computer Science, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

In this paper we present a comparison of two approaches for storing and processing of long aggregates lists in a spatial data warehouse. An aggregates list contains aggregates, calculated from the data stored in the database. Our comparative criteria are: the efficiency of retrieving the aggregates and the consumed memory. The first approach assumes using a modified Java list supported with materialization mechanism. In the second approach we utilize a table divided into pages. For this approach we present three different multi-thread page-filling algorithms used when the list is browsed. When filled with aggregates, the pages are materialized. We also present test results comparing the efficiency of the two approaches.
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Article 12EN: The use of self-organising maps to investigate heat demand profiles
161-168

Maciej Grzenda


Faculty of Mathematics and Information Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Pl Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warszawa, Poland

District heating companies are responsible for delivering the heat produced in central heat plants to the consumers through a pipeline system. At the same time they are expected to keep the total heat production cost as low as possible. Therefore, there is a growing need to optimise heat production through better prediction of customers needs. The paper illustrates the way neural networks, namely self-organised maps can be used to investigate long-term demand profiles of consumers. Real-life historical sales data is used to establish a number of typical demand profiles.
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Article 13EN: Models and methods for biometric motion identification Bartosz
169-179

Bartosz Jabłoński, Ryszard Klempous, Damian Majchrzak


Institute of Computer Engineering, Control and Robotics, Wrocław University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland

Human motion is a complex signal with many different properties depending on various factors: age, gender, physical condition, emotions etc. Nevertheless there is a hypothesis which claims that human motion can be a source for biometric analysis and person identification. In the paper some methods to analyze and compare different motions are presented. Methods are examined for usefulness in motion identification. We distinguish time-series and frequency analysis for rotational signals describing mainly the motion of legs. The results of experiments are presented taking into consideration different motion representations.
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Article 14EN: On asymptotic behaviour of a binary genetic algorithm
180-188

Witold Kosiński 1;2, Stefan Kotowski 3, Jolanta Socała 4


1 Research Center, Department of Intelligent Systems, Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Koszykowa 86, 02-008 Warszawa, Poland
2Institute of Environmental Mechanics and Applied Computer Science, Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz, Poland
3 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, IPPT PAN, Świętokrzyska 21, 00-950 Warszawa, Poland
4 Institute of Mathematics, Silesian University, Bankowa 14, 40-007 Katowice, Poland

The simple genetic algorithm (SGA) and its convergence analysis are main subjects of the article. A particular SGA is defined on a finite multi-set of individuals (chromosomes) together with mutation and proportional selection operators, each of which with some prescribed probability. The selection operation acts on the basis of the fitness function defined on individuals. Generation of a new population from a given one is made by iterative actions of those operators. Each iteration is written in the form of a transition operator acting on probability vectors which describe probability distributions of all populations. The transition operator is power of Markovian matrix. Based on the theory of Markov operators [1-3] new conditions for asymptotic stability of the transition operator are formulated.
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Article 15EN: Comparative analysis of reporting mechanisms based on XML technology
189-197

Dariusz Król 1, Jacek Oleksy 2, Małgorzata Podyma 2, Bogdan Trawiński 1


1 Institute of Computer Science, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże S. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
2 Computer Association of Information BOG ART Ltd., Rejtana 9-11, 50-015 Wrocław, Poland

Comparative analysis of reporting mechanisms based on XML technology is presented in the paper. The analysis was carried out as the part of the process of selecting and implementing of reporting mechanisms for a cadastre information system. The reports were designed for two versions of the system, i.e. for the internet system based on PHP technology and the fat client system in two-layer client-server architecture. The reports for the internet system were prepared using XSLT for HTML output and using XML-FO for PDF output and compared with reports implemented using Free PDF library. Each solution was tested by means of the Web Application Stress Tool in order to determine what limits in scalability and efficiency could be observed. As far as the desktop system is concerned three versions of reporting mechanisms based on Crystal Reports, Microsoft Reporting Services and XML technology were accomplished and compared with the mean execution time as the main criterion.
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Article 16EN: Visualization as a method for relationship discovery in data Halina
198-203

Halina Kwaśnicka, Urszula Markowska-Kaczmar, Jacek Tomasiak


Department of Computer Science, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże S. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

Visualization techniques are especially relevant to multidimensional data, the analysis of which is limited by human perception abilities. The paper presents a hybrid method of multidimensional data analysis. The main goal was to test the efficiency of the method in the context of real-life medical data. A short survey of issues and techniques concerned with data visualization are also included.
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Article 17EN: Discovery of association rules from medical data -classical and evolutionary approaches
204-217

Halina Kwaśnicka, Kajetan Świtalski


Department of Computer Science, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże S. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

The paper presents a method of association rules discovering from medical data using the evolutionary approach. The elaborated method (EGAR) uses a genetic algorithm as a tool of knowledge discovering from a set of data, in the form of association rules. The method is compared with known and common method - FPTree. The developed computer program is applied for testing the proposed method and comparing the results with those produced by FPTree. The program is the general and flexible tool for the rules generation task using different data sets and two embodied methods. The presented experiments are performed using the actual medical data from the Wroclaw Clinic.
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Article 18EN: Mining of an electrocardiogram
218-229

Urszula Markowska-Kaczmar, Bartosz Kordas


Institute of Applied Informatics, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże S. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

The widespread use of medical information systems and rapid growth of medical databases require methods of efficient computer-assisted analysis. In this paper we focus on the QRS complex detection in electrocardiogram but, the idea of further recognition of anomalies in QRS complexes based on the immunology approach is described, as well. In order to detect QRS complexes, a neural network ensemble is proposed. It consists of three neural networks. The details of this solution are described and the results of the experimental study are shown.
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Article 19EN: Rule extraction from a neural network by hierarchical multiobjective genetic algorithm
230-243

Urszula Markowska-Kaczmar, Krystyna Mularczyk


Institute of Computer Science, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże S. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

The paper presents a method of rule extraction from the trained neural network by means of a genetic algorithm. The multiobjective approach is used to suit the nature of the problem, since different criteria (accuracy, complexity) may be taken into account during the search for a satisfying solution. The use of a hierarchical algorithm aims at reducing the complexity of the problem and thus enhancing the method performance. The overall structure and details of the algorithm as well as the results of experiments performed on popular benchmark data sets are presented.
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Article 20EN: The use of model checking and the COSMA environment in the design of reactive systems
244-253

Jerzy Mieścicki


Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00 665 Warszawa, Poland

The paper discusses how a bridge between the design practice and the formal methods could be maintained. The use of model checking seems to be the most promising approach. Then, the software environment COSMA is presented, implementated in the Institute of Computer Science,WUT. The conceptual framework of COSMA is based upon Concurrent State Machines (CSM) and Extended CSM, which are also briefly summarized and illustrated with a simple example.
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Article 21EN: Behavioral an real-time verification of a pipeline in the COSMA environment
254-265

Jerzy Mieścicki, Wiktor B. Daszczuk


Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, PL 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

The case study analyzed in the paper illustrates the example of model checking in the COSMA environment. The system itself is a three-stage pipeline consisting of mutually concurrent modules which also compete for a shared resource. System components are specified in terms of Concurrent State Machines (CSM) The paper shows verification of behavioral properties, model reduction technique, analysis of counter-example and checking of real time properties.
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Article 22EN: Automated travel planning
266-278

Piotr Nagrodkiewicz 1, Marcin Paprzycki 2


1 Department of Mathematics and Information Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Plac Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warszawa, Poland
2 Computer Science Institute, SWPS, Chodakowska 19/31, 03-815 Warszawa, Poland

This paper summarizes the current state of art in the domain of automated travel planning. Requirements for planning systems are identified taking into account both functionality and personalization aspects of such systems. A new algorithm that allows planning routes between any two locations and that utilizes combination of various means of transportation is discussed.
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Article 23EN: KTDA: emerging patterns based data analysis system
279-290

Roman Podraża, Krzysztof Tomaszewski


Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

Emerging patterns are kind of relationships discovered in databases containing a decision attribute. They represent contrast characteristics of individual decision classes. This form of knowledge can be useful for experts and has been successfully employed in a field of classification. In this paper we present the KTDA system. It enables discovering emerging patterns and applies them to classification purposes. The system has capabilities of identifying improper data by making use of data credibility analysis, a new approach to assessment data typicality.
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Article 24EN: Polymorphism - prose of Java programmers
292-303

Zdzisław Spławski


Institute of Computer Science, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

In Java programming language as implemented in JDK 5.0 there appear rather advanced kinds of polymorphism, even if they are hidden under different names. The notion of polymorphism unifies many concepts present in typed programming languages, not necessary object-oriented. We briefly define some varieties of polymorphism and trace them in Java. Java shows that "industrial" programming languages are able to express more abstract patterns using rather involved theoretical means, hence the "working programmer" has to be better educated in order to understand them, recognize them in different programming languages under different names and superficial syntax, and make good use of them.
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Article 25EN: Multimedia in management facing globalization processes and cognitivistics
304-313

Jerzy Wąchol


Faculty of Management, AGH-University of Mining and Metallurgy, Gramatyka 10, 30-067 Kraków, Poland

The paper covers the use of multimedia and the Internet in management, focusing mainly on globalization and management process (planning, organization, motivation and control). The use of modern multimedia and the Internet in management must be thoroughly thought over because it has both chances and new possibilities as well as hazards for companies, employees and clients in the new age of knowledge, information technologies and globalization. The paper also presents the statistical data in selected countries about the saturation of multimedia in the World.
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Article 26EN: Deterministic method of data sequence processing
314-331

Michał Widera


Institute of Medical Technology and Equipment ITAM, Roosevelt 118, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland

A data management system can be separated in typical data processing systems. Unfortunately, relational data management systems are not efficient enough to handle the on-line signal processing task in a monitoring system. The main current in research into database management system model for the needs of monitoring systems is connected with a data stream model. However, these systems are non-deterministic. This paper presents the developed methods of data stream processing for signal processing tasks in medical database management systems, as well as the developed theorems of data sequences (stream) algebra with formal proofs. A direct link between some introduced operators and Beatty and Fraenkel theorems has been proved.
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Article 27EN: ontext-aware security and secure context-awareness in ubiquitous computing environments
332-348

Konrad Wrona, Laurent Gomez


AP Research, 805, Avenue du Docteur Maurice Donat, 06250 Mougins, France

Context-awareness emerges as an important element of future wireless systems. In particular, concepts like ambient intelligence and ubiquitous computing rely on context information in order to personalize services provided to their target users. However, security implications of employing context-awareness in computing systems are not well understood. Security challenges in context-aware systems include integrity, confidentiality and availability of context information, as well as target user's privacy. Another interesting and open question is to what extent availability of additional context information could be used in order to optimise and reconfigure security-related services.
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Article 01EN: The oriented chromatic number of some grids
5-17

Halina Bielak


Institute of Mathematics, M. Curie-Skłodowska University, PI. M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

We define some infinite subfamily of hexagonal grids with the oriented chromatic number 5. We present an algorithm for oriented colouring of some hexagonal planar oriented grids. The algorithm uses BFS spanning tree of a subgraph of the dual graph of the grid and a homomorphism to some tournament of order 6. In general the difference between the number of colours given by the algorithm and the oriented chromatic number is at most 1.
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Article 02EN: A Markovian model of the RED mechanism solved with a cluster of computers
19-27

Jarosław Bylina, Beata Bylina


Department of Computer Science, Institute of Mathematics, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The paper presents a working example of distributed application which can be used to find stationary probabilities of states for queuing models - by generating a transition rate matrix and solving a linear system. The presented example is connected to the RED mechanism which can be used in the TCP/IP protocol to control packets flow. The paper also shows efficiency of the application with the use of a various number of computers connected with Ethernet.
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Article 03EN: Linux based Live CD on optical disks
29-36

Michał Chromiak 1, Andrzej Góźdź 2


1 Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, PI. M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, PI. M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

We present an introduction to LiveCD system remastering based on a prospective UnionFS filesystem.
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Article 04EN: Fast interpolating algorithms in cryptography
37-45

Joanna Kapusta 1, Ryszard Smarzewski 1;2


1 Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Konstantynów 1H, 20-708 Lublin, Poland
2 The University of Arts and Sciences, Wesoła 52, 25-353 Kielce, Poland

We present two fast polynomial interpolating algorithms with knots generated in a field K by the recurrent formula of the form xf = axj_l + ft (z = 1,2,..,« -1; x0 = . The running time of them is C(n) + 0(n) base operations from K, where C(n) = 0(n\og2 n) denotes the time needed to compute the wrapped convolution in K". Moreover, we give an application of these algorithms to threshold secret sharing schemes in cryptography.
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Article 05EN: Professionally designed and developed OpenMP parser for the Ada programming language using flex
48-57

Rafał Henryk Kartaszyński, Przemysław Stpiczyński


Department of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-SModowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This paper describes a new version of OpenMP parser for Ada. AdaOMP consists of: OpenMP compiler for Ada and Ada package with OpenMP routines and variables. We show how compiler writing can be improved by the use of professional tool - flex - lexical analyzer, for kernel creation. In this paper we focus on describing steps leading to parser creation. We will explain some implementation details and present the results of using the OpenMP parser on sequential programs.
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Article 06EN: Agent based approach to University Timetabling Problem
59-67

Paweł Peryt


Institute of Applied Computer Science, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

A concept of agent-based approach to timetabling problem is presented. Based on the problem description and with its formalization the term "agent" is introduced. Agents act on behalf of entities taking part in the timetabling process (activities, rooms and students) and they interact to maximize their own utility. Also a brief overview of existing approaches is presented.
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Article 07EN: Credibility coefficients based on frequent sets
69-77

Roman Podraża 1, Mariusz Walkiewicz 1, Andrzej Dominik 2


1 Institute of Computer Science,
2 Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warszawa, Poland

Credibility coefficients are heuristic measures applied to objects of information system. Credibility coefficients were introduced to assess similarity of objects in respect to other data in information systems or decision tables. By applying knowledge discovery methods it is possible to gain some rules and dependencies between data. However the knowledge obtained from the data can be corrupted or incomplete due to improper data. Hence identification of these exceptions cannot be overestimated. It is assumed that majority of data is correct and only a minor part may be improper. Credibility coefficients of objects should indicate to which group a particular object probably belongs. A main focus of the paper is set on an algorithm of calculating credibility coefficients. This algorithm is based on frequent sets, which are produced while using data analysis based on the rough set theory. Some information on the rough set theory is supplied to enable expression of credibility coefficient formulas. Implementation and applications of credibility coefficients are presented in the paper. Discussion of some practical results of identifying improper data by credibility coefficients is inserted as well.
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Article 08EN: Prolog, Mercury and the termination problem
79-86

Anna Sasak


Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This paper shortly introduces the two logic programming languages Prolog and Mercury. On this background we introduce the problem of analysing termination of programs. Then we present Mercury's termination analyser, that the authors of the language incorporated into its compiler. We will also discuss the proposition based on the same method analyser for Prolog's predicates.
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Article 09EN: Reducing algorithm for percolation cluster analysis
87-91

Norbert Sendra, Tomasz Gwizdałła, Jerzy Czerbniak


Department of Solid State Physics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź, Poland

The determination of percolation threshold is the substantial question for a lot of problems which may be modeled by the formalism of cellular automata. There is a set of well known algorithms which deal with this topic. All of them have some advantages and drawbacks connected to calculational or memory complexity. In our work we are going to present a new approach which we call "reducing algorithm". In our procedure we avoid the large memory occupancy which is usually connected to the algorithms aiming not only at confirming the existence of percolation cluster. Our approach makes it also possible to reduce time complexity by only single scan through the analyzed space. In the paper we present some basics of algorithm and the comparison of its effectiveness to other, mentioned earlier, ones.
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Article 10EN: Application of computer algebra systems (CAS) to formal expansion of exact Callen equations into the systems of algebraic equations
93-100

Adam Krzemieniowski, Grzegorz Wiatrowski


Department of Solid State Physics, University of Łódź, 90-236 Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, Poland

We present the application of computer algebra systems (CAS) to symbolic construction of algebraic equations describing different ordered as well as stochastic magnetic structures. We start with formal and exact, however non-tractable from the numerical point of view, Callen equations. Then, we apply the integral operator method (based on the integral representation of Dirac delta function) and use CAS to reformulate the related mathematical problem in terms of polynomial equations ready for numerical treatment. The complexity of the problem depends exponentially on coordination numbers of magnetic/nonmagnetic components, and by this, it makes the presented computer add approach the only possible method to treat complex multicomponent thin films and dilute multilayered structures. As two examples, we present the CAS add construction of related equations for binary alloys ACB1-C with structural disorder (ZA = 2, ZB = 4) and site-diluted thin film with n = 8 monatomic planes.
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Article 11EN: Automatic Keyphrase Extraction
101-111

Danuta Zakrzewska, Katarzyna Mataśka


Institute of Computer Science, Technical University of Łódź, Wólczańska 215, 93-005 Łódź, Poland

Increasing number of documents in the Web caused the growth of needs for tools supporting automatic search and classification of texts. Keywords are one of characteristic features of documents that may be used as criteria in automatic document management. In the paper we describe the technique for automatic keyphrase extraction based on the KEA algorithm [1]. The main modifications consist in changes in the stemming method and simplification of the discretization technique. Besides, in the presented algorithm the keyphrase list may contain proper names, and the candidate phrase list may contain number sequences. We describe experiments, that were done on the set of English language documents available in the Internet and that allow for optimization of extraction parameters. The comparison of the efficiency of the algorithm with the KEA technique is presented.
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Article 12EN: Java Server Faces and Java Bean Technologies in Expert application
113-120

Barbara Gocłowska, Zdzisław Łojewski


Department of Applied Computer Science, Institute of Computer Science, M. Curie Skłodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, pl. M. Curie Skłodowskiej 1, Poland

The Expert program is a part of larger project (Intelligent Tutoring System) and plays a role of an assistant and disputant with the system user. The authors of the article analyse algorithm of this module and discuss various Java technologies for preparation of application.
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Article 13EN: Sigma-if neural network as the use of selective attention technique in classification and knowledge discovery problems solving
121-131

Maciej Huk


Faculty of Computer Science and Management, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

The article presents the most important properties of Sigma-if neuron and neural network, which use a selective attention technique to solve classification problems. Abilities of Sigma-if neuron to perform active aggregation of input signals and to solve linearly inseparable problems are discussed. Variety of conducted experiments, during which Sigma-if network was compared with multilayer perceptron, are also presented. These experiments show benefits from using Sigma-if network instead of MLP, both in classification problems solving and in knowledge discovery from data.
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Article 14EN: Hybrid artificial intelligence technique for solving large, highly constrained timetabling problems
133-143

Maciej Norberciak


Insitiute of Applied Informatics, Wrocław University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

Timetabling problems are often hard and time-consuming to solve. Profits from full automatization of this process can be invaluable. Although over the years many solutions have been proposed, most of the methods concern only one problem instance or class. This paper describes a possibly universal method for solving large, highly constrained timetabling problems from different areas. The solution is based on evolutionary algorithm's framework, with specialized genetic operators and penalty-based evaluation function, and uses hyper-heuristics to establish its operating parameters. The method has been used to solve three different timetabling problems, which are described in detail, along with some results of preliminary experiments.
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Article 15EN: Reduction of ensemble of classifiers with a rule sets analysis
145-153

Ewa Szpunar-Huk


Faculty of Computer Science and Management, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

The article shortly discusses the aim of classification task and its application to different domains of life. The idea of ensemble of classifiers is presented and some aspects of grouping methods are discussed. The paper points to the need of ensemble classifier pruning and presents a new approach for ensemble reduction. The proposed method is dedicated to committees of decision trees and bases on transformation of a tree set into a rule set and the new, suited to the pruning method, the weighted voting algorithm is also presented. There are also described experiments showing properties and effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, directions of further research are mentioned.
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Article 16EN: Uncertainty in expert systems and credit granting decisions
155-160

Tomasz Żurek


nstitute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. Marii Curie Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin

One of the most popular utilization of expert systems is supporting credit granting decisions. Usually, certain systems without possibilities of representing of uncertain knowledge are used. The main aim of this paper is to compare certain and uncertain expert systems supporting credit granting decisions, and stating which one is superior over another.
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Article 17EN: Fractal feature analysis of the human brain structures in neuroanatomy changes
161-169

Olena Buczko, Paweł Mikołajczak


Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science, University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska, Pl. M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The paper presents a method to examine brain structures in neuroanatomy changes which result in dementia in magnetic resonance images by using fractal analysis techniques. We measured the relationship between the fractal dimensions of white matter and grey brain matter and the relationship between the fractal dimensions of the forebrain and the white brain matter. The investigation showed that the relationship between the fractal dimensions of brain in neuroanatomy changes differ from that in the normal brain.
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Article 18EN: A wide depth of field reconstruction method based on partially focused image series
171-180

Marcin Denkowski, Michał Chlebiej, Paweł Mikołajczak


Laboratory of Information Technology, Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie Skłodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The main problem with images acquired using macro photography is the very shallow depth-of-field. In this article we present and implement an algorithm to reconstruct full focused images based on partially focused images series of the same object acquired with different focus depths. The presented algorithm consists of several phases including: image registration, depth map creation, image reconstruction and final histogram and quality correction.
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Article 19EN: Robustness of data hiding in image the Fourier spectrum
181-190

Piotr Kopniak


Institute of Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

The following paper presents the results of tests conducted by the author in the field of verification of influence of JPEG lossy compression on the robustness of data hiding methods used for the colour image which has been transformed to the frequency domain. The data have been embedded to the Fourier magnitude spectrum of the image. The possibility of decoding the hidden data with two embedding methods and various parameter values as well as diverse compression rates has also been examined. The paper also contains a short description of the discrete Fourier transform.
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Article 20EN: Multilevel near optimal thresholding applied to watershed grouping
191-

Jakub Smołka


Institute of Computer Science, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

The major drawback of watershed transformation is over-segmentation. It also has a significant advantage: very good edge extraction. Thresholding methods usually utilize only global information such as an image histogram; however, they have the ability to group pixels into clusters by their value. The method presented in this paper combines the advantages of watershed segmentation and multilevel thresholding. This was achieved by modifying selected optimal thresholding methods so that they treat watersheds as a whole and using those methods in a multilevel thresholding algorithm for grouping watersheds. Otsu's, Kapur's, maximum entropy and step function approximation thresholding methods have been tested. The obtained results are presented and discussed.
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Article 21EN: Parallelization of the Tarticle-in-CelP (PIC) density calculations in plasma computer simulations
201-209

Marcin Brzuszek 1, Marcin Turek 2, Juliusz Sielanko 1


1 Institute of Computer Science,
2 Institute of Physics, Maria Curie Skłodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The paper deals with the problem of parallelized Particle-In-Cell charge density calculations used in computer plasma simulation. The dependencies between the execution time and the simulation parameters such as the number of 'macro particles', plasma density, particular charge distribution technique and the number of processing units are presented. The local computer cluster and MPI standard have been used in order to parallelize calculations.
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Article 22EN: Application of heuristic optimization techniques in physics of magnetism
211-218

Tomasz Gwizdałła


Department of Solid State Physics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź, Poland

The progress of technical abilities of computers creates enables the use of still more elaborated computational techniques. The classical examples are here the Monte-Carlo or the Molecular Dynamics simulations which are the sensible alternative to study even quite complicated structures. In this work we want, however, to deal with the problems which may be described as the optimization questions and from the algorithmical point of view are NP-hard problems. The typical problem studied is here the searching for the ground states of different magnetic systems. In the presented paper we pay the attention to the samples described by the Ising hamiltonian and want to show the use of evolutionary algorithm not only in finding the ground state but also as a tool to look for the minimum energy state at different temperatures.
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Article 23EN: Phase diagram for mixed ternary alloy from evolutionary optimization
219-226

Tomasz Gwizdałła


Department of Solid State Physics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź, Poland

There is an increasing interest in studying still more complicated magnetic systems. A group of ternary mixed alloys is, among them, a point of interest for as well historical as scientific reasons. The most known material belonging to this group is the famous pigment - Prussian blue. The Prussian blue analogues may be characterized by special properties, like the existence of compensation points or different magnetic phases. It is also a computationally hard problem due to a large number of possible combination of states. In this work I present the results of ground state calculations for Prussian blue analog with A lattice occupation 0.66 and p = 0 which is the simplest model. The phase diagram presented show dicrepancies with results presented earlier by other groups coming from the lower total energy obtained in the evolutionary computation.
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Article 24EN: Counting solutions of equations over two-element algebras
227-236

Jacek Krzaczkowski


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Solving equations is one of the most important problems in computer science. Apart from the problem of existence of solutions of equations we may consider the problem of a number of solutions of equations. Such a problem is much more difficult than the decision one. This paper presents a complete classification of the complexity of the problem of counting solutions of equations over any fixed two-element algebra. It is shown that the complexity of such problems depends only on the clone of term operations of the algebra and for any fixed two-element algebra such a problem is either in FP or #Pcomplete.
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Article 25EN: Algorithm and numerical modelling of macroscopic barriers for fission
237-248

Zdzisław Łojewski


Department of Applied Computer Science, Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, M. Curie-SModowskiej Square 1, Poland

A practical computing algorithm has been developed for calculating the macroscopic energy of nuclei. Four different models of the macroscopic energy are examined and their influence on the results is discussed.
The results of the calculations are presented in the form of curves to illustrate how the different macroscopic models influence on the spontaneous fission energy barriers of super-heavy nuclei.
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Article 26EN: The XML interoperability and the Polish Energy Market needs
249-258

Dariusz Bober


Institute of Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

There are only a few months from the Polish Energy Market openning. This subject, especially in the face of the last political confusion about the natural gas delivery has been a topic of many publications and speeches of politicians during the last months. But, besides this medial outcry, well working and flexible Polish Energy Market, as it is planned, is a very complex problem to solve, and there are many tasks to be done before the 1 July 2007 [1]. In this work the author focuses on the aspects of information flow coordination between the end-users (consumers of energy) and other participants (generators, transmitters, wholesale resellers - the players) of the Polish Energy System. In this article there will be described a concept of two direct electronic data exchange between the energy measure unit located at let's say "Kowalsky's" house, and any other computer systems of the player.
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Article 27EN: Unified Modeling Language extensions for modeling user-oriented, multi-channel access CRM systems
259-265

Grzegorz Futa


Department of Applied Computer Science, Institute of Computer Science, M. Curie Skłodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, Pl. M. Curie Skłodowskiej 1, Poland

In the advances of Internet technologies in recent years, Electronic Commerce CRM systems have gained much attention as a major theme for companies to maintain their competitiveness. The research shows that the effective customer relationship management is the major source for customer retention and gaining over new ones. On the other hand, modern technology allows to receive information through different channels (Internet, phone, WAP). Therefore analysts are forced to use faster, more reliable methods for system modeling. The author proposes a new method for modeling Customer Relationship Management systems. The UML new extensions are introduced. The customer-oriented and multichannel access patterns aim at improvement of system modeling with the high level of abstraction. This paper identifies and analyses the main advantages of language additions and compare them to object-oriented modeling with the pure UML patterns.
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Article 28EN: Use of simulation techniques for profit forecasting of saving programs
267-277

Anna Gontarek


Institute of IT in Management, University of Szczecin, Mickiewicza 64, 71-101 Szczecin, Poland

The article shows simulation techniques as a tool for extrapolation of long-term financial variables to support choice of savings form. Special attention has been paid to techniques used in the case of incomplete information or lack of it, that is in uncertainty conditions, accompanying modelling of system behaviour in the distant future. The experiment has been performed on the stochastic model in which both some stimulants included and also decomposed in time course of reaction are of random charcter.
The simulated dependent variable is the future level of savings which is possible to obtain after investing money for many years in a chosen form of secure capital investment. Whereas the set of stimulants includes number of financial variables and those describing standards of saver living. In this article the author focuses on interpretation of the obtained simulation results.
Theoretical reflections and conclusions that arise from the analysis of performed simulation are included in listing of positive and negative effects of using simulation techniques in the process of of investment decisions rationalization.
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Article 29EN: ACO documents clustering - details of processing and results of experiments
279-289

Łukasz Machnik


Department of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warszawa, Poland

Ant algorithms, particularly Ant Colony Optimization met-heuristic, are a universal and flexible solution. In this publication the author presents the implementation of that technique in the documents clustering area - the new documents clustering method. The aim of this document is to present the details of the ACO documents clustering method, potential ways to optimize its processing and detail results of experiments.
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Article 30EN: Vowel recognition in continuous speech with application of MLP neural network
291-299

Elżbieta Smołka 1, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak 1, Mariusz Dzieńkowski 3, Waldemar Suszyński 1, Marek Wiśniewski 2


1 Institute of Computer Science and
2 Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
3 Department of Informatics Systems, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

The aim of the present work was to find the answer to the question: To what extent can the multilayer perceptron be applicable in the automatic vowel recognition process in any given fragments of a particular speaker?
Initial research was carried out with the use of recordings of 3 adult people's speech. Vowel recognition was performed with the application of multilayer perceptron. On the input of the network, N-element vectors were fed, which consisted of sound levels values obtained every 0.02s as a result of spectral analysis. Each created network was taught to recognise 6 vowels - a, e, o, u, i, y as well as one pattern including all other fragments of an utterance - consonants and pauses.
The networks in which a result of over 90 % correct classifications for all the time moments was obtained were used to carry out a test on a completely different set of data. The best result in that part of research was 92% vowel recognition. At the same time, only 50% time moments, which made up these vowels, were correctly recognised. The other half was recognised as other vowels or a different fragment of the utterance. There also occurred 15% incorrect recognition of time moments making up consonants or pauses.
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Article 31EN: Computer program for visual diagnosis of the speech disorders
301-308

Marek Wiśniewski 1, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak 2, Elżbieta Smółka 2, Waldemar Suszyński 2

The diagnosis of speech disorders requires not only audio but also visual analysis. The speaker often performs many articulation moves, e.g.: a movement of mouth without emitting sound. Therefore a computer program was developed for simultaneous analysis of several elements in conjunction with the digital recording of a person's speaking face. These elements are: sound, a spectrogram picture and an oscillogram. The program can read audiovisual recordings and allows for multiple playing with a selected pace. What follows from the previous work with the program, it gives much important information about the kind and the essentiality of the speech disorders.
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Article 32EN: Computational ability of LSM ensemble in the model of mammalian visual system
309-314

Grzegorz M. Wójcik, Wiesław A. Kamiński


Department of Complex Systems and Neurodynamics, Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, PI. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 5, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Ensembles of artificial Hodgkin-Huxley neural microcircuits are examined. The networks discussed in this article simulate the cortex of the primate visual system. We use a modular architecture of the cortex divided into columns. The results of parallel simulations based on the liquid computing theory are presented in some detail. Separation ability of groups of neural microcircuits is observed. We show that such property may be useful for explaining some pattern recognition phenomena.
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Article 33EN: Digital signals analysis with the LPC method
315-321

Ireneusz Codello, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak


Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This paper concerns the issue of signal analysis by the linear predictive method. It is not only about frequency analysis, that is obtaining the LPC spectrum and comparing it with the Fourier one, but also about analysing prediction coefficients themselves. We will also discuss the program made by the authors of this paper, which beside foregoing functionalities, enables vocal tract visualization, modelled on the basis of LPC coefficients.
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Article 34EN: Alternative methods of designing multi channel optical communication systems
323-332

Mirosław Hajder, Mirosław Mazurek


Department of Distributed Systems, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, W. Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

This article attempts to discuss the problems in building new topologies utilizing a few alternative methods of designing systems like embedding, d-optimum topology. We propose to utilize Cartesian Product to describe graphs as a right mathematical solution to adjacency matrix. We propose methodology of building multi channel systems using a few original algorithms.
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Article 35EN: Optical communication multibus systems
333-342

Mirosław Hajder, Marek Bolanowski


Department of Distributed Systems Rzeszów University of Technology, Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

In this paper we present optical communication multibus system including: physical topology, logical topology, structure of central control unit (CCU). We describe the task of CCU: analyze the state of logical buses, topology reconfiguration, system structures clustering, unexpected events handling, statistic gathering, etc. In this paper we present synthesis of core system network basis on: MIN network, hypercube, ring topology and original embedding operation. We present logical structure of the systems including: logical interconnection buses, CCU, control transmission pattern, applicable logical topologies, reconfiguration methods, communication methods to connect autonomous multibus systems.
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Article 36EN: Comparison of stochastic optimal controls with different level of self-learning
343-356

Tomasz Hordjewicz, Edward Kozłowski


epartment of Quantitative Methods, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

In the article the problem of control of a linear dynamic system with a square coefficient of quality was introduced. Depending on knowledge we have about the parameters of system, the principles of control of the system under conditions of full and incomplete information as well as the differences in values of coefficients of quality were presented. Potential usage of the above mentioned principles may pertain to physical systems for which the supreme aim of control is minimization of energetic losses as well as optimal control of a linear system in real-time, and also to computer systems where the pricing of value of information is required.
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Article 37EN: Multi-channel recorder for forces and accelerations
357-367

Krzysztof Gołacki 1, Jerzy Kotliński 2, Paweł Rowiński 1


1 Department of Machine Theory and Automation, University of Agriculture, Doświadczalna 50A, 20-280 Lublin, Poland
2 Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The operation of four - channel microprocessor controlled recorder to be used in combination with ENDEVCO piezoelectric force and acceleration sensors has been described in the present study. The purpose of the equipment is to record the data obtained in the course of bruise testing for fruit and vegetables with high water content. The data from four sensors are recorded with 12 bits resolution and maximum sampling frequency of 153 kHz.
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Article 38EN: Multi-channel recorder for I-V curves
369-377

Jerzy Kotliński


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

The operation of nine - channel microprocessor controlled recorder to be used for concurrent recording of current - voltage characteristics in two or three electrode configurations has been described in the present study. The prototype version of the recorder as been designed for measurements associated with determination of oxygen stream density in the course of soil oxygen micro-diffusion. The common setting of measurement parameters in the scope of three measuring channels is possible by means of recorder operation program enabling the execution of the measurement in three measuring groups which are independent of each other. The measurements in cycles lasting several days with automatic measurement results recording are possible by means of the recorder.
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Article 39EN: The computer network topologies designs and the coherent graphs algebra
379-391

Sergiy L. Krivoi, Mirosław Hajder, Paweł Dymora, Mirosław Mazurek


Department of Distributed Systems, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

This work presents one of the regular graphs algebra possible variants and its application in designing and analysis of computer network topologies characteristics, focused on fault tolerance of computer networks.
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Article 40EN: An application of virtual reality for training and ranking operators of mobile robot
393-399

Barbara Łukawska, Paweł Paduch, Krzysztof Sapiecha


Department of Computer Science, Kielce University of Technology, Al. 1000-lecia Państwa Polskiego, 25-314 Kielce, Poland

In the paper it is shown how candidates for mobile robot operators might be trained and ranked with the help of the specific game running on a computer in virtual reality. It is also shown how playing the game improves their skills and discloses their personal features.
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Article 41EN: Detecting changes in environment of mobile robot
401-406

Krzysztof Sapiecha, Arkadiusz Chrobot


Department of Computer Science, University of Technology in Kielce, Al. 1000-lecia Państwa Polskiego25-314 Kielce, Poland

The usefulness of four signature schemes for detecting changes in environment of mobile robot is investigated. Computational and memory complexities of software implementations of the schemes are experimentally compared. Finally, the best of the schemes for considered application is chosen.
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Article 42EN: Cracking WPA? Is it possible?
407-416

Ryszard Haraszczuk


Institute of Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

Wireless networks are commonly used by people. Market devices are equipped with the new security standard 802.1 li. The standard announced in the middle of 2004 is commonly used to protect WLANs. Currently we can find the information that vulnerabilities were found in that standard. Then a question arises: Are WLANs compromised again? The article describes vulnerabilities which were discovered in the new WLAN security standard. It explains how the four-way handshake process works. Which part of that process can be used to break through our network? What kind of devices should we possess to check that vulnerability? What kind of protection can be applied to avoid such vulnerability?
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Article 43EN: New security and control protocol for VoIP based on steganography and digital watermarking
417-426

Wojciech Mazurczyk 1, Zbigniew Kotulski 2


1 Institute of Telecommunications, Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warszawa, Poland
2 Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Świętokrzyska 21, 00-950 Warszawa, Poland

In this paper new, lightweight security and control protocol for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service is presented. It is the alternative for the IETF's (Internet Engineering Task Force) RTCP (Real-Time Control Protocol) for real-time application's traffic. Additionally this solution offers authentication and integrity of voice send and it is capable of exchanging and verifying QoS and security parameters. It is based on two information hiding techniques: digital watermarking and steganography. That is why it does not consume additional bandwidth and the data transmitted is inseparably bound to the voice content.
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Article 44EN: Design and implementation of the middle-class web-portal for cooperation with students team
427-434

Roman Pszonczenko, Ścibór Sobieski


Faculty of Mathematics, University of Łódź, Banacha 22, 90-238 Łódź, Poland

he article describes the designing process, implementation and development of the middle-class computer project, accomplished by the students of University of Łódź. The project, which is called SUL, is a WWW-based portal with several set up purposes. Services for students ( news, e-mails or private web pages including secure and reliable communication between the students and Dean's offices) and centralization of information were its the main aim. The project started in 2002/2003 and since year 2004 it has been deployed at the University and proved successful.
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Article 45EN: The use of database and methods of artificial intelligence - neural networks for observing the changes in the subsoil waters in Beskid Śląski
435-439

Konrad Sikora


University of Bielsko-Biała, Willowa 2, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała, Poland

The article deals with the use of relational database and application of neural networks for observing the influence of the environment and human activities in shaping the chemism of subsoil waters. The possibility of using the database has been investigated with the use of chosen waters coming from the saturation area of Beskid Śląski. The aforementioned area is of great regional importance for providing drinkable water. The relational database is a kind of integrated system of collecting, processing and interpreting the results of scientific research. Scientifically described software allows for collecting, selective search and analysis of the data refering to any physico-chemical parameters of water samples. The standard equipment of IBM PC is required. The material collected is analysed statistically and can be presented graphically in order to illustrate the accomplished activities in a better way. Owing to the use of software, it is possible to interpret the many - years data and compare them taking into consideration all accessible elements of the environment and the changes in urban planning or even the constantly changing legal norms. The database has the open character and can be completed with any amount of data from different spheres of knowledge. At present the research is carried out on application of artificial intelligence - neural networks for correlating the research results of the physico-chemical samples collected in the database with the factors of the environment.
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Article 46EN: Intelligent Tutorial System LISE
441-452

Barbara Gocłowska, Zdzisław Łojewski


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Pl. M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

Development of information technology results in creation of more and more advanced teaching assisting systems. The authors of the article made an attempt to design and use the adaptative educational system based on the technologies: J2EE, JSF and XML. Unlike most hitherto solutions, the authors propose a three-tier architecture of the system and its improvement with additional functionalities.
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Volume 03 - 2005

Article 01EN: Adaptive control with random horizon
5-14

Tadeusz Banek A;b, Edward Kozłowski B


a System Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Newelska 6, 01-447 Warszawa, Poland
b KMI, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

The classical adaptive control problem approach by Rishel [1,2] for the problems with fixed time horizon is extended to random cases. Necessary conditions are obtained and an algorithm for extremal control and stopping time is presented. Potential applications in artificial intelligence, in pattern recognition, data mining, self-learning and in information pricing are mentioned.
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Article 02EN: Semantic tree method - historical perspective and applications
15-25

Izabela Bondecka-Krzykowska


Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 87, 61-614 Poznań, Poland

The method of semantic tablaux or semantic tree is a very well known method in logic. Everyone who had ever learned logic knows basic rules and applications of this method. In the paper special attention is drawn to the history of this method as a part of the history of computers (especially of the history of mechanization of reasoning) and its applications. The method itself is presented for the classical propositional calculus and predicate calculus.
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Article 03EN: Using Markov chains for modelling networks
27-34

Beata Bylina, Jarosław Bylina


Department of Computer Science, Institute of Mathematics, Marie Curie-Skłodowska University, pi M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031, lublin, Poland

The paper contains the review and the discussion on modelling communication networks with the use of queuing models and Markov chains. It shows how to take into account various characteristics of real systems - like some control mechanisms and the traffic self-similarity. There are presented two mechanisms modelled with Markov chains: the RED algorithm in TCP/IP and a self-similar traffic shaping.
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Article 04EN: Partial shape matching using convex hull and Fourier descriptors
35-43

Krzysztof Kocjan


Institute of Mathematics, Silesian University, Bankowa 14, 40-007 Katowice, Poland

An application of Fourier descriptors and convex hull for shape analysis is presented. Convex hull is used for dividing a shape into small parts. Amplitude spectrum which is invariant to scaling, translation and choosing a starting point is obtained from the Fourier descriptors (see e.g [1-3]) and used for comparison. All calculations are performed with the author's software and some algorithms from literature [1,4]. For convex hull estimation the Graham algorithm is used.
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Article 05EN: Automatic generating of theorems and constructing models for projective geometry
45-55

Joanna Meksuła


Institute of Mathematics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pi Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 lublin, Poland

The paper discusses the use of computers to construct models and generate theorems of projective geometry. After signalising the history of the issue, the axiomatics as well as basic properties of projective geometry have been introduced. The main body of the paper constitutes a proposed and discussed idea of building a plane by implementing axioms. As an essential extension, the theorems are pointed out, that, together with proofs, appear in the course of the program work. The limits and possible modifications of the proposed application are given in Conclusions.
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Article 06EN: The effective algorithm for solving the quadratic diofantic equation with three unknowns
57-64

Jerzy Respondek


Departament of Theory of Information, Institute of Computer Science, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, Silesian Technical University, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

The article is devoted to the problem of finding the triples of integer numbers generating equal sums of the squares in the linear combination. At first the theorem giving the conditions of existing two equal sums of the squares is presented. Based on it the algorithm for finding the triples of the integer numbers generating equal sums of the squares is built. The time complexity is calculated and the effectiveness for different size of the input parameters is verified.
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Article 07EN: Algorithms for multi-secret hierarchical sharing schemes of shamir type
65-91

Ryszard Smarzewski, Joanna Kapusta


Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Catholic University of Lublin, John Paul II, Konstantynów 1H, 20-708 Lublin, Poland

In this paper there are presented algorithms for multilevel hierarchical threshold secret sharing schemes based on the interpolation of Hermite type, which use either traditional Shamir's keys or polynomial and orthogonal polynomial keys. These algorithms enable to compute the probability of authenticity of shares during the process of recovering the keys. In addition, two models of secret sharing are considered, which enlarge their security against attacks and decrease their rate of computations by applying FFT-algorithm.
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Article 08EN: Artificial intelligence and scholastic epistemology
94-103

Wojciech P. Grygiel


Pontifical Academy of Theology, Kanonicza 25, 31-002 Kraków, Poland

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Article 09EN: Decidability vs. undecidability. Logico-philosophico-historical remarks
105-117

Roman Murawski


Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 87, 61-614 Poznań, Poland

The aim of the paper is to present the decidability problems from a philosophical and historical perspective as well as to indicate basic mathematical and logical results concerning (un)decidability of particular theories and problems.
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Article 10EN: Church's thesis as an empirical hypothesis
119-130

Adam Olszewski


Pontifical Academy of Theology, Kanonicza 25, 31-002 Kraków, Poland

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Article 11EN: Speech disfluency detection with the correlative method
132-138

Waldemar Suszyński A, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak A, Elżbieta Smołka A, Mariusz Dzieńkowski B


a Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
b Department of Informatics System, Management Department, Technical University of Lublin, Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

The presented work constitutes a continuation of research on automatic disfluency recognition in utterances by stuttering people. One of the most frequently occurring episodes are syllable repetitions. The repeated fragments have a similar spectral structure, but they differ in their duration times. In order to detect them, correlation of 1/3 octave spectra was applied in connection with the procedures analysing the amplitude-time structure of sound files. The elaborated computer programme allows for recognition of that type of difluency in continuous speech and for exact, graphically illustrated location of the detected episodes in a sound file. It has been verified on the basis of over a hundred 4-second non-fluent utterances. Its functioning has been examined at various border values of the correlation co-efficient and various widths of the time window. Over 70% efficiency of the automatic detection of the episodes has been achieved. The result is comparable to those achieved with the use of the audio monitoring method.
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Article 12EN: Vision echo
139-144

Marek Wiśniewski, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak, Elżbieta Smołka, Waldemar Suszyński


Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

One of the most frequently used methods in the speech disfluence therapy is the one based on the acoustical echo. A patient, who is a subject to therapy, hears his own voice with some delay and, thanks to that, his speech fluency increases. As it turned out a therapeutic effect can also be achieved by feedback of the speech with other human senses, such as touch or sight.
The article presents a computer program that enables achieving the effect of the visional signal delay from camcorder on a monitor screen.
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Article 13EN: Investigating Mammalian Visual System with methods of informational theory
145-152

Grzegorz M. Wójcik, Wiesław A. Kamiński


Institute of Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

We examine a simple model of mammalian visual system. This structure is simulated by means of several hundred Hodgkin-Huxley neurons. We investigate signal processing properties of the model. Some methods taken from informational theory are applied to the analysis of Primary Visual Cortex' dynamics. Discussion of efficiency of such methods in two dimensional movement detection is presented in some detail.
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Article 14EN: Shape analysis of MR brain images based on the fractal dimension
153-158

Olena Buczko, Paweł Mikołajczak


Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pi M.Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-030 Lublin, Poland

This paper presents some results concerning the application of the fractal approach to the analysis of shape of white brain matter in the magnetic-resonance (MR) images. The fractal dimension of white brain matter was calculated using the box-counting algorithm.
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Article 15EN: Development of the cross-platform framework for the medical image processing
159-167

Marcin Denkowski, Michał Chlebiej, Paweł Mikołajczak


Laboratory of Information Technology, Maria Curie Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland

This paper presents the development process of a platform for image processing with a focus on the medical imaging. Besides general image processing algorithms and visualization tools, this platform includes advanced medical imaging modules for segmentation, registration and morphological analysis. It allows fast addition and testing of new algorithms using a modular structure. New modules can be created by using a platform-independent C++ class library and can be easily integrated with a whole system by a plug-in mechanism. An abstract, hierarchical definition language allows the design of efficient graphical user interfaces, hiding the complexity of the underlying module network to the end user.
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Article 16EN: Wat